Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 32
Filtrar
Filtros adicionais











Intervalo de ano
1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4330, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551420

RESUMO

Most genome-wide association studies are based on samples of European descent. We assess whether the genetic determinants of blood lipids, a major cardiovascular risk factor, are shared across populations. Genetic correlations for lipids between European-ancestry and Asian cohorts are not significantly different from 1. A genetic risk score based on LDL-cholesterol-associated loci has consistent effects on serum levels in samples from the UK, Uganda and Greece (r = 0.23-0.28, p < 1.9 × 10-14). Overall, there is evidence of reproducibility for ~75% of the major lipid loci from European discovery studies, except triglyceride loci in the Ugandan samples (10% of loci). Individual transferable loci are identified using trans-ethnic colocalization. Ten of fourteen loci not transferable to the Ugandan population have pleiotropic associations with BMI in Europeans; none of the transferable loci do. The non-transferable loci might affect lipids by modifying food intake in environments rich in certain nutrients, which suggests a potential role for gene-environment interactions.

2.
Diabetes ; 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399431

RESUMO

In observational studies, type 2 diabetes is associated with 2- to 4-fold higher risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Using data from the China Kadoorie Biobank, we examined associations of genetically-predicted type 2 diabetes with CVD among ∼160,000 participants, to assess whether these relationships are causal. A type 2 diabetes genetic risk score (comprising 48 established risk variants) was associated with the presence of carotid plaque (OR 1.17 [95% CI 1.05, 1.29] per 1 unit higher log-odds of type 2 diabetes; n=6,819), and elevated risk of ischaemic stroke (IS) (1.08 [1.02, 1.14]; n=17,097), non-lacunar IS (1.09 [1.03, 1.16]; n=13,924) and major coronary event (1.12 [1.02, 1.23]; n= 5,081). There was no significant association with lacunar IS (1.03 [0.91, 1.16], n=3,173) or intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) (1.01 [0.94, 1.10], n=6,973), although effect estimates were imprecise. These associations were consistent with observational associations of type 2 diabetes with CVD in CKB (p for heterogeneity>0.3), and with the associations of type 2 diabetes with IS, ICH and coronary heart disease in two-sample Mendelian randomisation analyses based on summary statistics from European population GWAS (p for heterogeneity>0.2). In conclusion, among Chinese adults, genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes was associated with atherosclerotic CVD, consistent with a causal association.

3.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 160, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomised control trials and genetic analyses have demonstrated that vitamin D or 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels may not play a causal role in the development of cardiovascular disease. However, it is unclear if 25(OH)D is causally associated with cause-specific vascular disease and lipids. Therefore, we examined the causal association of 25(OH)D with myocardial infarction, stroke, ischaemic heart disease, ischaemic stroke, subarachnoid haemorrhage, intracerebral haemorrhage, and lipid levels among both Chinese and Europeans. METHODS: We used a Mendelian randomisation (MR) design in the China Kadoorie Biobank, the Copenhagen City Heart Study, and the Copenhagen General Population Study. The 25(OH)D-related genetic variants in the CYP2R1 and DCHR7 genes were genotyped in 99,012 Chinese adults and 106,911 Danish adults. RESULTS: In Chinese adults, plasma 25(OH)D levels were not significantly associated with cause-specific vascular disease or mortality, with the exception of intracerebral haemorrhage (HR, 1.09 [95% CI, 1.01,1.18] per 25 nmol/L higher plasma 25(OH)D). In Europeans, plasma 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with all types of vascular diseases and mortality. However, MR analysis did not demonstrate causal associations of genetically increased 25(OH)D levels with cause-specific vascular diseases, or mortality in both Chinese and European adults. In addition, each 25 nmol/L higher 25(OH)D was observationally associated with lower total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, but higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Likewise, MR analysis showed that 25(OH)D levels were not causally associated with lipids in both Chinese and European adults after Bonferroni correction. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence to support that genetically increased 25(OH)D was associated with a lower risk of ischaemic stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage, subarachnoid haemorrhage, and lipid levels in both Chinese and European adults. These results suggest that the inverse associations of vitamin D with vascular disease could be the result of confounding.

4.
Lancet ; 393(10183): 1831-1842, 2019 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Moderate alcohol intake has been associated with reduced cardiovascular risk in many studies, in comparison with abstinence or with heavier drinking. Studies in east Asia can help determine whether these associations are causal, since two common genetic variants greatly affect alcohol drinking patterns. We used these two variants to assess the relationships between cardiovascular risk and genotype-predicted mean alcohol intake in men, contrasting the findings in men with those in women (few of whom drink). METHODS: The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank enrolled 512 715 adults between June 25, 2004, and July 15, 2008, from ten areas of China, recording alcohol use and other characteristics. It followed them for about 10 years (until Jan 1, 2017), monitoring cardiovascular disease (including ischaemic stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage, and myocardial infarction) by linkage with morbidity and mortality registries and electronic hospital records. 161 498 participants were genotyped for two variants that alter alcohol metabolism, ALDH2-rs671 and ADH1B-rs1229984. Adjusted Cox regression was used to obtain the relative risks associating disease incidence with self-reported drinking patterns (conventional epidemiology) or with genotype-predicted mean male alcohol intake (genetic epidemiology-ie, Mendelian randomisation), with stratification by study area to control for variation between areas in disease rates and in genotype-predicted intake. FINDINGS: 33% (69 897/210 205) of men reported drinking alcohol in most weeks, mainly as spirits, compared with only 2% (6245/302 510) of women. Among men, conventional epidemiology showed that self-reported alcohol intake had U-shaped associations with the incidence of ischaemic stroke (n=14 930), intracerebral haemorrhage (n=3496), and acute myocardial infarction (n=2958); men who reported drinking about 100 g of alcohol per week (one to two drinks per day) had lower risks of all three diseases than non-drinkers or heavier drinkers. In contrast, although genotype-predicted mean male alcohol intake varied widely (from 4 to 256 g per week-ie, near zero to about four drinks per day), it did not have any U-shaped associations with risk. For stroke, genotype-predicted mean alcohol intake had a continuously positive log-linear association with risk, which was stronger for intracerebral haemorrhage (relative risk [RR] per 280 g per week 1·58, 95% CI 1·36-1·84, p<0·0001) than for ischaemic stroke (1·27, 1·13-1·43, p=0·0001). For myocardial infarction, however, genotype-predicted mean alcohol intake was not significantly associated with risk (RR per 280 g per week 0·96, 95% CI 0·78-1·18, p=0·69). Usual alcohol intake in current drinkers and genotype-predicted alcohol intake in all men had similarly strong positive associations with systolic blood pressure (each p<0·0001). Among women, few drank and the studied genotypes did not predict high mean alcohol intake and were not positively associated with blood pressure, stroke, or myocardial infarction. INTERPRETATION: Genetic epidemiology shows that the apparently protective effects of moderate alcohol intake against stroke are largely non-causal. Alcohol consumption uniformly increases blood pressure and stroke risk, and appears in this one study to have little net effect on the risk of myocardial infarction. FUNDING: Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology, Kadoorie Charitable Foundation, National Natural Science Foundation of China, British Heart Foundation, Cancer Research UK, GlaxoSmithKline, Medical Research Council, and Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Álcool Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Extremo Oriente/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
5.
Nat Med ; 25(4): 569-574, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858617

RESUMO

Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide and accounts for >2 million deaths annually in China1,2. Ischemic stroke (IS) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) account for an equal number of deaths in China, despite a fourfold greater incidence of IS1,2. Stroke incidence and ICH proportion are higher in China than in Western populations3-5, despite having a lower mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration. Observational studies reported weaker positive associations of LDL-C with IS than with coronary heart disease (CHD)6,7, but LDL-C-lowering trials demonstrated similar risk reductions for IS and CHD8-10. Mendelian randomization studies of LDL-C and IS have reported conflicting results11-13, and concerns about the excess risks of ICH associated with lowering LDL-C14,15 may have prevented the more widespread use of statins in China. We examined the associations of biochemically measured lipids with stroke in a nested case-control study in the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) and compared the risks for both stroke types associated with equivalent differences in LDL-C in Mendelian randomization analyses. The results demonstrated positive associations of LDL-C with IS and equally strong inverse associations with ICH, which were confirmed by genetic analyses and LDL-C-lowering trials. Lowering LDL-C is still likely to have net benefit for the prevention of overall stroke and cardiovascular disease in China.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/sangue , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
6.
Cell ; 175(2): 347-359.e14, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30290141

RESUMO

We analyze whole-genome sequencing data from 141,431 Chinese women generated for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). We use these data to characterize the population genetic structure and to investigate genetic associations with maternal and infectious traits. We show that the present day distribution of alleles is a function of both ancient migration and very recent population movements. We reveal novel phenotype-genotype associations, including several replicated associations with height and BMI, an association between maternal age and EMB, and between twin pregnancy and NRG1. Finally, we identify a unique pattern of circulating viral DNA in plasma with high prevalence of hepatitis B and other clinically relevant maternal infections. A GWAS for viral infections identifies an exceptionally strong association between integrated herpesvirus 6 and MOV10L1, which affects piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) processing and PIWI protein function. These findings demonstrate the great value and potential of accumulating NIPT data for worldwide medical and genetic analyses.

7.
Lancet Glob Health ; 6(6): e630-e640, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29773119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: China has high stroke rates despite the population being relatively lean. Uncertainty persists about the relevance of adiposity to risk of stroke types. We aimed to assess the associations of adiposity with incidence of stroke types and effect mediation by blood pressure in Chinese men and women. METHODS: The China Kadoorie Biobank enrolled 512 891 adults aged 30-79 years from ten areas (five urban and five rural) during 2004-08. During a median 9 years (IQR 8-10) of follow-up, 32 448 strokes (about 90% confirmed by neuroimaging) were recorded among 489 301 participants without previous cardiovascular disease. Cox regression analysis was used to produce adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for ischaemic stroke (n=25 210) and intracerebral haemorrhage (n=5380) associated with adiposity. FINDINGS: Mean baseline body-mass index (BMI) was 23·6 kg/m2 (SD 3·2), and 331 723 (67·8%) participants had a BMI of less than 25 kg/m2. Throughout the range examined (mean 17·1 kg/m2 [SD 0·9] to 31·7 kg/m2 [2·0]), each 5 kg/m2 higher BMI was associated with 8·3 mm Hg (SE 0·04) higher systolic blood pressure. BMI was positively associated with ischaemic stroke, with an HR of 1·30 (95% CI 1·28-1·33 per 5 kg/m2 higher BMI), which was generally consistent with that predicted by equivalent differences in systolic blood pressure (1·25 [1·24-1·26]). The HR for intracerebral haemorrhage (1·11 [1·07-1·16] per 5 kg/m2 higher BMI) was less extreme, and much weaker than that predicted by the corresponding difference in systolic blood pressure (1·48 [1·46-1·50]). Other adiposity measures showed similar associations with stroke types. After adjustment for usual systolic blood pressure, the positive associations with ischaemic stroke were attenuated (1·05 [1·03-1·07] per 5 kg/m2 higher BMI); for intracerebral haemorrhage, they were reversed (0·73 [0·70-0·77]). High adiposity (BMI >23 kg/m2) accounted for 14·7% of total stroke (16·5% of ischaemic stroke and 6·7% of intracerebral haemorrhage). INTERPRETATION: In Chinese adults, adiposity was strongly positively associated with ischaemic stroke, chiefly through its effect on blood pressure. For intracerebral haemorrhage, leanness, either per se or through some other factor (or factors), might increase risk, offsetting the protective effects of lower blood pressure. FUNDING: UK Wellcome Trust, UK Medical Research Council, British Heart Foundation, Cancer Research UK, Kadoorie Charitable Foundation, Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese National Natural Science Foundation.

8.
Lancet Glob Health ; 6(6): e641-e649, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29773120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The age-specific association between blood pressure and vascular disease has been studied mostly in high-income countries, and before the widespread use of brain imaging for diagnosis of the main stroke types (ischaemic stroke and intracerebral haemorrhage). We aimed to investigate this relationship among adults in China. METHODS: 512 891 adults (59% women) aged 30-79 years were recruited into a prospective study from ten areas of China between June 25, 2004, and July 15, 2008. Participants attended assessment centres where they were interviewed about demographic and lifestyle characteristics, and their blood pressure, height, and weight were measured. Incident disease was identified through linkage to local mortality records, chronic disease registries, and claims to the national health insurance system. We used Cox regression analysis to produce adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) relating systolic blood pressure to disease incidence. HRs were corrected for regression dilution to estimate associations with long-term average (usual) systolic blood pressure. FINDINGS: During a median follow-up of 9 years (IQR 8-10), there were 88 105 incident vascular and non-vascular chronic disease events (about 90% of strokes events were diagnosed using brain imaging). At ages 40-79 years (mean age at event 64 years [SD 9]), usual systolic blood pressure was continuously and positively associated with incident major vascular disease throughout the range 120-180 mm Hg: each 10 mm Hg higher usual systolic blood pressure was associated with an approximately 30% higher risk of ischaemic heart disease (HR 1·31 [95% CI 1·28-1·34]) and ischaemic stroke (1·30 [1·29-1·31]), but the association with intracerebral haemorrhage was about twice as steep (1·68 [1·65-1·71]). HRs for vascular disease were twice as steep at ages 40-49 years than at ages 70-79 years. Usual systolic blood pressure was also positively associated with incident chronic kidney disease (1·40 [1·35-1·44]) and diabetes (1·14 [1·12-1·15]). About half of all vascular deaths in China were attributable to elevated blood pressure (ie, systolic blood pressure >120 mm Hg), accounting for approximately 1 million deaths (<80 years of age) annually. INTERPRETATION: Among adults in China, systolic blood pressure was continuously related to major vascular disease with no evidence of a threshold down to 120 mm Hg. Unlike previous studies in high-income countries, blood pressure was more strongly associated with intracerebral haemorrhage than with ischaemic stroke. Even small reductions in mean blood pressure at a population level could be expected to have a major impact on vascular morbidity and mortality. FUNDING: UK Wellcome Trust, UK Medical Research Council, British Heart Foundation, Cancer Research UK, Kadoorie Charitable Foundation, Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology, and the National Science Foundation of China.

9.
PLoS Med ; 15(5): e1002566, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29718904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have reported that higher plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations are associated with lower risks of diabetes, but it is unclear if these associations are causal. The aim of this study was to test the relevance of 25(OH)D for type 2 diabetes using genetically instrumented differences in plasma 25(OH)D concentrations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data were available on four 25(OH)D single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; n = 82,464), plasma 25(OH)D concentrations (n = 13,565), and cases with diabetes (n = 5,565) in the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB). The effects on risk of diabetes were assessed by a genetic score using two 25(OH)D synthesis SNPs (DHCR7-rs12785878 and CYP2R1-rs10741657), with and without the addition of SNPs affecting the transport (GC/DBP-rs2282679) and catabolism (CYP24A1-rs6013897) of 25(OH)D. The CKB results were combined in a meta-analysis of 10 studies for the 2 synthesis SNPs (n = 58,312 cases) and 7 studies for all 4 SNPs (n = 32,796 cases). Mean (SD) 25(OH)D concentration was 62 (20) nmol/l in CKB, and the per allele effects of genetic scores on 25(OH)D were 2.87 (SE 0.39) for the synthesis SNPs and 3.54 (SE 0.32) for all SNPs. A 25-nmol/l higher biochemically measured 25(OH)D was associated with a 9% (95% CI: 0%-18%) lower risk of diabetes in CKB. In a meta-analysis of all studies, a 25-nmol/l higher genetically instrumented 25(OH)D concentration was associated with a 14% (95% CI: 3%-23%) lower risk of diabetes (p = 0.01) using the 2 synthesis SNPs. An equivalent difference in 25(OH)D using a genetic score with 4 SNPs was not significantly associated with diabetes (odds ratio 8%, 95% CI: -1% to 16%, lower risk, p = 0.07), but had some evidence of pleiotropy. A limitation of the meta-analysis was the access only to study level rather than individual level data. CONCLUSIONS: The concordant risks of diabetes for biochemically measured and genetically instrumented differences in 25(OH)D using synthesis SNPs provide evidence for a causal effect of higher 25(OH)D for prevention of diabetes.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29707772

RESUMO

Existing evidence remains inconclusive as to how the association between inactive ALDH2 and esophageal cancer (EC) depends on alcohol consumption. The study is based on the China Kadoorie Biobank cohort, with 10 years follow-up of 0.5 million adults aged 30-79 years. ALDH2 activity was assessed by both self-reported flushing response and Glu504Lys (rs671 G > A) polymorphism. Among both male and female participants who consumed alcohol less than weekly (n = 69,519; 211 EC cases), low active or inactive ALDH2 was not associated with increased EC risk [HRs (95% CIs): GA vs. GG 0.75 (0.54, 1.04); AA vs. GG 1.01 (0.46, 2.20)]. Among male weekly alcohol consumers, both flushing response [n = 59,380; 501 EC cases; HRs (95% CIs): "soon after drinking" vs. "no" flushing response 1.45 (1.05, 2.01)] and rs671 [n = 10,692; 94 EC cases; GA vs. GG 3.31 (1.94, 5.67)] were associated with EC risk. The increased EC risk associated with "soon" response or rs671 GA was apparent in men consuming alcohol ≥30g/d. Among male daily consumers, the HRs (95% CIs) for EC associated with 15g/d of alcohol were 1.28 (1.15, 1.44) for "soon" response [vs. other responses: 1.12 (1.09, 1.15); pinteraction = 0.047; n = 36,401, 425 EC cases] and 1.41 (1.08, 1.82) for rs671 GA [vs. GG: 1.16 (1.06, 1.27); pinteraction = 0.493; n = 6,607, 80 EC cases]. Self-reported flushing response had low sensitivity (56.8%) and high specificity (88.4%) in identifying rs671 A allele among male weekly alcohol consumers. In conclusion, low-activity ALDH2 was associated with increased EC risk among male heavy alcohol consumers. More accurate measurement of alcohol-related EC risk allows better achievement of precision prevention.

11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 71(6): 620-632, 2018 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29420958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood lipids are established risk factors for myocardial infarction (MI), but uncertainty persists about the relevance of lipids, lipoprotein particles, and circulating metabolites for MI and stroke subtypes. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the associations of plasma metabolic markers with risks of incident MI, ischemic stroke (IS), and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: In a nested case-control study (912 MI, 1,146 IS, and 1,138 ICH cases, and 1,466 common control subjects) 30 to 79 years of age in China Kadoorie Biobank, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy measured 225 metabolic markers in baseline plasma samples. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for a 1-SD higher metabolic marker. RESULTS: Very low-, intermediate-, and low-density lipoprotein particles were positively associated with MI and IS. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles were inversely associated with MI apart from small HDL. In contrast, no lipoprotein particles were associated with ICH. Cholesterol in large HDL was inversely associated with MI and IS (OR: 0.79 and 0.88, respectively), whereas cholesterol in small HDL was not (OR: 0.99 and 1.06, respectively). Triglycerides within all lipoproteins, including most HDL particles, were positively associated with MI, with a similar pattern for IS. Glycoprotein acetyls, ketone bodies, glucose, and docosahexaenoic acid were associated with all 3 diseases. The 225 metabolic markers showed concordant associations between MI and IS, but not with ICH. CONCLUSIONS: Lipoproteins and lipids showed similar associations with MI and IS, but not with ICH. Within HDL particles, cholesterol concentrations were inversely associated, whereas triglyceride concentrations were positively associated with MI. Glycoprotein acetyls and several non-lipid-related metabolites associated with all 3 diseases.

12.
JAMA Cardiol ; 3(1): 34-43, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29141072

RESUMO

Importance: Increasing levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol through pharmacologic inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) is a potentially important strategy for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objective: To use genetic variants in the CETP gene to assess potential risks and benefits of lifelong lower CETP activity on CVD and other outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective biobank study included 151 217 individuals aged 30 to 79 years who were enrolled from 5 urban and 5 rural areas of China from June 25, 2004, through July 15, 2008. All participants had baseline genotype data, 17 854 of whom had lipid measurements and 4657 of whom had lipoprotein particle measurements. Median follow-up of 9.2 years (interquartile range, 8.2-10.1 years) was completed January 1, 2016, through linkage to health insurance records and death and disease registries. Exposures: Five CETP variants, including an East Asian loss-of-function variant (rs2303790), combined in a genetic score weighted to associations with HDL cholesterol levels. Main Outcomes and Measures: Baseline levels of lipids and lipoprotein particles, cardiovascular risk factors, incidence of carotid plaque and predefined major vascular and nonvascular diseases, and a phenome-wide range of diseases. Results: Among the 151 217 individuals included in this study (58.4% women and 41.6% men), the mean (SD) age was 52.3 (10.9) years. Overall, the mean (SD) low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level was 91 (27) mg/dL; HDL cholesterol level, 48 (12) mg/dL. CETP variants were strongly associated with higher concentrations of HDL cholesterol (eg, 6.1 [SE, 0.4] mg/dL per rs2303790-G allele; P = 9.4 × 10-47) but were not associated with lower LDL cholesterol levels. Within HDL particles, cholesterol esters were increased and triglycerides reduced, whereas within very low-density lipoprotein particles, cholesterol esters were reduced and triglycerides increased. When scaled to 10-mg/dL higher levels of HDL cholesterol, the CETP genetic score was not associated with occlusive CVD (18 550 events; odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% CI, 0.91-1.06), major coronary events (5767 events; OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.95-1.22), myocardial infarction (3118 events; OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.97-1.35), ischemic stroke (13 759 events; OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.86-1.02), intracerebral hemorrhage (6532 events; OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.83-1.06), or other vascular diseases or carotid plaque. Similarly, rs2303790 was not associated with any vascular diseases or plaque. No associations with nonvascular diseases were found other than an increased risk for eye diseases with rs2303790 (4090 events; OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.13-1.80; P = .003). Conclusions and Relevance: CETP variants were associated with altered HDL metabolism but did not lower LDL cholesterol levels and had no significant association with risk for CVD. These results suggest that in the absence of reduced LDL cholesterol levels, increasing HDL cholesterol levels by inhibition of CETP may not confer significant benefits for CVD.

13.
Wellcome Open Res ; 2: 68, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28989980

RESUMO

Background: Observational studies have demonstrated that increased bone mineral density is associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the relationship with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is less clear. Moreover, substantial uncertainty remains about the causal relevance of increased bone mineral density for T2D and CHD, which can be assessed by Mendelian randomisation studies.  Methods: We identified 235 independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated at p<5×10 -8 with estimated heel bone mineral density (eBMD) in 116,501 individuals from the UK Biobank study, accounting for 13.9% of eBMD variance. For each eBMD-associated SNP, we extracted effect estimates from the largest available GWAS studies for T2D (DIAGRAM: n=26,676 T2D cases and 132,532 controls) and CHD (CARDIoGRAMplusC4D: n=60,801 CHD cases and 123,504 controls). A two-sample design using several Mendelian randomization approaches was used to investigate the causal relevance of eBMD for risk of T2D and CHD. In addition, we explored the relationship of eBMD, instrumented by the 235 SNPs, on 12 cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. Finally, we conducted Mendelian randomization analysis in the reverse direction to investigate reverse causality. Results: Each one standard deviation increase in genetically instrumented eBMD (equivalent to 0.14 g/cm 2) was associated with an 8% higher risk of T2D (odds ratio [OR] 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02 to 1.14; p=0.012) and 5% higher risk of CHD (OR 1.05; 95%CI: 1.00 to 1.10; p=0.034). Consistent results were obtained in sensitivity analyses using several different Mendelian randomization approaches. Equivalent increases in eBMD were also associated with lower plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol and increased insulin resistance. Mendelian randomization in the reverse direction using 94 T2D SNPs or 52 CHD SNPs showed no evidence of reverse causality with eBMD. Conclusions: These findings suggest a causal relationship between elevated bone mineral density with risks of both T2D and CHD.

14.
Int J Epidemiol ; 46(5): 1444-1455, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28449053

RESUMO

Background: Higher fruit consumption is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Substantial uncertainties remain, however, about the associations of fruit consumption with all-cause mortality and mortality from subtypes of CVD and major non-vascular diseases, especially in China. Methods: In 2004-08, the nationwide China Kadoorie Biobank Study recruited > 0.5 million adults aged 30-79 years from 10 diverse localities in China. Fresh fruit consumption was estimated using an interviewer-administered electronic questionnaire, and mortality data were collected from death registries. Among the 462 342 participants who were free of major chronic diseases at baseline, 17 894 deaths were recorded during ∼ 7 years of follow-up. Cox regression yielded adjusted rate ratios (RRs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality associated with fruit consumption. Results: At baseline, 28% of participants reported consuming fruit ≥ 4 days/week (regular consumers) and 6% reported never/rarely consuming fruit (non-consumers). Compared with non-consumers, regular consumers had 27% [RR = 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.76] lower all-cause mortality, 34% lower CVD mortality (n = 6166; RR = 0.66, 0.61-0.71), 17% lower cancer mortality (n = 6796; RR = 0.83, 0.78-0.89) and 42% lower mortality from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 1119; RR = 0.58, 0.47-0.71). For each of the above, there was an approximately log-linear dose-response relationship with amount consumed. For mortality from site-specific cancers, fruit consumption was inversely associated with digestive tract cancer (n = 2265; RR = 0.72, 0.64-0.81), particularly oesophageal cancer (n = 801; RR = 0.65, 0.50-0.83), but not with cancer of lung or liver. Conclusions: Among Chinese adults, higher fresh fruit consumption was associated with significantly lower mortality from several major vascular and non-vascular diseases. Given the current low population level of fruit consumption, substantial health benefits could be gained from increased fruit consumption in China.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Dieta , Frutas , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Causas de Morte , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo
15.
Int J Epidemiol ; 45(5): 1588-1599, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27301456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) has been implicated in development of atherosclerosis; however, recent randomized trials of Lp-PLA2 inhibition reported no beneficial effects on vascular diseases. In East Asians, a loss-of-function variant in the PLA2G7 gene can be used to assess the effects of genetically determined lower Lp-PLA2 METHODS: PLA2G7 V279F (rs76863441) was genotyped in 91 428 individuals randomly selected from the China Kadoorie Biobank of 0.5 M participants recruited in 2004-08 from 10 regions of China, with 7 years' follow-up. Linear regression was used to assess effects of V279F on baseline traits. Logistic regression was conducted for a range of vascular and non-vascular diseases, including 41 ICD-10 coded disease categories. RESULTS: PLA2G7 V279F frequency was 5% overall (range 3-7% by region), and 9691 (11%) participants had at least one loss-of-function variant. V279F was not associated with baseline blood pressure, adiposity, blood glucose or lung function. V279F was not associated with major vascular events [7141 events; odds ratio (OR) = 0.98 per F variant, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90-1.06] or other vascular outcomes, including major coronary events (922 events; 0.96, 0.79-1.18) and stroke (5967 events; 1.00, 0.92-1.09). Individuals with V279F had lower risks of diabetes (7031 events; 0.91, 0.84-0.98) and asthma (182 events; 0.53, 0.28-0.98), but there was no association after adjustment for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: Lifelong lower Lp-PLA2 activity was not associated with major risks of vascular or non-vascular diseases in Chinese adults. Using functional genetic variants in large-scale prospective studies with linkage to a range of health outcomes is a valuable approach to inform drug development and repositioning.


Assuntos
1-Alquil-2-acetilglicerofosfocolina Esterase/genética , 1-Alquil-2-acetilglicerofosfocolina Esterase/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doenças Vasculares/genética , Adulto , Idoso , China , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Diabetologia ; 59(7): 1446-1457, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27053236

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have discovered many risk variants for type 2 diabetes. However, estimates of the contributions of risk variants to type 2 diabetes predisposition are often based on highly selected case-control samples, and reliable estimates of population-level effect sizes are missing, especially in non-European populations. METHODS: The individual and cumulative effects of 59 established type 2 diabetes risk loci were measured in a population-based China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study of 93,000 Chinese adults, including >7,100 diabetes cases. RESULTS: Association signals were directionally consistent between CKB and the original discovery GWAS: of 56 variants passing quality control, 48 showed the same direction of effect (binomial test, p = 2.3 × 10(-8)). We observed a consistent overall trend towards lower risk variant effect sizes in CKB than in case-control samples of GWAS meta-analyses (mean 19-22% decrease in log odds, p ≤ 0.0048), likely to reflect correction of both 'winner's curse' and spectrum bias effects. The association with risk of diabetes of a genetic risk score, based on lead variants at 25 loci considered to act through beta cell function, demonstrated significant interactions with several measures of adiposity (BMI, waist circumference [WC], WHR and percentage body fat [PBF]; all p interaction < 1 × 10(-4)), with a greater effect being observed in leaner adults. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our study provides further evidence of shared genetic architecture for type 2 diabetes between Europeans and East Asians. It also indicates that even very large GWAS meta-analyses may be vulnerable to substantial inflation of effect size estimates, compared with those observed in large-scale population-based cohort studies. ACCESS TO RESEARCH MATERIALS: Details of how to access China Kadoorie Biobank data and details of the data release schedule are available from www.ckbiobank.org/site/Data+Access .


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Circunferência da Cintura/genética , Circunferência da Cintura/fisiologia
18.
PLoS One ; 10(6): e0131417, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26120850

RESUMO

Carboxypeptidase E is a peptide processing enzyme, involved in cleaving numerous peptide precursors, including neuropeptides and hormones involved in appetite control and glucose metabolism. Exome sequencing of a morbidly obese female from a consanguineous family revealed homozygosity for a truncating mutation of the CPE gene (c.76_98del; p.E26RfsX68). Analysis detected no CPE expression in whole blood-derived RNA from the proband, consistent with nonsense-mediated decay. The morbid obesity, intellectual disability, abnormal glucose homeostasis and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism seen in this individual recapitulates phenotypes in the previously described fat/fat and Cpe knockout mouse models, evidencing the importance of this peptide/hormone-processing enzyme in regulating body weight, metabolism, and brain and reproductive function in humans.


Assuntos
Carboxipeptidase H/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Síndrome de Klinefelter/complicações , Mutação/genética , Obesidade Mórbida/complicações , Obesidade Mórbida/genética , Carboxipeptidase H/metabolismo , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/enzimologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Homozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Síndrome de Klinefelter/enzimologia , Síndrome de Klinefelter/genética , Masculino , Obesidade Mórbida/enzimologia , Linhagem , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 8(3): e58048, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23554873

RESUMO

The limited ability of common variants to account for the genetic contribution to complex disease has prompted searches for rare variants of large effect, to partly explain the 'missing heritability'. Analyses of genome-wide genotyping data have identified genomic structural variants (GSVs) as a source of such rare causal variants. Recent studies have reported multiple GSV loci associated with risk of obesity. We attempted to replicate these associations by similar analysis of two familial-obesity case-control cohorts and a population cohort, and detected GSVs at 11 out of 18 loci, at frequencies similar to those previously reported. Based on their reported frequencies and effect sizes (OR≥25), we had sufficient statistical power to detect the large majority (80%) of genuine associations at these loci. However, only one obesity association was replicated. Deletion of a 220 kb region on chromosome 16p11.2 has a carrier population frequency of 2×10(-4) (95% confidence interval [9.6×10(-5)-3.1×10(-4)]); accounts overall for 0.5% [0.19%-0.82%] of severe childhood obesity cases (P = 3.8×10(-10); odds ratio = 25.0 [9.9-60.6]); and results in a mean body mass index (BMI) increase of 5.8 kg.m(-2) [1.8-10.3] in adults from the general population. We also attempted replication using BMI as a quantitative trait in our population cohort; associations with BMI at or near nominal significance were detected at two further loci near KIF2B and within FOXP2, but these did not survive correction for multiple testing. These findings emphasise several issues of importance when conducting rare GSV association, including the need for careful cohort selection and replication strategy, accurate GSV identification, and appropriate correction for multiple testing and/or control of false discovery rate. Moreover, they highlight the potential difficulty in replicating rare CNV associations across different populations. Nevertheless, we show that such studies are potentially valuable for the identification of variants making an appreciable contribution to complex disease.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Loci Gênicos , Obesidade/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Cinesina/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet ; 5(5): 555-60, 2012 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22972876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Copy number variants (CNVs) are a major form of genomic variation, which may be implicated in complex disease phenotypes. However, investigation of the role of CNVs in coronary heart disease (CHD) traits has been limited. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the use of the cnvHap algorithm for CNV detection, using data for 2500 men from the Second Northwick Park Heart Study (NPHS-II). An Illumina custom chip, including 722 single-nucleotide polymorphisms covering 76 coronary heart disease-trait genes, was used. Common CNVs were significantly associated (at P<0.05, after correction) with coronary heart disease phenotypes in 5 genes. Novel associations of CNVs in toll-like receptor-4 with apolipoprotein AI were replicated (P<0.05) in the Whitehall II cohort (4887 subjects), whereas newly described associations of CNVs in sterol regulatory element-binding protein with apolipoprotein AI and associations of interleukin-6 signal transducer with apolipoprotein B were replicated in the data from 3546 subjects from the North Finnish Birth Cohort 1966 (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the use of CNV detection algorithms such as cnvHap as potential tools for the identification of novel CNVs, some of which show significant association and replication with coronary heart disease risk phenotypes. However, the functional basis for these associations requires further substantiation.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Algoritmos , Apolipoproteína A-I/genética , Apolipoproteína A-I/metabolismo , Apolipoproteínas B/genética , Apolipoproteínas B/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Genoma Humano , Genótipo , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA