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1.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 440, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evaluation of treatment outcomes is important for service providers to assess if there is improvement or not. The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) was developed for this use in child and adolescent mental health services. Outcome measurement in routine mental health services is limited. This paper evaluates the psychometric properties of the self and clinician rated versions of the HoNOSCA for routine use in child and adolescent mental health services in Kenya. METHODS: Using a prospective design, the clinician- and self-rated versions of the HoNOSCA and the Paediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC) were administered at the Youth Centre at the Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi. Initial ratings were obtained from adolescents 12-17 years (n = 201). A sample of 98 paired ratings with 2 follow-ups were examined for measurement of change over time. RESULTS: Our findings showed good reliability with the self-rated version of the HoNOSCA score, correlating well with the self-reported version of the PSC (r = .74, p < .001). Both versions correlated well at follow-up and were sensitive to change. Using factor analysis, the maximum likelihood factoring and Promax rotation resulted in a four-factor structure, which with a Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy of 0.8 explained 54.74% of total variance. CONCLUSION: The HoNOSCA appears to be of value, and easy to use in routine settings. Our findings suggest further investigation with a larger sample.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Quênia , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
2.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 487648, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33281632

RESUMO

Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) remains a great challenge among young people in Kenya. Young people living with HIV are faced with a lot of challenges that are often overlooked and may have an impact on their treatment adherence and overall well-being. This calls for interventions that are age-appropriate and which tap into the psychosocial problems they experience. This is a protocol of a proposed study aimed at developing a facilitator-led peer support manual called the "Positive and Healthy Living Program" that will be the basis for running support groups with young people at the Comprehensive Care Center (CCC) at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Methods: We will carry out our study in two phases. The first phase will focus on the development of the manual and training of peer-facilitators. The second phase will make use of a pilot trial research design using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. It will be carried out among 10-24 year-olds attending CCC at KNH, and will consist of three groups: Tumaini Group (10-14 years), Amani Group (15-19 years), and Hodari Group (20-24 years). The groups will participate in an eight-session support group, whose activities will focus on four domains: social-recreation, psychotherapy, peer-modeling, and psychoeducation. Quantitative data will be collected using laboratory measures of Viral Load and CD4 as well as socio-psychological assessment tools. Qualitative data will be collected through interviews with the young people and peer facilitators. We will conduct a descriptive analysis which will describe the key features of the dataset and bivariate analyses will examine the association between variables. The change will be measured at baseline and post-treatment. The interviews will be coded into themes and we will generate experiential categories from the data around the effectiveness of the program, the peer facilitators' experience of providing support, how the young people respond to the program, and its influence on their overall well-being. Discussion: We expect that the peer facilitators will find this manualized treatment acceptable and the eight-sessions group intervention will be feasible for the three age groups. We hypothesize that there will be improvements detected with regards to reported adherence and viral load, self-esteem, depression, and psychological functioning.

3.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 295, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lack of locally validated screening instruments contributes to poor detection of depression in primary care. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) is a brief and freely available screening tool which was developed for primary care settings; however, its accuracy may be affected by the population in which it is administered. This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of PHQ-9 for screening depression in a primary care population in Botswana. METHODS: Data was collected from a conveniently selected sample of 257 adult primary care attendants. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) depression module was used as a gold standard to assess criterion validity. RESULTS: Sensitivity and specificity of the PHQ-9 for screening for major depression were 72.4 and 76.3 respectively at a cut off score of nine or more. The area under the ROC curve was 0.808. The PHQ-9 demonstrated good internal consistency with a Cronbach alpha of 0.799. Criterion validity was demonstrated by significant correlation (r = 0.528, p < 0.001) between PHQ-9 and the MINI. Significant negative correlation between PHQ-9 scores and all four domains of the WHO quality of life questionnaire- brief version scores demonstrated good convergent validity. CONCLUSIONS: The PHQ-9 is a reliable and valid instrument to screen for depression in primary care facilities in Botswana. Primary care clinicians in Botswana may use the PHQ-9 to screen for depression with a cut -off score of nine. Further studies should focus on integrating routine depression screening in primary care.


Assuntos
Depressão/diagnóstico , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Botsuana , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 263, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent mental health problems account for a significant proportion of the local and global burden of disease and is recognized as a growing public health concern in need of adequate services. Studies carried out in Kenya suggest a need for a robust service for the treatment, prevention, and promotion of child and adolescent mental health. Despite a few existing services to provide treatment and management of mental health disorders, we need more knowledge about their effectiveness in the management of these disorders. This paper describes a study protocol that aims to evaluate the process and outcomes of psychotherapies offered to children and adolescents seeking mental health services at the Kenyatta National Hospital in Kenya. METHODS: This study will use a prospective cohort approach that will follow adolescent patients (12-17 years of age) receiving mental health services in the youth clinics at the Kenyatta National Hospital for a period of 12 months. During this time a mixed methods research will be carried out, focusing on treatment outcomes, therapeutic relationship, understanding of psychotherapy, and other mental health interventions offered to the young patients. In this proposed study, we define outcome as the alleviation of symptoms, which will be assessed quantitatively using longitudinal patient data collected session-wise. Process refers to the mechanisms identified to promote change in the adolescent. For example, individual participant or clinician characteristics, therapeutic alliance will be assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively. In each session, assessments will be used to reduce problems due to attrition and to enable calculation of longitudinal change trajectories using growth curve modeling. For this study, these will be referred to as session-wise assessments. Qualitative work will include interviews with adolescent patients, their caregivers as well as feedback from the mental health care providers on existing services and their barriers to providing care. CONCLUSION: This study aims to understand the mechanisms through which change takes place beyond the context of psychotherapy. What are the moderators and through which mechanisms do they operate to improve mental health outcomes in young people?


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental/normas , Saúde Mental/normas , Psicoterapia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 31(2): 93-107, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570090

RESUMO

Objective: Using a social ecological framework, this study aimed to establish emerging mental health clinicians and researchers' perspectives about child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) in Africa. Method: Perspectives of 17 participants from Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa, Tunisia, Uganda and Zambia, whose professional backgrounds ranged from psychiatry to speech-language therapy, were collected at an African CAMH conference. Data were gathered using open-ended questions, using an online survey. Data were analysed using theoretical thematic analysis. Results: An adapted social ecological framework highlighted: An increased need for commitment from governments to improve CAMH in Africa; and addressing mental health stigma and discrimination through community awareness. The need for specialised CAMH facilities were identified, particularly in the public health sector. The need for multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary partnerships for advocacy, service delivery, and continuity of care were also identified. Participants emphasised the importance of CAMH awareness, and the role of governments in recognising CAMH needs and using policies to improve CAMH in Africa. Participants were hopeful about the transformation of CAMH on the continent. Conclusion: The participants prioritised government- and community-level awareness to increase the resources and support offered by CAMH services in Africa.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Saúde da Criança , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Etiópia , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Internet , Quênia , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , África do Sul , Tunísia , Uganda
6.
AIDS Care ; 31(9): 1145-1151, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704270

RESUMO

Partnership and engagement are mediators of change in the efficient uptake of evidence-based patient-centered health interventions. We reflect on our process of engagement and preparation of peer mentors in the development of peer-led psychotherapy intervention for HIV infected adolescents in active care at the Comprehensive Care Centre (CCC) at Kenyatta National Hospital. The program was implemented in two phases, using a Consultation, Involve, Collaboration and Empowerment approach as stepping stones to guide our partnership and engagement process with stakeholders and ten peer mentors embedded in the CCC. Our partnership process promoted equity, power-and-resource sharing including making the peer mentors in-charge of the process and being led by them in manual development. This process of partnership and engagement demonstrated that engaging key stakeholders in projects lead to successful development, implementation, dissemination and sustainment of evidence-based interventions. Feedback and insights bridged the academic and clinical worlds of our research by helping us understand clinical, family, and real-life experiences of persons living with HIV that are often not visible in a research process. Our findings can be used to understand and design mentorship programs targeting lay health workers and peer mentors at community health care levels.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Mentores/estatística & dados numéricos , Participação do Paciente/métodos , Grupo Associado , Desenvolvimento de Programas/métodos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino
7.
Ann Gen Psychiatry ; 17: 50, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30534188

RESUMO

Approximately, 42% of the Kenyan population live below the poverty line. Rapid growth and urbanization of Kenya's population have resulted in a changing poverty and food security environment in high-density urban areas. Lack of basic food needs in Kenya affects approximately 34.8% rural population and 7.6% of its urban population. Using multi-community stakeholders such as teachers and community health workers (CHWs), this paper examined food insecurity and its consequences on caregiving practices and child development. A qualitative study design was utilized. Key informant interviews and focused-group discussions with four primary school teachers and three CHWs and a nurse in-charge working within Kariobangi and Kangemi were applied to elicit various perspectives from family-, school- and community-level challenges that influence caregiving practices and child development. Grounded theory method was applied for qualitative data sifting and thematic analysis. Our findings exposed various challenges at the school, family and the community levels that affect caregiving practices and consequent child development. School-level challenges included lack of adequate amenities for effective learning, food insecurity, absenteeism and mental health challenges. Family-level barriers included lack of parenting skills, financial constraints, domestic violence and lack of social support, while community challenges such as unemployment, poor living conditions, cultural practices, lack of social support and poor community follow-up mechanisms contributed to poor parenting practices and child development. Parenting practices and holistic child development strategies in resource poor settings should focus on parenting skills, food security, quality education and addressing parents and children's mental health challenges.

8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 18(1): 381, 2018 12 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) is a significant public health and social welfare problem in low-and middle income countries (LMICs). However, most ACEs research is based on developed countries, and little is known about mechanisms of early ACEs on adulthood health and offspring's wellbeing for populations in LMICs. This area is needed to guide social welfare policy and intervention service planning. This study addresses these research gaps by examining patterns of ACEs and understanding the role of ACEs on adulthood health (i.e., physical, mental health, experience of underage pregnancy) and offspring's mental health in Kenya. The study was guided by an Integrated Family Stress and Adverse Childhood Experiences Mediation Framework. METHODS: Three hundred ninety four mothers from two informal communities in Kariobangi and Kangemi in Nairobi were included in this study. The Adverse Childhood Experiences International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ), the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), Overall Health and Quality of Life items, and Child Behavior Checklist were used to study research questions. Data was gathered through a one-time interview with mothers. Structural Equational Modeling (SEM) was applied for mediational mechanism testing. RESULTS: Among 13 ACE areas, most mothers experienced multiple adversity during their childhood (Mean (SD) = 4.93 (2.52)), with household member treated violently (75%) as the most common ACE. SEM results showedthat all domains of ACEs were associated with some aspects of maternal health, and all three domains of maternal health (maternal mental health, physical health, and adolescent pregnancy) were significantly associated with development of offspring's mental health problems. CONCLUSION: ACEs are highly prevalent in Kenyan informal settlements. Consistent with cross cultural literature on family stress model, maternal ACEs are robust predictors for poor child mental health. Preventive interventions for child mental health need to address maternal adverse childhood traumatic experiences as well as their current health in order to effectively promote child mental health.


Assuntos
Crianças Adultas , Experiências Adversas da Infância , Mães , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Crianças Adultas/psicologia , Crianças Adultas/estatística & dados numéricos , Experiências Adversas da Infância/organização & administração , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Planejamento em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Serviços de Saúde Mental/normas , Mães/psicologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Prevalência
9.
Ann Gen Psychiatry ; 17: 29, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30002721

RESUMO

Background: Globally adolescents continue to have an upward trend in HIV incidence and AIDS-related mortality. The interplay between the rapid physical growth, sexual maturation, and enormous albeit slow-evolving cognitive and psychological changes in adolescence may partly explain this trend. Our main purpose was to highlight key psychosocial characteristics of HIV-infected adolescents and explore if these characteristics are associated with depression symptoms. Methods: From August to December 2016 after obtaining informed consent, adolescents living with HIV at Kenyatta National Hospital were interviewed using the Home environment, Education and Employment, Activity, Sexuality, Suicide and depression traits (HEADSS) tool combined with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to elucidate which key symptoms of depression and link with psychosocial characteristics mapped on HEADSS. In order to determine which psychosocial characteristics were linked with risk of depression, the traits of adolescents who were symptomatic were compared to those who were not using univariate and multivariate regression analysis. Results: All the 270 adolescents offered participation in the study accepted to enroll. The aged 10-19 years were recruited and mean age was 14.75 and 53.7% (n = 145) were males. Overall, 269 (99.9%) were still in school and 52.6% of the adolescents had symptoms of depression. The independent predictors of depression were being of ages 15-19 years [OR = 2.34 (95% CI 1.36, 4.04) P < 0.02], ever repeating classes [OR = 1.74 (95% CI 1.0-3.05) P = 0.05], ever being sent away from school due to lack of school fees [OR = 1.71 (95% CI 1.0-2.91) P = 0.05], and non-adherence to medication [OR = 1.84 (95% CI 1.08-3.14) P = 0.03. Missing of meals due to food insecurity was associated with an important trend towards increased risk of depression [OR = 2.42 (CI 0.96-6.14) P = 0.06]. Conclusion: One in two of the adolescents interviewed had depression symptoms which were significantly associated with lack of school fees, missing meals, non-adherence to medication, and substance abuse.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29881453

RESUMO

Background: There is a significant link between insecure attachment and the development of psychopathology in adolescence. We investigated the relationship between adolescent attachment styles and the development of emotional and behavioral problems among adolescents in Kenya. We also examined the modifying influence of socio-economic-status (SES). Method: One hundred and thirty-seven adolescents who were attending two schools participated in the study. One school (low SES school) catered for children from predominantly low-income households, while the second school (middle SES school) catered for children from predominantly middle-income households. The data were collected using three instruments: researcher designed questionnaire to obtain socio-demographic information, the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) that is designed to assess symptoms of disorder, and the Vulnerable Attachment Scale Questionnaire (VASQ) that is designed to measure attachment style. Results: Adolescents from the low SES school had higher vulnerable attachment scores than those from the middle SES school (t(135) = - 2.5, P = 0.02). Male students had higher vulnerable attachment scores than females (P = 0.03). Adolescents who had experienced adversity in childhood had higher vulnerable attachment scores than those who had not (P < 0.00). Results from Pearson's correlation showed moderate to strong positive correlations between attachment insecurity and emotional and behavioral problems with participants who had higher emotional symptoms (r = 0.47, P < 0.01), conduct problem score (r = 0.33, P < 0.01), hyperactivity (r = 0.26, P < 0.01) and total difficulty scores (r = 0.47, P < 0.01), experiencing significantly higher levels of attachment insecurity than those with lower scores. Conclusions and recommendations: This study supports the notion that attachment insecurity increases the adolescents' susceptibility to develop psychological problems.

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