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1.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766948

RESUMO

Lung function is a heritable complex phenotype with obesity being one of its important risk factors. However, the knowledge of their shared genetic basis is limited. Most genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for lung function have been based on European populations, limiting the generalisability across populations. Large-scale lung function GWAS in other populations are lacking.We included 100 285 subjects from China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB). To identify novel loci for lung function, single-trait GWAS were performed on FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC in CKB. We then performed genome-wide cross-trait analysis between the lung function and obesity traits (body mass index [BMI], BMI-adjusted waist-to-hip ratio, and BMI-adjusted waist circumference) to investigate the shared genetic effects in CKB. Finally, polygenic risk scores (PRSs) of lung function were developed in CKB and its interaction with BMI's association on lung function were examined. We also conducted cross-trait analysis in parallel with CKB using 457 756 subjects from UK Biobank (UKB) for replication and investigation of ancestry specific effect.We identified 9 genome-wide significant novel loci for FEV1, 6 for FVC and 3 for FEV1/FVC in CKB. FEV1 and FVC showed significant negative genetic correlation with obesity traits in both CKB and UKB. Genetic loci shared between lung function and obesity traits highlighted important pathways, including cell proliferation, embryo and tissue development. Mendelian randomisation analysis suggested significant negative causal effect of BMI on FEV1 and on FVC in both CKB and UKB. Lung function PRSs significantly modified the effect of change-in-BMI on change-in-lung function during an average follow-up of 8 years.This large-scale GWAS of lung function identified novel loci and shared genetic etiology between lung function and obesity. Change-in-BMI might affect change-in-lung function differently according to a subject's polygenic background. These findings may open new avenue for the development of molecular-targeted therapies for obesity and lung function improvement.

2.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gallstone disease (GSD) is associated with a higher risk of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. However, it is unclear whether the associations are causal. METHODS: The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) recorded 17,598 cases of GI cancer among 510,137 participants without cancer at baseline during 10 years of follow-up. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for specific cancer by GSD status and duration. Mendelian randomisation was conducted to assess the genetic associations of GSD with specific cancer. RESULTS: Overall 6% of participants had symptomatic GSD at baseline. Compared with those without GSD, individuals with symptomatic GSD had adjusted HRs of 1.13 (1.01-1.29) for colorectal, 2.01 (1.78-2.26) for liver, 3.70 (2.88-4.87) for gallbladder, 2.31 (1.78-3.07) for biliary tract, and 1.38 (1.18-1.74) for pancreatic cancer. Compared with participants without GSD, the risks of colorectal, liver, gallbladder, biliary tract, and pancreatic cancer were highest during 0 to <5 years following disease diagnosis. There was evidence of genetic associations of GSD with these cancers, with odds ratios per 1-SD genetic score of 1.08 (1.05-1.11) for colorectal, 1.22 (1.19-1.25) for liver, 1.56 (1.49-1.64) for gallbladder, 1.39 (1.31-1.46) for biliary tract, and 1.16 (1.10-1.22) for pancreatic cancer. When meta-analysing the genetic estimates in CKB and UK Biobank, there was evidence of causal associations of GSD with colon cancer, gallbladder and biliary tract cancer (GBTC), and total GI cancer (RR per 1-SD: 1.05 [0.99-1.11], 2.00 [1.91-2.09], and 1.09 [1.05-1.13]). CONCLUSIONS: GSD was associated with higher risks of several GI cancers, warranting future studies on the underlying mechanisms.

3.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634874

RESUMO

Alcohol drinking is associated with increased risks of several site-specific cancers, but its role in many other cancers remains inconclusive. Evidence is more limited from China, where cancer rates, drinking patterns and alcohol tolerability differ importantly from Western populations. The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank recruited >512 000 adults aged 30 to 79 years from 10 diverse areas during 2004 to 2008, recording alcohol consumption patterns by a standardised questionnaire. Self-reported alcohol consumption was estimated as grams of pure alcohol per week based on beverage type, amount consumed per occasion and drinking frequency. After 10 years of follow-up, 26 961 individuals developed cancer. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) relating alcohol consumption to incidence of site-specific cancers. Overall, 33% (n = 69 734) of men drank alcohol regularly (ie, ≥weekly) at baseline. Among male current regular drinkers, alcohol intake showed positive dose-response associations with risks of cancers in the oesophagus (655 events; HR = 1.98 [95%CI 1.79-2.18], per 280 g/wk), mouth and throat (236; 1.74 [1.48-2.05]), liver (573; 1.52 [1.31-1.76]), colon-rectum (575; 1.19 [1.00-1.43]), gallbladder (107; 1.60 [1.16-2.22]) and lung (1017; 1.25 [1.10-1.42]), similarly among never- and ever-regular smokers. After adjustment for total alcohol intake, there were greater risks of oesophageal cancer in daily drinkers than nondaily drinkers and of liver cancer when drinking without meals. The risks of oesophageal cancer and lung cancer were greater in men reporting flushing after drinking than not. In this male population, alcohol drinking accounted for 7% of cancer cases. Among women, only 2% drank regularly, with no clear associations between alcohol consumption and cancer risk. Among Chinese men, alcohol drinking is associated with increased risks of cancer at multiple sites, with certain drinking patterns (eg, daily, drinking without meals) and low alcohol tolerance further exacerbating the risks.

4.
Elife ; 102021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558007

RESUMO

Adherence to healthy lifestyles is associated with reduced risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but uncertainty persists about the underlying lipid pathway. In a case-control study of 4681 participants nested in the prospective China Kadoorie Biobank, 61 lipidomic markers in baseline plasma were measured by targeted nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Baseline lifestyles included smoking, alcohol consumption, dietary habit, physical activity, and adiposity levels. Genetic instrument was used to mimic the lipid-lowering effect of statins. We found that 35 lipid metabolites showed statistically significant mediation effects in the pathway from healthy lifestyles to CHD reduction, including very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles and their cholesterol, large-sized high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particle and its cholesterol, and triglyceride in almost all lipoprotein subfractions. The statins genetic score was associated with reduced intermediate- and low-density lipoprotein, but weak or no association with VLDL and HDL. Lifestyle interventions and statins may improve different components of the lipid profile.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have suggested that higher circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were associated with favorable serum lipids and related metabolites. However, if such observations reflect causality remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the causal effect of elevated 25(OH)D with the detailed systemic metabolite profile in Chinese adults. METHODS: A total of 225 lipid and other metabolites were quantified in 4,662 individuals in China Kadoorie Biobank. Instrumental variable analyses were performed to test the causal associations of plasma 25(OH)D with the lipids and metabolites. RESULTS: Higher plasma 25(OH)D was related to favorable lipid profiles in observational analyses. The genetic risk score was robustly correlated with observed 25(OH)D (beta[SE]= 3.54 [0.32]; P<1×10 -5, F-statistic =122.3) and explained 8.4% of the variation in 25(OH)D in the Chinese population. For all individual metabolites, the causal estimates were not significant for at the threshold P<5×10 -4 (multiple testing corrected). However, the MR estimate showed that per 1-SD increase in genetically determined 25(OH)D was suggestive associated with decreased levels of cholesterol, lipoprotein particle, phospholipids within very small very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) (P≤0.05, nominal significance). For amino acids, fatty acids, ketone bodies, glycoprotein acetyls, fatty acids and other traits, we did not observe any significant causal association. CONCLUSIONS: The MR analysis of metabolic data based a population-based cohort suggested a potential causal association of plasma 25(OH)D with cholesterol, lipoprotein particle, phospholipids concentrations and total lipids within very small VLDL and IDL. Our findings highlight long-term effect of 25(OH)D levels in maintaining healthy lipid metabolism.

6.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 16, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurately quantifying the risk of osteoporotic fracture is important for directing appropriate clinical interventions. While skeletal measures such as heel quantitative speed of sound (SOS) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry bone mineral density are able to predict the risk of osteoporotic fracture, the utility of such measurements is subject to the availability of equipment and human resources. Using data from 341,449 individuals of white British ancestry, we previously developed a genome-wide polygenic risk score (PRS), called gSOS, that captured 25.0% of the total variance in SOS. Here, we test whether gSOS can improve fracture risk prediction. METHODS: We examined the predictive power of gSOS in five genome-wide genotyped cohorts, including 90,172 individuals of European ancestry and 25,034 individuals of Asian ancestry. We calculated gSOS for each individual and tested for the association between gSOS and incident major osteoporotic fracture and hip fracture. We tested whether adding gSOS to the risk prediction models had added value over models using other commonly used clinical risk factors. RESULTS: A standard deviation decrease in gSOS was associated with an increased odds of incident major osteoporotic fracture in populations of European ancestry, with odds ratios ranging from 1.35 to 1.46 in four cohorts. It was also associated with a 1.26-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.41) increased odds of incident major osteoporotic fracture in the Asian population. We demonstrated that gSOS was more predictive of incident major osteoporotic fracture (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) = 0.734; 95% CI 0.727-0.740) and incident hip fracture (AUROC = 0.798; 95% CI 0.791-0.805) than most traditional clinical risk factors, including prior fracture, use of corticosteroids, rheumatoid arthritis, and smoking. We also showed that adding gSOS to the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) could refine the risk prediction with a positive net reclassification index ranging from 0.024 to 0.072. CONCLUSIONS: We generated and validated a PRS for SOS which was associated with the risk of fracture. This score was more strongly associated with the risk of fracture than many clinical risk factors and provided an improvement in risk prediction. gSOS should be explored as a tool to improve risk stratification to identify individuals at high risk of fracture.

7.
Int J Epidemiol ; 50(1): 199-211, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous case-control studies have reported positive associations of spicy food consumption with risks of certain gastrointestinal-tract (GI) cancers. However, there is no prospective evidence on such associations, particularly from China, where there are high incidence rates of GI cancers and spicy food is widely consumed. METHODS: The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank study recruited >512 000 adults aged 30-79 years from 10 areas in China during 2004-2008; 2350 oesophageal, 3350 stomach and 3061 colorectal incident cancer cases were recorded by 1 January 2017, after a median of 10.1 years of follow-up. Cox regression yielded adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for each cancer associated with spicy food intake. RESULTS: Overall, 30% of participants reported daily spicy food consumption at baseline. Spicy food consumption was inversely associated with oesophageal cancer risk, with adjusted HRs of 1.00, 0.88, 0.76, 0.84 and 0.81 for those who never/rarely consumed (reference) and consumed monthly, 1-2 days/week, 3-5 days/week and 6-7 days/week, respectively (ptrend < 0.002). The association remained similar after excluding the first 3 years of follow-up but appeared stronger in participants who did not smoke or drink alcohol regularly (ptrend < 0.0001). The corresponding HRs for stomach cancer were 1.00, 0.97, 0.95, 0.92 and 0.89 (ptrend = 0.04), with the association disappearing after excluding the first 3 years of follow-up. For colorectal cancer, the HRs were 1.00, 1.00, 0.95, 0.87 and 0.90, respectively (ptrend = 0.04) and the inverse association appeared to be restricted to rectal rather than colon cancer (pheterogeneity = 0.004). The types and strength of spice used showed little additional effects on these associations. CONCLUSION: In Chinese adults, higher spicy food consumption was associated with lower risks of certain GI cancers, particularly among individuals who never smoked or drank alcohol regularly.

9.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263724

RESUMO

Importance: Obesity is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but little is known about the role that circulating protein biomarkers play in this association. Objective: To examine the observational and genetic associations of adiposity with circulating protein biomarkers and the observational associations of proteins with incident CVD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This subcohort study included 628 participants from the prospective China Kadoorie Biobank who did not have a history of cancer at baseline. The Olink platform measured 92 protein markers in baseline plasma samples. Data were collected from June 2004 to January 2016 and analyzed from January 2019 to June 2020. Exposures: Measured body mass index (BMI) obtained during the baseline survey and genetically instrumented BMI derived using 571 externally weighted single-nucleotide variants. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cross-sectional associations of adiposity with biomarkers were examined using linear regression. Associations of biomarkers with CVD risk were assessed using Cox regression among those without prior cancer or CVD at baseline. Mendelian randomization was conducted to derive genetically estimated associations of BMI with biomarkers. Findings: In observational analyses of 628 individuals (mean [SD] age, 52.2 [10.5] years; 385 women [61.3%]), BMI (mean [SD], 23.9 [3.6]) was positively associated with 27 proteins (per 1-SD higher BMI; eg, interleukin-6: 0.21 [95% CI, 0.12-0.29] SD; interleukin-18: 0.13 [95% CI, 0.05-0.21] SD; monocyte chemoattractant protein-1: 0.12 [95% CI, 0.04-0.20] SD; hepatocyte growth factor: 0.31 [95% CI, 0.24-0.39] SD), and inversely with 3 proteins (Fas ligand: -0.11 [95% CI, -0.19 to -0.03] SD; TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis, -0.14 [95% CI, -0.23 to -0.06] SD; and carbonic anhydrase 9: (-0.14 [95% CI, -0.22 to -0.05] SD), with similar associations identified for other adiposity traits (eg, waist circumference [r = 0.96]). In mendelian randomization, the associations of genetically elevated BMI with specific proteins were directionally consistent with the observational associations. In meta-analyses of genetically elevated BMI with 8 proteins, combining present estimates with previous studies, the most robust associations were shown for interleukin-6 (per 1-SD higher BMI; 0.21 [95% CI, 0.13-0.29] SD), interleukin-18 (0.16 [95% CI, 0.06-0.26] SD), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (0.21 [95% CI, 0.11-0.30] SD), monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (0.12 [95% CI, 0.03-0.21] SD), TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (0.23 [95% CI, 0.13-0.32] SD), and hepatocyte growth factor (0.14 [95% CI, 0.06-0.22] SD). Of the 30 BMI-associated biomarkers, 10 (including interleukin-6, interleukin-18, and hepatocyte growth factor) were nominally associated with incident CVD. Conclusions and Relevance: Mendelian randomization shows adiposity to be associated with a range of protein biomarkers, with some biomarkers also showing association with CVD risk. Future studies are warranted to validate these findings and assess whether proteins may be mediators between adiposity and CVD.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5980, 2020 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239672

RESUMO

Miscarriage is a common, complex trait affecting ~15% of clinically confirmed pregnancies. Here we present the results of large-scale genetic association analyses with 69,054 cases from five different ancestries for sporadic miscarriage, 750 cases of European ancestry for multiple (≥3) consecutive miscarriage, and up to 359,469 female controls. We identify one genome-wide significant association (rs146350366, minor allele frequency (MAF) 1.2%, P = 3.2 × 10-8, odds ratio (OR) = 1.4) for sporadic miscarriage in our European ancestry meta-analysis and three genome-wide significant associations for multiple consecutive miscarriage (rs7859844, MAF = 6.4%, P = 1.3 × 10-8, OR = 1.7; rs143445068, MAF = 0.8%, P = 5.2 × 10-9, OR = 3.4; rs183453668, MAF = 0.5%, P = 2.8 × 10-8, OR = 3.8). We further investigate the genetic architecture of miscarriage with biobank-scale Mendelian randomization, heritability, and genetic correlation analyses. Our results show that miscarriage etiopathogenesis is partly driven by genetic variation potentially related to placental biology, and illustrate the utility of large-scale biobank data for understanding this pregnancy complication.

11.
Nat Genet ; 52(12): 1303-1313, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199917

RESUMO

Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm leads to subarachnoid hemorrhage, a severe type of stroke. To discover new risk loci and the genetic architecture of intracranial aneurysms, we performed a cross-ancestry, genome-wide association study in 10,754 cases and 306,882 controls of European and East Asian ancestry. We discovered 17 risk loci, 11 of which are new. We reveal a polygenic architecture and explain over half of the disease heritability. We show a high genetic correlation between ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms. We also find a suggestive role for endothelial cells by using gene mapping and heritability enrichment. Drug-target enrichment shows pleiotropy between intracranial aneurysms and antiepileptic and sex hormone drugs, providing insights into intracranial aneurysm pathophysiology. Finally, genetic risks for smoking and high blood pressure, the two main clinical risk factors, play important roles in intracranial aneurysm risk, and drive most of the genetic correlation between intracranial aneurysms and other cerebrovascular traits.

12.
Lancet Oncol ; 21(10): 1378-1386, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic variants and lifestyle factors have been associated with gastric cancer risk, but the extent to which an increased genetic risk can be offset by a healthy lifestyle remains unknown. We aimed to establish a genetic risk model for gastric cancer and assess the benefits of adhering to a healthy lifestyle in individuals with a high genetic risk. METHODS: In this meta-analysis and prospective cohort study, we first did a fixed-effects meta-analysis of the association between genetic variants and gastric cancer in six independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with a case-control study design. These GWAS comprised 21 168 Han Chinese individuals, of whom 10 254 had gastric cancer and 10 914 geographically matched controls did not. Using summary statistics from the meta-analysis, we constructed five polygenic risk scores in a range of thresholds (p=5 × 10-4 p=5 × 10-5 p=5 × 10-6 p=5 × 10-7, and p=5 × 10-8) for gastric cancer. We then applied these scores to an independent, prospective, nationwide cohort of 100 220 individuals from the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB), with more than 10 years of follow-up. The relative and absolute risk of incident gastric cancer associated with healthy lifestyle factors (defined as not smoking, never consuming alcohol, the low consumption of preserved foods, and the frequent intake of fresh fruits and vegetables), was assessed and stratified by genetic risk (low [quintile 1 of the polygenic risk score], intermediate [quintile 2-4 of the polygenic risk score], and high [quintile 5 of the polygenic risk score]). Individuals with a favourable lifestyle were considered as those who adopted all four healthy lifestyle factors, those with an intermediate lifestyle adopted two or three factors, and those with an unfavourable lifestyle adopted none or one factor. FINDINGS: The polygenic risk score derived from 112 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (p<5 × 10-5) showed the strongest association with gastric cancer risk (p=7·56 × 10-10). When this polygenic risk score was applied to the CKB cohort, we found that there was a significant increase in the relative risk of incident gastric cancer across the quintiles of the polygenic risk score (ptrend<0·0001). Compared with individuals who had a low genetic risk, those with an intermediate genetic risk (hazard ratio [HR] 1·54 [95% CI 1·22-1·94], p=2·67 × 10-4) and a high genetic risk (2·08 [1·61-2·69], p<0·0001) had a greater risk of gastric cancer. A similar increase in the relative risk of incident gastric cancer was observed across the lifestyle categories (ptrend<0·0001), with a higher risk of gastric cancer in those with an unfavourable lifestyle than those with a favourable lifestyle (2·03 [1·46-2·83], p<0·0001). Participants with a high genetic risk and a favourable lifestyle had a lower risk of gastric cancer than those with a high genetic risk and an unfavourable lifestyle (0·53 [0·29-0·99], p=0·048), with an absolute risk reduction of 1·12% (95% CI 0·62-1·56). INTERPRETATION: Chinese individuals at an increased risk of incident gastric cancer could be identified by use of our newly developed polygenic risk score. Compared with individuals at a high genetic risk who adopt an unhealthy lifestyle, those who adopt a healthy lifestyle could substantially reduce their risk of incident gastric cancer. FUNDING: National Key R&D Program of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China, 333 High-Level Talents Cultivation Project of Jiangsu Province, and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/psicologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/psicologia
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2018721, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006619

RESUMO

Importance: There is some support for the existence of genetic associations between adiposity and certain hepatobiliary diseases in Western populations. However, there is little evidence of such genetic associations in China, where the causes of these diseases may differ from those in Western populations and the mean body mass index (BMI) is much lower. Objectives: To compare the observational associations of BMI with hepatobiliary diseases and liver biomarkers with the genetic associations between BMI and these factors and to assess whether the genetic associations of BMI with liver diseases differed by hepatitis B virus infection status. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from the prospective China Kadoorie Biobank, including 473 938 adults aged 30 to 79 years without hepatobiliary diseases at baseline from 10 diverse areas in China from June 25, 2004, to July 15, 2008. A random sample of 75 736 participants with genotyping data was included in the Mendelian randomization analysis. Follow-up was completed January 1, 2017 (median [interquartile range] length of follow-up, 10.2 [9.2-11.1] years). Data were analyzed from January to October 2019. Exposures: Measured BMI obtained during the baseline survey and genetically instrumented BMI derived using 92 single-nucleotide variations. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident cases of hepatobiliary diseases, liver enzymes, fatty liver index, and fibrosis score. Results: Among 473 938 individuals (276 041 [58.2%] women), the mean (SD) age was 52 (10.9) years and mean (SD) BMI was 23.8 (3.4). Baseline BMI was associated with higher risks of chronic liver disease (adjusted risk ratio per 1-SD increase, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.17) and gallbladder disease (adjusted risk ratio per 1-SD increase, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.27 to 1.31), with heterogeneity by disease subtype (P < .001). Genetically instrumented BMI was associated with higher risks of chronic liver disease (risk ratio per 1-SD increase, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.24) and gallbladder disease (risk ratio per 1-SD increase, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.76), with no heterogeneity between subtypes. A meta-analysis of the genetic associations in China Kadoorie Biobank and those calculated in UK Biobank gave a risk ratio of 1.55 (95% CI, 1.30 to 1.84) for chronic liver disease and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.22 to 1.64) for gallbladder disease. In the China Kadoorie Biobank study, there were positive genetic associations of BMI with liver enzymes, steatosis, and fibrosis scores, consistent with observational associations. The genetic associations of BMI with liver diseases and biomarkers did not differ by hepatitis B virus infection status. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of a relatively lean Chinese population, there were positive genetic associations of BMI with hepatobiliary diseases. These results suggest that maintaining a healthy weight through diet and physical activity may help prevent hepatobiliary diseases.

14.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(549)2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581134

RESUMO

Inhibition of sclerostin is a therapeutic approach to lowering fracture risk in patients with osteoporosis. However, data from phase 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of romosozumab, a first-in-class monoclonal antibody that inhibits sclerostin, suggest an imbalance of serious cardiovascular events, and regulatory agencies have issued marketing authorizations with warnings of cardiovascular disease. Here, we meta-analyze published and unpublished cardiovascular outcome trial data of romosozumab and investigate whether genetic variants that mimic therapeutic inhibition of sclerostin are associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Meta-analysis of up to three RCTs indicated a probable higher risk of cardiovascular events with romosozumab. Scaled to the equivalent dose of romosozumab (210 milligrams per month; 0.09 grams per square centimeter of higher bone mineral density), the SOST genetic variants were associated with lower risk of fracture and osteoporosis (commensurate with the therapeutic effect of romosozumab) and with a higher risk of myocardial infarction and/or coronary revascularization and major adverse cardiovascular events. The same variants were also associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and higher systolic blood pressure and central adiposity. Together, our findings indicate that inhibition of sclerostin may elevate cardiovascular risk, warranting a rigorous evaluation of the cardiovascular safety of romosozumab and other sclerostin inhibitors.

16.
Ann Neurol ; 88(1): 56-66, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Observational studies point to an inverse correlation between low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), but it remains unclear whether this association is causal. We tested the hypothesis that genetically elevated LDL is associated with reduced risk of ICH. METHODS: We constructed one polygenic risk score (PRS) per lipid trait (total cholesterol, LDL, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], and triglycerides) using independent genomewide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for each trait. We used data from 316,428 individuals enrolled in the UK Biobank to estimate the effect of each PRS on its corresponding trait, and data from 1,286 ICH cases and 1,261 matched controls to estimate the effect of each PRS on ICH risk. We used these estimates to conduct Mendelian Randomization (MR) analyses. RESULTS: We identified 410, 339, 393, and 317 lipid-related SNPs for total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides, respectively. All four PRSs were strongly associated with their corresponding trait (all p < 1.00 × 10-100 ). While one SD increase in the PRSs for total cholesterol (odds ratio [OR] = 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.85-0.99; p = 0.03) and LDL cholesterol (OR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.81-0.95; p = 0.002) were inversely associated with ICH risk, no significant associations were found for HDL and triglycerides (both p > 0.05). MR analyses indicated that 1mmol/L (38.67mg/dL) increase of genetically instrumented total and LDL cholesterol were associated with 23% (OR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.65-0.98; p = 0.03) and 41% lower risks of ICH (OR = 0.59; 95% CI = 0.42-0.82; p = 0.002), respectively. INTERPRETATION: Genetically elevated LDL levels were associated with lower risk of ICH, providing support for a potential causal role of LDL cholesterol in ICH. ANN NEUROL 2020 ANN NEUROL 2020;88:56-66.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/sangue , Hemorragia Cerebral/genética , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/genética , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/genética
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5605, 2020 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221345

RESUMO

Systemic inflammation, reflected by increased plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen, is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, but its relevance for stroke types remains unclear. Moreover, evidence is limited in non-European populations. We investigated associations of CRP and fibrinogen with risks of incident major coronary events (MCE), ischemic stroke (IS) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in a cohort of Chinese adults. A nested case-control study within the prospective China Kadoorie Biobank included 1,508 incident MCE cases, 5,418 IS cases, 4,476 ICH cases, and 5,285 common controls, aged 30-79 years. High-sensitivity CRP and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured in baseline plasma samples from all participants, and fibrinogen in a subset (n = 9,380). Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratios (ORs) per SD higher usual levels of log-transformed CRP and fibrinogen. The overall mean (SD) baseline LDL-C was 91.6 mg/dL (24.0) and geometric mean (95% CI) CRP and fibrinogen were 0.90 mg/L (0.87-0.93) and 3.01 g/L (2.98-3.03), respectively. There were approximately log-linear positive associations of CRP with each outcome, which persisted after adjustment for LDL-C and other risk factors, with adjusted ORs (95% CI) per SD higher CRP of 1.67 (1.44-1.94) for MCE and 1.22 (1.10-1.36) for both IS and ICH. No associations of fibrinogen with MCE, IS, or ICH were identified. Adding CRP to prediction models based on established risk factors improved model fit for each of MCE, IS, and ICH, with small improvements in C-statistic and correct reclassification of controls to lower risk groups. Among Chinese adults, who have low mean LDL-C, CRP, but not fibrinogen, was independently associated with increased risks of MCE and stroke.

18.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(3): 698-707, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes is modified by a healthy lifestyle among Chinese remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine whether genetic risk and adherence to a healthy lifestyle contribute independently to the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We defined a lifestyle score using BMI, alcohol intake, smoking, physical activities, and diets in 461,030 participants from the China Kadoorie Biobank and 38,434 participants from the Singapore Chinese Health Study. A genetic risk score was constructed based on type 2 diabetes loci among 100,175 and 16,172 participants in each cohort, respectively. A Cox proportional-hazards model was used to estimate the interaction between genetic and lifestyle factors on the risk of type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: In 2 independent Asian cohorts, we consistently found a healthy lifestyle (the bottom quintile of lifestyle score) was associated with a substantially lower risk of type 2 diabetes than an unhealthy lifestyle (the top quintile of lifestyle score) regardless of genetic risk. In those at a high genetic risk, the risk of type 2 diabetes was 57% lower among participants with a healthy lifestyle than among those with an unhealthy lifestyle in the pooled cohorts. Among participants at high genetic risk, the standardized 10-y incidence of type 2 diabetes was 7.11% in those with an unhealthy lifestyle vs. 2.45% in those with a healthy lifestyle. CONCLUSIONS: In 2 independent cohorts involving 558,302 Chinese participants, we did not observe an interaction between genetics and lifestyle with type 2 diabetes risk, but our findings provide replicable evidence to show lifestyle factors and genetic factors were independently associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. Within any genetic risk category, a healthy lifestyle was associated with a significantly lower risk of type 2 diabetes among the Chinese population.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4330, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551420

RESUMO

Most genome-wide association studies are based on samples of European descent. We assess whether the genetic determinants of blood lipids, a major cardiovascular risk factor, are shared across populations. Genetic correlations for lipids between European-ancestry and Asian cohorts are not significantly different from 1. A genetic risk score based on LDL-cholesterol-associated loci has consistent effects on serum levels in samples from the UK, Uganda and Greece (r = 0.23-0.28, p < 1.9 × 10-14). Overall, there is evidence of reproducibility for ~75% of the major lipid loci from European discovery studies, except triglyceride loci in the Ugandan samples (10% of loci). Individual transferable loci are identified using trans-ethnic colocalization. Ten of fourteen loci not transferable to the Ugandan population have pleiotropic associations with BMI in Europeans; none of the transferable loci do. The non-transferable loci might affect lipids by modifying food intake in environments rich in certain nutrients, which suggests a potential role for gene-environment interactions.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lipídeos/genética , Fatores de Risco
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