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1.
Matern Child Nutr ; 17(1): e13074, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830434

RESUMO

Children with concurrent wasting and stunting (WaSt) and children with severe wasting have a similar risk of death. Existing evidence shows that wasting and stunting share similar causal pathways, but evidence on correlates of WaSt remains limited. Research on correlates of WaSt is needed to inform prevention strategies. We investigated the factors associated with WaSt in children 6-59 months in Karamoja Region, Uganda. We examined data for 33,054 children aged 6-59 months using June 2015 to July 2018 Food Security and Nutrition Assessment in Karamoja. We defined WaSt as being concurrently wasted (weight-for-height z-scores <-2.0) and stunted (height-for-age z-score <-2.0). We conducted multivariate mixed-effect logistic regression to assess factors associated with WaSt. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. In multivariate analysis, being male (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.60-2.00]), aged 12-23 months (aOR = 2.25; 95% CI [1.85-2.74]), 36-47 months (aOR = 0.65; 95% CI [0.50-0.84]) and 48-59 months (aOR = 0.71; 95% CI [0.54-0.93]) were associated with WaSt. In addition, acute respiratory infection (aOR = 1.30; 95% CI [1.15-1.48]), diarrhoea (aOR = 1.25; 95% CI [1.06-1.48]) and malaria/fever (aOR = 0.83; 95% CI [0.73-0.96]) episodes were associated with WaSt. WaSt was significantly associated with maternal underweight (body mass index <18.5 kg/m2 ), short stature (height <160 cm), low mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC <23 cm) and having ≥4 live-births. WaSt was prevalent in households without livestock (aOR = 1.30; 95% CI [1.13-1.59]). Preventing the occurrence of WaSt through pragmatic and joint approaches are recommended. Future prospective studies on risk factors of WaSt to inform effective prevention strategies are recommended.

2.
Global Health ; 16(1): 106, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peer supervision improves health care delivery by health workers. However, in rural Uganda, self-supervision is what is prescribed for licensed private drug sellers by statutory guidelines. Evidence shows that self-supervision encourages inappropriate treatment of children less than 5 years of age by private drug sellers. This study constructed a model for an appropriate peer supervisor to augment the self-supervision currently practiced by drug sellers at district level in rural Uganda. METHODS: In this qualitative study, six Key informant interviews were held with inspectors while ten focus group discussions were conducted with 130 drug sellers. Data analysis was informed by the Kathy Charmaz constructive approach to grounded theory. Atlas ti.7 software package was used for data management. RESULTS: A model with four dimensions defining an appropriate peer supervisor was developed. The dimensions included; incentives, clearly defined roles, mediation and role model peer supervisor. While all dimensions were regarded as being important, all participants interviewed agreed that incentives for peer supervisors were the most crucial. Overall, an appropriate peer supervisor was described as being exemplary to other drug sellers, operated within a defined framework, well facilitated to do their role and a good go-between drug sellers and government inspectors. CONCLUSION: Four central contributions advance literature by the model developed by our study. First, the model fills a supervision gap for rural private drug sellers. Second, it highlights the need for terms of reference for peer supervisors. Third, it describes who an appropriate peer supervisor should be. Lastly, it elucidates the kind of resources needed for peer supervision.

3.
J Pharm Policy Pract ; 13: 55, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944257

RESUMO

Background: Regulatory inspection of private drug shops in Uganda is a mandate of the Ministry of Health carried out by the National Drug Authority. This study evaluated how this mandate is being carried out at national, district, and drug shop levels. Specifically, perspectives on how the inspection is done, who does it, and challenges faced were sought from inspectors and drug sellers. Methods: Six key informant interviews (KIIs) were held with inspectors at the national and district level, while eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted among nursing assistants, and two FGDs were held with nurses. The study appraised current methods of inspecting drug sellers against national professional guidelines for licensing and renewal of class C drug shops in Uganda. Transcripts were managed using Atlas ti version 7 (ATLAS.ti GmbH, Berlin) data management software where the thematic content analysis was done. Results: Five themes emerged from the study: authoritarian inspection, delegated inspection, licensing, training, and bribes. Under authoritarian inspection, drug sellers decried the high handedness used by inspectors when found with expired or no license at all. For delegated inspection, drug sellers said that sometimes, inspectors send health assistants and sub-county chiefs for inspection visits. This cadre of people is not recognized by law as inspectors. Inspectors trained drug sellers on how to organize their drug shops better and how to use new technologies such as rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in diagnosing malaria. Bribes were talked about mostly by nursing assistants who purported that inspectors were not interested in inspection per se but collecting illicit payments from them. Inspectors said that the facilitation they received from the central government were inadequate for a routine inspection. Conclusion: The current method of inspecting drug sellers is harsh and instills fear among drug sellers. There is a need to establish a well-recognized structure of inspection as well as establish channels of dialogue between inspectors and drug sellers if meaningful compliance is to be achieved. The government also needs to enhance both human and financial resources if meaningful inspection of drug sellers is to take place.

4.
Malar J ; 19(1): 270, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Support supervision improves performance outcomes among health workers. However, the national professional guidelines for new licenses and renewal for Class C drug shops in Uganda prescribe self-supervision of licensed private drug sellers. Without support supervision, inappropriate treatment of malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea among children under 5 years of age continues unabated. This study assessed experiences of drug sellers and peer supervisors at the end of a peer supervision intervention in Luuka District in East Central Uganda. METHODS: Eight in-depth interviews (IDIs) were held with peer supervisors while five focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted among registered drug sellers at the end of the peer supervision intervention. The study assessed experiences and challenges of peer supervisors and drug sellers regarding peer supervision. Transcripts were imported into Atlas.ti 7 qualitative data management software where they were analysed using thematic content analysis. RESULTS: Initially, peer supervisors were disliked and regarded by drug sellers as another extension of drug inspectors. However, with time a good relationship was established between drug sellers and peer supervisors leading to regular, predictable and supportive peer supervision. This increased confidence of drug sellers in using respiratory timers and rapid diagnostic tests in diagnosing pneumonia symptoms and uncomplicated malaria, respectively, among children under 5 years. There was also an improvement in completing the sick child register which was used for self-assessment by drug sellers. The drug shop association was mentioned as a place where peer supervision should be anchored since it was a one-stop centre for sharing experiences and continuous professional development. Drug sellers proposed including community health workers in monthly drug shop association meetings so that they may also gain from the associated benefits. Untimely completion of the sick child registers by drug sellers and inadequate financial resources were the main peer supervision challenges mentioned. CONCLUSION: Drug sellers benefitted from peer supervision by developing a good relationship with peer supervisors. This relationship guaranteed reliable and predictable supervision ultimately leading to improved treatment practices. There is need to explore the minimum resources needed for peer supervision of drug sellers to further inform practice and policy.

5.
Matern Child Nutr ; 16(4): e13000, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212249

RESUMO

We assessed prevalence of concurrently wasted and stunted (WaSt) and explored the overlaps between wasted, stunted, underweight and low mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) among children aged 6-59 months in Karamoja, Uganda. We also determined optimal weight-for-age (WAZ) and MUAC thresholds for detecting WaSt. We conducted secondary data analysis with 2015-2018 Food Security and Nutrition Assessment (FSNA) cross-sectional survey datasets from Karamoja. Wasting, stunting and underweight were defined as <-2.0 z-scores using WHO growth standards. Low MUAC was defined as <12.5 cm. We defined WaSt as concurrent wasting and stunting. Prevalence of WaSt was 4.96% (95% CI [4.64, 5.29]). WaSt was more prevalent in lean than harvest season (5.21% vs. 4.53%; p = .018). About half (53.92%) of WaSt children had low MUAC, and all were underweight. Younger children aged <36 months had more WaSt, particularly males. Males with WaSt had higher median MUAC than females (12.50 vs. 12.10 cm; p < .001). A WAZ <-2.60 threshold detected WaSt with excellent sensitivity (99.02%) and high specificity (90.71%). MUAC threshold <13.20 cm had good sensitivity (81.58%) and moderate specificity (76.15%) to detect WaSt. WaSt prevalence of 5% is a public health concern, given its high mortality risk. All children with WaSt were underweight and half had low MUAC. WAZ and MUAC could be useful tools for detecting WaSt. Prevalence monitoring and prospective studies on WAZ and MUAC cut-offs for WaSt detection are recommended. Future consideration to integrate WAZ into therapeutic feeding programmes is recommended to detect and treat WaSt children.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230480, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196526

RESUMO

This study assessed the prevalence of concurrently wasted and stunted (WaSt) children, their characteristics, treatment outcomes and response; and factors associated with time to recovery among children aged 6-59 months admitted to Outpatient Therapeutic Care (OTC) in Karamoja, Uganda. We conducted a retrospective cohort study with data from January 2016 to October 2017 for children admitted to nine OTCs in Karamoja. We defined wasted, stunted and underweight as 2.0 Z-scores below the median per WHO growth standards and < 12.5 cm for low Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC). WaSt was defined as concurrently wasted and stunted. Out of 788 eligible children included in the analysis; 48.7% (95% CI; 45.2-52.2) had WaSt. WaSt was common among males; 56.3% (95% CI; 51.3-61.3). Median age was 18 months in WaSt versus 12 months in non-WaSt children (p < 0.001). All WaSt children were underweight; and more severely wasted than non-WaSt children. During recovery, WaSt children gained weight more rapidly than non-WaSt children (2.2g/kg/day vs. 1.7g/kg/day). WaSt children had lower recovery rate (58.0% vs. 65.4%; p = 0.037). The difference in median time of recovery between WaSt and non-WaSt children (63 days vs. 56 days; p = 0.465) was not significant. Factors associated with time to recovery were children aged 24-59 months (aHR = 1.30; 95% CI;1.07-1.57;), children with MUAC 10.5-11.4 cm (aHR = 2.03; 95% CI; 1.55-2.66), MUAC ≥ 11.5 cm at admission (aHR = 3.31; 95% CI; 2.17-5.02) and living in Moroto (aHR = 3.34; 95% CI; 2.60-4.30) and Nakapiripirit (aHR = 1.95; 95% CI; 1.51-2.53) districts. The magnitude of children with WaSt in OTC shows that existing therapeutic feeding protocols could be used to detect and treat WaSt children. Further research is needed to identify and address the factors associated with sub-optimal recovery in WaSt children for effective OTC programming in Karamoja.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Nutrição Enteral , Síndrome de Emaciação , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Uganda/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Emaciação/terapia
7.
BMJ Glob Health ; 4(4): e001339, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406583

RESUMO

Introduction: Suboptimal quality of paediatric care has been reported in resource-limited settings, but little evidence exists on interventions to improve it in such settings. This study aimed at testing supportive supervision (SS) for improving health status of malnourished children, quality of case management, overall quality of care, and the absolute number of children enrolled in the nutritional services. Methods: This was a cluster randomised trial conducted in Arua district. Six health centres (HCs) with the highest volume of work were randomised to either SS or no intervention. SS was delivered by to HCs staff (phase 1), and later extended to community health workers (CHWs) (phase 2). The primary outcome was the cure rate, measured at children level. Quality of case management was assessed by six pre-defined indicators. Quality of care was assessed using the national Nutrition Service Delivery Assessment (NSDA) tool. Access to care was estimated with the number of children accessing HC nutritional services. Results: Overall, 737 children were enrolled. In the intervention arm, the cure rate (83.8% vs 44.9%, risk ratio (RR)=1.91, 95% CI: 1.56-2.34, p=0.001), quality of care as scored by NSDA (RR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.01-2.44, p=0.035) and correctness in complementary treatment (RR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.40-1.67, p=0.001) were significantly higher compared with control. With the extension of SS to CHWs (phase 2), there was a significant 38.6% more children accessing care in the intervention HCs (RR=1.26, 95% CI: 1.11-1.44, p=0.001) compared with control. Conclusion: SS significantly improved the cure rate of malnourished children, and the overall quality of care, SS to CHWs significantly increased the crude number of children enrolled in the nutritional services. More studies should confirm these results, and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of SS.

8.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211411, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that Uganda has been a signatory to the global strategy for Infant and Young Children Feeding practices (IYCF) for nearly a decade, the prevalence of stunting among children under five years of age remains tragically high at 17% in Eastern Uganda and twofold higher countrywide. Only 6% of all children aged 6-23 months feed adequately. This study aimed to establish the covariates of complementary feeding (CF) and its effect on attained height among primary school-aged children in Mbale district (Eastern Uganda). METHODS: This was a community-based prospective cohort study using data from the PROMISE EBF trial. The main exposure variable was adequate complementary feeding (CF) measured in a parent questionnaire at 18-24 months of age. We defined adequate CF as having received animal food, cereals and fruit, juice and/or vegetables during the 24 hours preceding the interview. An adapted minimum acceptable diet was defined as having been given milk or milk products at least twice a day, an adapted meal frequency of two and solid or semi-solid food from at least four food groups on a 24-hour dietary recall based on modified IYCF criteria. The main outcome variable was attained height [(height-for-age Z score (HAZ)] measured between five and eight years of age using the WHO growth standards. Effects of CF on HAZ were estimated using linear regression analyses with cluster-robust standard errors. RESULTS: A total of 506 children were studied. The majority (85%) were from rural areas and the average age at the end of the study was 6.9 (standard deviation: 0.63) years. Of these, 23.9% were adequately fed and 2.3% received the adapted minimum acceptable diet. Adequate CF was not associated with HAZ (adjusted ß = -0.111; 95% CI: -0.363, 0.141; p = 0.374). Factors significantly associated with attained height were baseline HAZ (0.262; 0.152, 0.374; p<0.001) and WHZ (-0.147; -0.243, -0.051; p = 0.004), child's age (0.454; -0.592, -0.315; p<0.001) and maternal education (0.030; 95% CI: 0.003, 0.057; p = 0.034). CONCLUSION: Adequate CF at age 18-24 months was worryingly insufficient and not associated with attained HAZ at age 5-8 years. Further strategies need to be considered to improve child nutrition and linear growth in resource-constrained settings.


Assuntos
Estatura/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Prospectivos , Uganda
9.
Malar J ; 17(1): 365, 2018 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) available as dipsticks or strips, are simple to perform, easily interpretable and do not require electricity nor infrastructural investment. Correct interpretation of and compliance with the RDT results is a challenge to drug sellers. Thus, drug seller interpretation of RDT strips was compared with laboratory scientist re-reading, and PCR analysis of Plasmodium DNA extracted from RDT nitrocellulose strips and fast transient analysis (FTA) cards. Malaria RDT cassettes were also assessed as a potential source of Plasmodium DNA. METHODS: A total of 212 children aged between 2 and 60 months, 199 of whom had complete records at two study drug shops in south western Uganda participated in the study. Duplicate 5 µL samples of capillary blood were picked from the 212 children, dispensed onto the sample well of the CareStart™ Pf-HRP2 RDT cassette and a FTA, Whatman™ 3MM filter paper in parallel. The RDT strip was interpreted by the drug seller within 15-20 min, visually re-read centrally by laboratory scientist and from it; Plasmodium DNA was recovered and detected by PCR, and compared with FTA recovered P. falciparum DNA PCR detection. RESULTS: Malaria positive samples were 62/199 (31.2%, 95% CI 24.9, 38.3) by drug seller interpretation of RDT strip, 59/212 (27.8%, 95% CI 22.2, 34.3) by laboratory scientist, 55/212 (25.9%, 95% CI 20.0, 32.6) by RDT nitrocellulose strip PCR and 64/212 (30.2%, 95% CI 24.4, 37.7). The overall agreement between the drug seller interpretation and laboratory scientist re-reading of the RDT strip was 93.0% with kappa value of 0.84 (95% CI 0.75, 0.92). The drug seller compliance with the reported RDT results was 92.5%. The performance of the three diagnostic strategies compared with FTA-PCR as the gold standard had sensitivity between 76.6 and 86.9%, specificity above 90%, positive predictive values ranging from 79.0 to 89.8% and negative predictive values above 90%. CONCLUSION: Drug sellers can use RDTs in field conditions and achieve acceptable accuracy for malaria diagnosis, and they comply with the RDT results. Plasmodium DNA can be recovered from RDT nitrocellulose strips even in the context of drug shops. Future malaria surveillance and diagnostic quality control studies with RDT cassette as a source of Plasmodium DNA are recommended.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Malária/diagnóstico , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Masculino , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Uganda
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 561, 2018 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30016954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arua district, in Uganda, hosts some of the largest refugee camps in the country. The estimated prevalence of moderate and severe acute malnutrition in children is higher than the national estimates (10.4 and 5.6% respectively, compared to 3.6 and 1.3%). This study aimed at assessing the quality of care provided to children with acute malnutrition at out-patient level in such a setting. METHODS: Six facilities with the highest number of children with malnutrition were selected. The main tool used was the National Nutrition Service Delivery Assessment Tool, assessing 10 key areas of service delivery and assigned a score as either poor, fair, good or excellent. Health outcomes, quality of case management and data quality were assessed from the health management information system and from the official nutrition registers. RESULTS: All facilities except two scored either poor or fair under all the 10 assessment areas. Overall, 33/60 (55%) areas scored as poor, 25/60 (41%) as fair, 2/60 (3.3%) as good, and none as excellent. Main gaps identified included: lack of trained staff; disorganised patient flow; poor case management; stock out of essential supplies including ready-to-use therapeutic foods; weak community linkage. A sample coverage of 45.4% (1020/2248) of total children admitted in the district during the 2016 financial year were included. The overall mean cure rate was 52.9% while the default rate was 38.3%. There was great heterogeneity across health facilities in health outcomes, quality of case management, and data quality. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that quality of care provided to children with malnutrition at health center level is substandard with unacceptable low cure rates. It is essential to identify effective approaches to enhance adherence to national guidelines, provision of essential nutritional commodities, regular monitoring of services and better linkage with the community through village health teams.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/terapia , Instalações de Saúde/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Campos de Refugiados , Refugiados , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Uganda
11.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 18(1): 532, 2018 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Retail drug shops play a significant role in managing pediatric fevers in rural areas in Uganda. Targeted interventions to improve drug seller practices require understanding of the retail drug shop market and motivations that influence practices. This study aimed at describing the operational environment in relation to the Uganda National Drug Authority guidelines for setup of drug shops; characteristics, and dispensing practices of private retail drug shops in managing febrile conditions among under-five children in rural western Uganda. METHODS: Cross sectional survey of 74 registered drug shops, observation checklist, and 428 exit interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire with care-seekers of children under five years of age, who sought care at drug shops during the survey period. The survey was conducted in Mbarara and Bushenyi districts, South Western Uganda, in May 2013. RESULTS: Up to 90 and 79% of surveyed drug shops in Mbarara and Bushenyi, largely operate in premises that meet National Drug Authority requirements for operational suitability and ensuring medicines safety and quality. Drug shop attendants had some health or medical related training with 60% in Mbarara and 59% in Bushenyi being nurses or midwives. The rest were clinical officers, pharmacists. The most commonly stocked medicines at drug shops were Paracetamol, Quinine, Cough syrup, ORS/Zinc, Amoxicillin syrup, Septrin® syrup, Artemisinin-based combination therapies, and multivitamins, among others. Decisions on what medicines to stock were influenced by among others: recommended medicines from Ministry of Health, consumer demand, most profitable medicines, and seasonal disease patterns. Dispensing decisions were influenced by: prescriptions presented by client, patients' finances, and patient preferences, among others. Most drug shops surveyed had clinical guidelines, iCCM guidelines, malaria and diarrhea treatment algorithms and charts as recommended by the Ministry of Health. Some drug shops offered additional services such as immunization and sold non-medical goods, as a mechanism for diversification. CONCLUSION: Most drug shops premises adhered to the recommended guidelines. Market factors, including client demand and preferences, pricing and profitability, and seasonality largely influenced dispensing and stocking practices. Improving retail drug shop practices and quality of services, requires designing and implementing both supply-side and demand side strategies.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Setor Privado , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Gerenciamento Clínico , Uso de Medicamentos , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , População Rural , Uganda/epidemiologia
12.
BMJ Glob Health ; 2(Suppl 3): e000334, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29259824

RESUMO

Background: Intervening in private drug shops to improve quality of care and enhance regulatory oversight may have health system effects that need to be understood before scaling up any such interventions. We examine the processes through which a drug shop intervention culminated in positive unintended effects and other dynamic interactions within the underlying health system. Methods: A multifaceted intervention consisting of drug seller training, supply of diagnostics and subsidised medicines, use of treatment algorithms, monthly supervision and community sensitisation was implemented in drug shops in South Western Uganda, to improve paediatric fever management. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with stakeholders (drug sellers, government officials and community health workers) at baseline, midpoint and end-line between September 2013 and September 2015. Using a health market and systems lens, transcripts from the interviews were analysed to identify health system effects associated with the apparent success of the intervention. Findings: Stakeholders initially expressed caution and fears about the intervention's implications for quality, equity and interface with the regulatory framework. Over time, these stakeholders embraced the intervention. Most respondents noted that the intervention had improved drug shop standards, enabled drug shops to embrace patient record keeping, parasite-based treatment of malaria and appropriate medicine use. There was also improved supportive supervision, and better compliance to licensing and other regulatory requirements. Drug seller legitimacy was enhanced from the community and client perspective, leading to improved trust in drug shops. Conclusion: The study showed how effectively using health technologies and the perceived efficacy of medicines contributed to improved legitimacy and trust in drug shops among stakeholders. The study also demonstrated that using a combination of appropriate incentives and consumer empowerment strategies can help harmonise common practices with medicine regulations and safeguard public health, especially in mixed health market contexts.

13.
Malar J ; 16(1): 425, 2017 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29061148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fever case management is a major challenge for improved child health globally, despite existence of cheap and effective child survival health technologies. The integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) intervention of paediatric febrile illnesses though adopted by Uganda's Ministry of Health to be implemented by community health workers, has not addressed the inaccess to life-saving medicines and diagnostics. Therefore, the iCCM intervention was implemented in private drug shops and evaluated for its effect on appropriate treatment of paediatric fever in a low malaria transmission setting in South Western Uganda. METHODS: From June 2013 to September 2015, the effect of the iCCM intervention on drug seller paediatric fever management and adherence to iCCM guidelines was assessed in a quasi-experimental study in South Western Uganda. A total of 212 care-seeker exit interviews were done before and 285 after in the intervention arm as compared to 216 before and 268 care-seeker interviews at the end of the study period in the comparison arm. The intervention effect was assessed by difference-in-difference analysis of drug seller treatment practices against national treatment recommendations between the intervention and comparison arms. Observed proportions among care-seeker interviews were compared with corresponding proportions from 5795 child visits recorded in patient registries and 49 direct observations of drug seller-care-seeker encounters in intervention drug shops. RESULTS: The iCCM intervention increased the appropriate treatment of uncomplicated malaria, pneumonia symptoms and non-bloody diarrhoea by 80.2% (95% CI 53.2-107.2), 65.5% (95% CI 51.6-79.4) and 31.4% (95% CI 1.6-61.2), respectively. Within the intervention arm, drug seller scores on appropriate treatment for pneumonia symptoms and diagnostic test use were the same among care-seeker exit interviews and direct observation. A linear trend (negative slope, - 0.009 p value < 0.001) was observed for proportions of child cases prescribed any antimicrobial medicine in the intervention arm drug shops. CONCLUSIONS: The iCCM intervention improved appropriate treatment for uncomplicated malaria, pneumonia symptoms and diarrhoea. Drug seller adherence to iCCM guidelines was high, without causing excessive prescription of antimicrobial medicines in this study. Further research should assess whether this effect is sustained over time and under routine supervision models.


Assuntos
Administração de Caso/estatística & dados numéricos , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Antidiarreicos/administração & dosagem , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Uganda
14.
BMC Res Notes ; 9(1): 501, 2016 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27927247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We conducted a study to assess the frequency and distribution patterns of selected opportunistic infections (OIs) and opportunistic cancers (OCs) in different geographical areas before and after HAART in Uganda. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional serial review of observation data for adult HIV positive patients (≥15 years) enrolled with the AIDS support organization (TASO) in Uganda covering the period from January 2001 to December 2013. Both AIDS defining OIs/OCs and non-AIDS defining OIs were analyzed. The study period was structured into three time periods: "pre- HAART" (2001-2003), "early-HAART" (2004-2008) and "late-HAART" (2009-2013). Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data by time period, age, gender and geographical location. Chi squared test used to test the significance of the differences in proportions. RESULTS: A total of 108,619 HIV positive patients were included in the analysis. 64% (64,240) were female with median age of 33 years (IQR 27-40). The most frequent OIs before HAART were oral candida (34.6%) diarrhoeal infection (<1 month) (30.6%), geohelminths (26.5%), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) (17.7%), malaria (15.1%) and bacterial pneumonia (11.2%). In early HAART (2004-2008), the most frequent OIs were geohelminths (32.4%), diarrhoeal infection (25.6%), TB (18.2%) and oral candida (18.1%). In late HAART (2009-2013), the most frequent OIs were geohelminths (23.5%) and diarrhoeal infection (14.3%). By gender, prevalence was consistently higher in women (p < 0.05) before and after HAART for geohelminths, candidiasis, diarrhoeal infection, bacterial pneumonia and genital ulcer disease but consistently higher in men for TB and Kaposi's sarcoma (p < 0.05). By age, prevalence was consistently higher in older age groups (>30 years) before and after HAART for oral candida and TB (p < 0.05) and higher in young age groups (<30 years) for malaria and genital ulcers (p < 0.05). By geographical location, prevalence was consistently higher in Eastern and Northern Uganda before and after HAART for diarrheal infection and geohelminths (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The frequency and pattern of OIs before and after HAART differs by gender, age and geographical location. Prevalence of geohelminths and diarrhea infection(<1 month) remains high especially in Northern and Eastern Uganda even after HAART and should therefore be given special attention in HIV/AIDS care programmes in these settings.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Candidíase Bucal/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Glob Health Action ; 9: 30578, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27473676

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Undernutrition is highly prevalent among infants in Uganda. Optimal infant feeding practices may improve nutritional status, health, and survival among children. OBJECTIVE: Our study evaluates the socioeconomic distribution of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and growth outcomes among infants included in a trial, which promoted EBF by peer counselors in Uganda. DESIGN: Twenty-four clusters comprising one to two communities in Uganda were randomized into intervention and control arms, including 765 mother-infant pairs (PROMISE-EBF trial, 200608, ClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT00397150). Intervention clusters received the promotion of EBF by peer counselors in addition to standard care. Breastfeeding and growth outcomes were compared according to wealth quintiles and intervention/control arms. Socioeconomic inequality in breastfeeding and growth outcomes were measured using the concentration index 12 and 24 weeks postpartum. We used the decomposition of the concentration index to identify factors contributing to growth inequality at 24 weeks. RESULTS: EBF was significantly concentrated among the poorest in the intervention group at 24 weeks postpartum, concentration index -0.060. The control group showed a concentration of breastfeeding among the richest part of the population, although not statistically significant. Stunting, wasting, and underweight were similarly significantly concentrated among the poorest in the intervention group and the total population at 24 weeks, but showing non-significant concentrations for the control group. CONCLUSION: This study shows that EBF can be successfully promoted among the poor. In addition, socioeconomic inequality in growth outcomes starts early in infancy, but the breastfeeding intervention was not strong enough to counteract this influence.

16.
J Phys Act Health ; 13(11): 1243-1254, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27254851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on physical inactivity, a known risk factor for noncommunicable diseases and its correlates in sub-Saharan Africa are almost absent. We assessed physical activity patterns and associated factors among adults. METHODS: A populationbased study of 1208 adults was conducted in the Iganga-Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, Uganda. Physical activity was assessed using a pedometer for 7 days. Physical inactivity was defined as a daily average of < 7500 steps while sedentary behavior was defined as a daily average of < 5000 steps. Logistic regression was conducted to identify factors associated with physical inactivity and sedentary behavior. RESULTS: Of the 1208 participants, 18.8% were sedentary (10.6% of men; 26.9% of women, P < .001), 37.6% were physically inactive (28.5% of men; 46.6% of women, P < .001). Factors associated with sedentary behavior were being female, ≥ 65 years, peri-urban residence, being a domestic worker, formal employment and lower primary education. Factors associated with physical inactivity were being female, 55 to 64 years, ≥ 65 years, peri-urban residence, overweight and obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Sedentary behavior and physical inactivity were prevalent among the adult population. Targeted physical activity promotion interventions are needed.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Uganda/epidemiologia , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
17.
Malar J ; 15: 197, 2016 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27066829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2012, Uganda initiated nationwide deployment of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) as recommended by national guidelines. Yet growing concerns about RDT non-compliance in various settings have spurred calls to deploy RDT as part of enhanced support packages. An understanding of how health workers currently manage non-malaria fevers, particularly for children, and challenges faced in this work should also inform efforts. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in the low transmission area of Mbarara District (Uganda). In-depth interviews with 20 health workers at lower level clinics focused on RDT perceptions, strategies to differentiate non-malaria paediatric fevers, influences on clinical decisions, desires for additional diagnostics, and any challenges in this work. Seven focus group discussions were conducted with caregivers of children under 5 years of age in facility catchment areas to elucidate their RDT perceptions, understandings of non-malaria paediatric fevers and treatment preferences. Data were extracted into meaning units to inform codes and themes in order to describe response patterns using a latent content analysis approach. RESULTS: Differential diagnosis strategies included studying fever patterns, taking histories, assessing symptoms, and analysing other factors such as a child's age or home environment. If no alternative cause was found, malaria treatment was reportedly often prescribed despite a negative result. Other reasons for malaria over-treatment stemmed from RDT perceptions, system constraints and provider-client interactions. RDT perceptions included mistrust driven largely by expectations of false negative results due to low parasite/antigen loads, previous anti-malarial treatment or test detection of only one species. System constraints included poor referral systems, working alone without opportunity to confer on difficult cases, and lacking skills and/or tools for differential diagnosis. Provider-client interactions included reported caregiver RDT mistrust, demand for certain drugs and desire to know the 'exact' disease cause if not malaria. Many health workers expressed uncertainty about how to manage non-malaria paediatric fevers, feared doing wrong and patient death, worried caregivers would lose trust, or felt unsatisfied without a clear diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced support is needed to improve RDT adoption at lower level clinics that focuses on empowering providers to successfully manage non-severe, non-malaria paediatric fevers without referral. This includes building trust in negative results, reinforcing integrated care initiatives (e.g., integrated management of childhood illness) and fostering communities of practice according to the diffusion of innovations theory.


Assuntos
Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Febre de Causa Desconhecida/diagnóstico , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Public Health ; 15: 1168, 2015 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26602893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the rising prevalence of overweight, obesity and non-communicable diseases co-exists with the high burden of under-nutrition. The paucity of data on adulthood overweight and obesity, disaggregated by socio-demographic characteristics and in rural settings in SSA calls for research. We determined the prevalence of underweight, overweight/obesity and associated factors among adults in peri-urban and rural Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 1210 randomly selected adults aged ≥ 18 years was conducted in Iganga-Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance Site in eastern Uganda in 2013. Height, weight and socio-demographic variables were assessed. Overweight was defined as BMI = 25.0-29.99 kg/m(2), obesity ≥ 30 kg/m(2) and overweight/obesity ≥ 25 kg/m(2). Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with overweight/obesity. RESULTS: Of the participants, 7 % were underweight (8.1 % of men; 5.9 % of women, p = 0.99); 17.8 % were overweight (12.4 % of men; 23.1 % of women, p < 0.001); and 7 % were obese (2.0 % of men; 12.7 % of women, p < 0.001). Overweight prevalence was 15.8 % and 23.8 % among rural and peri-urban adults, respectively (p < 0.001). Obesity prevalence was 3.9 % and 17.8 % among rural and peri-urban adults, respectively (p < 0.001). Factors associated with overweight/obesity were: being female, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 4.3 (95 % confidence interval (PloS one 8:e75640, 20013) 3.2-5.9); peri-urban residence AOR 2.6 (1.9-3.6); being in age group 35-44, AOR 3.1 (1.8-5.3); 45-54 AOR 4.1 (2.3-7.3); 55-64 AOR 2.6 (1.4-5.0); ≥ 65 years AOR 3.1 (1.6-6.0); and having socio-economic status (SES) in the third AOR 2.8 (1.7-4.6), fourth 2.5 (1.5-4.2) and fifth 2.7 (1.6-4.4) quintile. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight/obesity was prevalent among adults. Overweight/obese was associated with being female, being aged 35 years and older, residing in a peri-urban area and having a higher SES. The time has come to develop interventions to prevent and control overweight/obesity.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Obesidade/etiologia , População Rural , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Prevalência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
19.
BMC Fam Pract ; 16: 162, 2015 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26530286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The HIV/AIDS health challenge continues to ravage many resource-constrained countries of the world. Approximately 75 % of all the global HIV/AIDS related deaths totaling 1.6 (1.4-1.9) million in 2012 occurred in sub-Saharan Africa, Uganda contributed 63,000 (52,000-81,000) to these deaths. Most of the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV/AIDS can be averted if individuals with HIV/AIDS have improved access to HIV care and treatment. The aim of this study therefore, was to explore the factors associated with access to HIV care services among HIV seropositive clients identified by a home based HIV counseling and testing program in Kumi district, eastern Uganda. METHODS: In a cross sectional study conducted in February 2009, we explored predictor variables: socio-demographics, health facility and community factors related to access to HIV care and treatment. The main outcome measure was reported receipt of cotrimoxazole for prophylaxis. RESULTS: The majority [81.1 % (284/350)] of respondents received cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (indicating access to HIV care). The main factors associated with access to HIV care include; age 25-34 years (AOR = 5.1, 95 % CI: 1.5-17.1), male sex (AOR = 2.3, 95 % CI: 1.2-4.4), urban residence (AOR = 2.5, CI: 1.1-5.9) and lack of family support (AOR = 0.5, CI: 0.2-0.9). CONCLUSIONS: There was relatively high access to HIV care and treatment services at health facilities for HIV positive clients referred from the Kumi home based HIV counseling and testing program. The factors associated with access to HIV care services include; age group, sex, residence and having a supportive family. Stakeholders involved in providing HIV care and treatment services in similar settings should therefore consider these socio-demographic variables as they formulate interventions to improve access to HIV care services.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS , Aconselhamento , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Aconselhamento/organização & administração , Estudos Transversais , Família , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/prevenção & controle , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
20.
Infect Dis Rep ; 7(3): 5967, 2015 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26500739

RESUMO

Knowledge of mortality trends and predictors among HIV-positive patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in resource poor settings is still limited. The aim of this study was to describe trends and predictors of mortality among HIV-positive patients in the era of HAART in Uganda. Data from 2004 to 2013 for adult HIV-positive patients (≥15 years) obtaining care and treatment from the AIDS Support Organization in Uganda were reviewed for mortality. Descriptive statistics were analyzed by frequencies and cross tabulations. Calendar period was used as a proxy measure for HAART exposure and a time plot of the proportion of HIV-positive patients reporting dead per year was used to describe the trends. Logistic regression was used to determine the predictors of mortality at bivariate and multivariate levels, respectively. We included in the analysis 95,857 HIV positive patients; 64% were female with median age of 33 years (interquartile range 27-40). Of these 36,133 (38%) were initiated on ART and a total of 4279 (4.5%) died; 19.5% (835/4279) of those who died had an opportunistic infection. Overall, mortality first increased between 2004 and 2006 and thereafter substantially declined (X(2) trend=211.9, P<0.001). Mortality was relatively higher in Eastern Uganda compared to other geographical areas. Male gender, older age (>45 years), being from Eastern or Northern Uganda, having none or primary education, being unemployed, advanced immunodeficiency (CD4 count <100 cell/µL or WHO stage III or IV) and underweight (<45 kg weight) at HAART initiation and calendar period 2004-2008 were significant predictors of mortality (P<0.001). Overall, the expanding coverage of HAART is associated with a declining trend in mortality among HIV positive patients in Uganda. However, mortality trends differed significantly by geographical area and men remain potentially at higher risk of death probably because of delayed initiation on ART. There is urgent need for men targeted interventions for improved ART performance.

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