Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 148
Filtrar
1.
Adv Mater ; : e2006147, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270282

RESUMO

Nickel hydroxide represents a technologically important material for energy storage, such as hybrid supercapacitors. It has two different crystallographic polymorphs, α- and ß-Ni(OH)2 , showing advantages in either theoretical capacity or cycling/rate performance, manifesting a trade-off trend that needs to be optimized for practical applications. Here, the synergistic superiorities in both activity and stability of corrugated ß-Ni(OH)2 nanosheets are demonstrated through an electrochemical abuse approach. With ≈91% capacity retention after 10 000 cycles, the corrugated ß-Ni(OH)2 nanosheets can deliver a gravimetric capacity of 457 C g-1 at a high current density of 30 A g-1 , which is nearly two and four times that of the regular α- and ß-Ni(OH)2 , respectively. Operando spectroscopy and finite element analysis reveal that greatly enhanced chemical activity and structural robustness can be attributed to the in situ tailored lattice defects and the strain-induced highly curved micromorphology. This work demonstrates a multi-scale defect-and-strain co-design strategy, which is helpful for rational design and tuned fabrication of next-generation electrode materials for stable and high-rate energy storage.

2.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(10): ofaa379, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072810

RESUMO

Background: Few studies have compared the yield of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays in nasopharyngeal swabs, oropharyngeal swabs, and sputum for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection. Methods: We conducted an observational study in Beijing Ditan Hospital, China. Specimens including nasopharyngeal swabs, oropharyngeal swabs, and sputum from confirmed coronavirus 2019 patients were collected for RT-PCR testing. Disease duration was calculated from the date of symptom onset to the date of specimen collection and divided into 3 groups: ≤14 days, 14-21 days, and >21 days. We compared positive rates across the 3 specimens collected. The kappa coefficient was used to evaluate the consistency of RT-PCR results between different specimens. Results: A total of 291 specimens were collected and tested from 43 confirmed patients. Among specimens collected with a disease duration of ≤14 days, the positive rate was highest in sputum (79.2%); this rate was significantly higher than that in nasopharyngeal swabs (37.5%; P = .003) and oropharyngeal swabs (20.8%; P < .001). Similar findings were observed with the disease durations of 14-21 days and >21 days. The consistency of testing results between nasopharyngeal swabs and oropharyngeal swabs was low with the disease durations of ≤14 days and >21 days. The consistency between the sputum and oropharyngeal swabs and between the sputum and nasopharyngeal swabs was very low across all 3 disease durations, with statistical significance. Conclusions: Compared with nasopharyngeal swabs and oropharyngeal swabs, sputum had the highest yield of SARS-CoV-2 detection. Nasopharyngeal swabs and oropharyngeal swabs had a similar yield. If sputum is not feasible, a nasopharyngeal swab can be recommended for the detection of SARS-CoV-2, and early testing is needed.

3.
Genetics ; 216(4): 1071-1085, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055090

RESUMO

Small regulatory RNAs, such as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and PIWI-interacting RNAs, regulate splicing, transcription, and genome integrity in many eukaryotes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, siRNAs bind nuclear Argonautes (AGOs), which interact with homologous premessenger RNAs to recruit downstream silencing effectors, such as NRDE-2, to direct cotranscriptional gene silencing [or nuclear RNA interference (RNAi)]. To further our understanding of the mechanism of nuclear RNAi, we conducted immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry on C. elegans NRDE-2 The major NRDE-2 interacting protein identified was the RNA helicase MTR-4 Co-immunoprecipitation analyses confirmed a physical association between NRDE-2 and MTR-4 MTR-4 colocalizes with NRDE-2 within the nuclei of most/all C. elegans somatic and germline cells. MTR-4 is required for nuclear RNAi, and interestingly, MTR-4 is recruited to premessenger RNAs undergoing nuclear RNAi via a process requiring nuclear siRNAs, the nuclear AGO HRDE-1, and NRDE-2, indicating that MTR-4 is a component of the C. elegans nuclear RNAi machinery. Finally, we confirm previous reports showing that human (Hs)NRDE2 and HsMTR4 also physically interact. Our data show that the NRDE-2/MTR-4 interactions are evolutionarily conserved, and that, in C. elegans, the NRDE-2/MTR-4 complex contributes to siRNA-directed cotranscriptional gene silencing.

4.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(8): 614-619, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933613

RESUMO

This study aimed to understand the differences in clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory features between the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) and influenza A in children. Data of 23 hospitalized children with COVID-19 (9 boys, 5.7 ± 3.8 years old) were compared with age- and sex-matched 69 hospitalized and 69 outpatient children with influenza A from a hospital in China. The participants' epidemiological history, family cluster, clinical manifestations, and blood test results were assessed. Compared with either inpatients or outpatients with influenza A, children with COVID-19 showed significantly more frequent family infections and higher ratio of low fever (< 37.3 °C), but shorter cough and fever duration, lower body temperature, and lower rates of cough, fever, high fever (> 39 °C), nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sore throat, vomiting, myalgia or arthralgia, and febrile seizures. They also showed higher counts of lymphocytes, T lymphocyte CD8, and platelets and levels of cholinesterase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and lactic acid, but lower serum amyloid, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and shorter prothrombin time. The level of alanine aminotransferase in children with COVID-19 is lower than that in inpatients but higher than that in outpatients with influenza A. Pediatric COVID-19 is associated with more frequent family infection, milder symptoms, and milder immune responses relative to pediatric influenza A.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Influenza Humana/sangue , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia
5.
Virol Sin ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975731

RESUMO

Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss is an ideal treatment endpoint for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). We investigated the predictive value of on-treatment HBsAg levels for HBsAg loss in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative CHB patients who received 120-week PEG-IFNα-2a treatment. Serum HBV DNA, HBsAg, and anti-HBs levels were assayed at baseline and every 3 months during the treatment. Of 81 patients, 12 achieved HBsAg loss, 20 achieved HBsAg < 100 IU/mL, and 49 maintained HBsAg ≥ 100 IU/mL. HBsAg loss rate was only 3.7% at 48 weeks, while it reached to 11.1% and 14.8% after treatment of 96 weeks and 120 weeks. The cutoff HBsAg levels at 12 weeks predicting HBsAg loss at 96 weeks and 120 weeks of treatment were 400 IU/mL and 750 IU/mL, with AUC 0.725 and 0.722, positive predictive value (PPV) 29.41% and 30.56%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 93.75% and 97.78%, respectively. The cutoff HBsAg levels at 24 weeks predicting HBsAg loss at 96 weeks and 120 weeks of treatment were 174 IU/mL and 236 IU/mL respectively, with AUC 0.925 and 0.922, PPV 40.0% and 46.15%, and both NPV 100%. The predictive ability of the cutoff HBsAg levels at 24 weeks was better than that at 12 weeks for HBsAg loss at either 96 or 120 weeks (χ2 = 3.880, P = 0.049 and χ2 = 4.412, P = 0.036). These results indicate that extended therapy is critical to HBsAg loss in HBeAg-negative CHB patients during PEG-IFN treatment, and the HBsAg level at 24 weeks can be used to predict HBsAg loss during tailoring PEG-IFN therapy.

6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(51): 23180-23187, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881197

RESUMO

Super-concentrated "water-in-salt" electrolytes recently spurred resurgent interest for high energy density aqueous lithium-ion batteries. Thermodynamic stabilization at high concentrations and kinetic barriers towards interfacial water electrolysis significantly expand the electrochemical stability window, facilitating high voltage aqueous cells. Herein we investigated LiTFSI/H2 O electrolyte interfacial decomposition pathways in the "water-in-salt" and "salt-in-water" regimes using synchrotron X-rays, which produce electrons at the solid/electrolyte interface to mimic reductive environments, and simultaneously probe the structure of surface films using X-ray diffraction. We observed the surface-reduction of TFSI- at super-concentration, leading to lithium fluoride interphase formation, while precipitation of the lithium hydroxide was not observed. The mechanism behind this photoelectron-induced reduction was revealed to be concentration-dependent interfacial chemistry that only occurs among closely contact ion-pairs, which constitutes the rationale behind the "water-in-salt" concept.

7.
ACS Nano ; 14(9): 11662-11669, 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816450

RESUMO

Ultrafast construction of oxygen-containing scaffold over graphite for trapping Ni2+ into single atom catalysts (SACs) was developed and presented by a one-step electrochemical activation technique. The present method for Ni SACs starts with graphite foil and is capable of achieving ultrafast preparation (1.5 min) and mass production. The defective oxygen featuring the strong electronegativity enables primarily attracting Ni2+ ions and stabilizing Ni atoms via Ni-O6 coordination instead of conventional metal-C or metal-N. In addition, the oxygen defects for trapping are tunable through altering the applied voltage or electrolyte, further altering the loading of Ni atoms, indicative of enhanced oxygen evolution activity. This simple and ultrafast electrochemical synthesis is promising for the mass and controllable production of oxygen-coordinated Ni SACs, which exhibit good performance for oxygen evolution reaction.

8.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(46): 20589-20595, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721058

RESUMO

Single-atom catalysts (SACs) are of great interest because of their ultrahigh activity and selectivity. However, it is difficult to construct model SACs according to a general synthetic method, and therefore, discerning differences in activity of diverse single-atom catalysts is not straightforward. Herein, a general strategy for synthesis of single-atom metals implanted in N-doped carbon (M1 -N-C; M=Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) has been developed starting from multivariate metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The M1 -N-C catalysts, featuring identical chemical environments and supports, provided an ideal platform for differentiating the activity of single-atom metal species. When employed in electrocatalytic CO2 reduction, Ni1 -N-C exhibited a very high CO Faradaic efficiency (FE) up to 96.8 % that far surpassed Fe1 -, Co1 - and Cu1 -N-C. Remarkably, the best-performer, Ni1 -N-C, even demonstrated excellent CO FE at low CO2 pressures, thereby representing a promising opportunity for the direct use of dilute CO2 feedstock.

9.
J Thorac Dis ; 12(5): 2343-2351, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642139

RESUMO

Background: Currently, methods for identifying the intersegmental plane during anatomical segmentectomy can be classified into 2 categories: the bronchial method and the vascular method. One of the vascular methods, the arterial-ligation-alone method, has not yet been validated or objectively evaluated in a large case series. We thus aimed to confirm that the arterial-ligation-alone method could effectively and accurately identify the intersegmental plane. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 104 patients who were scheduled for thoracoscopic anatomic segmentectomy. Preoperative three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction was performed on all the affected lungs to distinguish the targeted segmental arteries, veins and bronchi. The procedure was as follows: first, based on the 3D reconstruction of the lung, the targeted segmental arteries were distinguished and ligated. Second, bilateral pulmonary ventilation was performed with pure oxygen. When the affected lung had completely inflated, contralateral pulmonary ventilation was performed. After waiting for some time, the first intersegmental plane could be obtained, and the time was recorded as T1, with an electric coagulation hook being used for marking. Thirdly, when the targeted segmental veins and bronchi had been ligated, the second intersegmental plane could be obtained by the inflation-deflation method as before, with the waiting time being recorded as T2. The differences between the 2 intersegmental planes were evaluated by 2 experienced chief thoracic surgeons. Result: In a total of 99 (95.2%) patients, the intersegmental planes were successfully and accurately identified by the arterial-ligation-alone method. Ultimately, 85 (81.7%) patients underwent thoracoscopic anatomic segmentectomy. The results for evaluating the differences between the 2 planes were as follows: completely consistent (94 cases, 94.9%), basically consistent (5 cases, 5.1%), and discrepant (0 cases, 0%). The mean T1 was 13.6±2.7 minutes (range, 8-25 minutes), and the mean T2 was 13.0±2.6 minutes (range, 8-23 minutes), with P=0.100 (95% CI). For 99 patients, the mean nodule size was 1.1±0.34 cm. In the 85 patients who underwent segmentectomy, the mean margin width was 2.84±0.51 cm, the mean operative duration was 165.6±18.3 minutes, the mean operative hemorrhage was 52.1±20.2 mL, and the mean duration of chest tube drainage was 3.9±1.3 days. Postoperative complications related to operative procedures occurred in 2 cases. Conclusions: The arterial-ligation-only method can effectively, accurately and inexpensively identify the intersegmental plane, and is especially suitable for the patients whose veins or bronchi are difficult to anatomize. Whether the target bronchus is ligated has no effect on the intersegmental plane.

10.
Adv Mater ; 32(34): e2001430, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686216

RESUMO

A trade-off between catalytic activity and structural stability generally exists in oxygen evolution electrocatalysis, especially in acidic environment. This dilemma limits the development of higher-performance electrocatalysts that are required by next-generation electrochemical technologies. Here it is demonstrated that the inverse catalytic activity-structural stability relation can be broken by alloying catalytically inert strontium zirconate with the other catalytically active perovskite, strontium iridate. This strategy results in an alloyed perovskite electrocatalyst with simultaneously improved iridium mass activity and structural stability, by about five times, for the oxygen evolution reaction under acidic conditions. The experimental and theoretical results suggest that the alloying strategy generates multiple positive effects, mainly including the reduction of catalyst size, the decrease of catalyst covalency, and the weakening of surface oxygen-binding ability. The synergistic optimization of bulk and surface properties, as a result, enhances the intrinsic activity and availability of surface iridium sites, whilst significantly inhibiting the surface cation corrosion during electrocatalysis.

11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2831, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32504040

RESUMO

Single-atom catalysts (SACs) have sparked broad interest recently while the low metal loading poses a big challenge for further applications. Herein, a dual protection strategy has been developed to give high-content SACs by nanocasting SiO2 into porphyrinic metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The pyrolysis of SiO2@MOF composite affords single-atom Fe implanted N-doped porous carbon (FeSA-N-C) with high Fe loading (3.46 wt%). The spatial isolation of Fe atoms centered in porphyrin linkers of MOF sets the first protective barrier to inhibit the Fe agglomeration during pyrolysis. The SiO2 in MOF provides additional protection by creating thermally stable FeN4/SiO2 interfaces. Thanks to the high-density FeSA sites, FeSA-N-C demonstrates excellent oxygen reduction performance in both alkaline and acidic medias. Meanwhile, FeSA-N-C also exhibits encouraging performance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell, demonstrating great potential for practical application. More far-reaching, this work grants a general synthetic methodology toward high-content SACs (such as FeSA, CoSA, NiSA).

12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 5218930, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596321

RESUMO

Objective: To establish a novel nomogram for diagnosing liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and verify the diagnostic performance of the established nomogram. Methods: Patients with chronic HBV infection who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in this retrospective study; 70% and 30% of patients were randomly assigned to training dataset and validation dataset, respectively. The risk factors for liver fibrosis were screened using the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Based on the results, a nomogram was established and verified. Results: 508 patients with chronic HBV infection were included in this study (n = 355 for training dataset and n = 153 for validation dataset). The logistic regression analysis showed that liver stiffness measurement (LSM), platelet (PLT) count, and prothrombin time (PT) were independent risk factors for liver fibrosis (P < 0.01), which were used to establish the nomogram. The consistency index (C-index) of the nomogram established for diagnosing liver fibrosis was 0.875. The calibration line and the ideal line were consistent, which indicated that diagnosis of liver fibrosis by the established model was accurate. The values of area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve (AUROC) for diagnosing liver fibrosis by the nomogram were 0.857 and 0.862 in the training dataset and validation dataset, respectively, which were noticeably higher than those in the well-known serological models, including the aspartate aminotransferase- (AST-) to-platelet ratio index (APRI) scoring model, fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) scoring model, APAG model (including age, PT, albumin, and γ-glutamyl transferase), and S-index model (all P < 0.05). Conclusion: LSM, PT, and PLT were found as independent risk factors for liver fibrosis. The established nomogram exhibited an excellent diagnostic performance, and it can more visually and individually evaluate the probability of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic HBV infection.

13.
J Infect Dis ; 222(7): 1145-1154, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High levels of circulating neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are associated with a poor prognosis in influenza A infection. It remains unclear whether NETs in the plasma or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) can predict clinical outcomes in influenza. METHODS: One hundred eighteen patients who were diagnosed with H1N1 influenza in 2017-2018 were recruited. The NETs were assessed in plasma and BALF samples by quantifying cell-free deoxyribonucleic acid (cfDNA) and protein-DNA complexes. Predictions of severe illness and 60-day mortality were analyzed with receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: The NET levels were significantly elevated in the BALF and contributed to the pathology of lungs, yet it was not associated with disease severity or mortality in patients severely infected with H1N1. Plasma NET levels were significantly increased in the patients with severe influenza and positively correlated with the oxygen index and sequential organ failure assessment scores. High levels of plasma cfDNA (>286.6 ng/mL) or histone-bound DNA (>9.4 ng/mL) discriminated severe influenza from mild, and even higher levels of cfDNA (>306.3 ng/mL) or histone-bound DNA (>23.1 ng/mL) predicted fatal outcomes in severely ill patients. CONCLUSIONS: The cfDNA and histone-bound DNA in plasma represent early predictive biomarkers for the prognosis of influenza.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371166

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global health issue. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is the most prominent route for chronic HBV infection in Asian countries.1 Although standard immunoprophylaxis has been effective in preventing MTCT, a significantly higher rate of MTCT has been observed among mothers with high levels of viremia.2 Tenofovir disoproxil, telbivudine (LdT), and lamivudine, used in third trimester, have been shown to significantly reduce MTCT of HBV for highly viremic mothers.3 Although the efficacy and short-term safety of LdT in preventing MTCT have been demonstrated in several large cohort studies in recent years, fewer data exist on the safety assessment of infants' neurocognitive development after fetal exposure to LdT.4-6 Therefore, we conducted a prospective cohort study to investigate the effect of LdT on infants' neurocognitive development.

15.
Int J Endocrinol ; 2020: 3646342, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148488

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effect of intensive management and achieving the target control more than 3 times on endpoint events during 9 consecutive years' annual assessment in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients in the Sanlitun Community Health Service Center in Beijing, including blood glucose, blood pressure, lipids profiles, and the joint target control. Methods: In Beijing Community Diabetes Study (BCDS), 224 patients with T2DM from the Sanlitun Community Health Service Center were enrolled in 2008. All patients were randomly assigned to the intensive management group (n = 113) and the standard management group (n = 113) and the standard management group (. Results: During the nine-year follow-up, the abscission number was 35 (14.29%), among which 14 (12.39%) was in the intensive management group and 21 (18.92%) was in the standard management group. The incidence of diabetic retinopathy (6 cases, 5.41%) and diabetic nephropathy (13 cases, 11.71%) in the standard management group was significantly higher than that in the intensive management group (1 case, 0.88%; 5 cases, 4.42%), respectively (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences on the other endpoint events between the two groups (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences on the other endpoint events between the two groups (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences on the other endpoint events between the two groups (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences on the other endpoint events between the two groups (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences on the other endpoint events between the two groups (. Conclusions: The intensive management can effectively reduce the occurrence of microvascular complications. The incidence of all-cause death and the other endpoint events decreased in T2DM patients who achieved the joint target control more than 3 times during the nine-year management, which improved survival time and life quality. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-TRC-13003978 and ChiCTR-OOC-15006090.

16.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol ; 28(2): 154-160, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044884

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has the potential to progress to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Upregulation of sonic hedgehog (Shh) has been documented in development of NASH through sustained cell stress. At the same time, transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), which is a central element in fibrogenic reactions in various diseases and sites, has been reported to be associated with hepatic inflammation and fibrotic reaction. To explore crosstalk between Shh and TGF-ß1 in the development and progression of NASH, we investigated the expression of both these proteins in 135 human specimens of NASH, 35 fatty liver specimens, 35 specimens of alcoholic steatohepatitis with immunohistochemistry. Shh protein was expressed in the cytoplasm of ballooned hepatocytes with an ubiquitin-like pattern. In addition, a few scattered apoptotic hepatocytes in the inflammatory foci showed homogeneous cytoplasmic Shh expression. TGF-ß1 protein was observed mainly in the activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) which were located in the inflammatory foci surrounding ballooned hepatocytes. Moreover, the mRNA levels of both Shh and TGF-ß1 in the liver biopsy specimens from NASH patients was significantly increased compared with those in fatty liver patients. Statistically, there was a significant association of the expressions of Shh and TGF-ß1 proteins in NASH (r=0.6, P<0.05). In addition, increased expression of Shh protein significantly parallels the severity of hepatocellular ballooning, lobular, and portal inflammatory responses and progression of fibrosis in NASH patients. Moreover, we found that much HSCs transformed into myofibroblast-like phenotype and migrated downward to HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells with overexpression of Shh by transwell assay. We also observed overexpression of proteins of Shh and TGF-ß1 in cultured activated HSCs with confocal microscopy. These findings strongly suggest there is interplay between Shh and TGF-ß1 in hepatic inflammatory reactions. Shh secreted through damaged hepatocytes may result in activation of TGF-ß1 and subsequent transformation of HSCs, which together modulate the progression of human NASH.


Assuntos
Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado , Hepatócitos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/patologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia
17.
Diabetes Ther ; 11(4): 885-903, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086768

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To date, research is lacking on the development of a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment tool for people with diabetes mellitus, in general, and for Chinese patients with diabetes in particular. We have explored CVD risk assessment tools for Chinese patients with diabetes. Here, we report our investigation of cardiovascular risk assessment using the improved Framingham Risk Score (I-FRS) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Beijing communities. METHODS: A total of 3232 patients with T2DM attending Beijing community health centers were enrolled in this study. FRS were used to predict CVD risk in all patients at baseline using the following risk scores for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) categories: 0 = HbA1c ≤ 7.0%; 1 = 7.0% < HbA1c ≤ 7.9%;      2 = 8.0% < HbA1c ≤ 8.9%; and 3 = HbA1c > 9.0%. The I-FRS was use to stratify all patients into low (I-FRS < 10%), medium (I-FRS 10-20%), and high (I-FRS > 20%) FRS strata. All treatments administered in the Beijing Communities Diabetes Study were in accordance with national guidelines for T2DM in China, and patients regularly attended clinical consultations with professors in endocrinology, who were experts in their respective speciality, from top tier hospitals. After 10 years, patients were followed-up to assess the long-term effects of the multifactorial interventions. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS® software (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC, USA). RESULTS: The receiver operating characteristic curve of the I-FRS showed significant prediction accuracy for the actual incidence of CVD events. At baseline, subjects in the high FRS stratum for diabetes were more prone to be elderly and to have a longer duration of T2DM, higher systolic blood pressure, and higher lipid profiles. Subjects in the medium and high FRS strata had a higher incidence of CVD events than those in the no-complications group (DM group with no blood pressure issues) (P < 0.001). The 10-year hazard ratios for CVD events in diabetic patients with I-FRS score > 20% was 12.5-fold higher than that of patients with I-FRS score < 10%. Multifactorial intervention significantly reduced the I-FRS of the three FRS strata in patients with T2DM. The post-intervention I-FRS for the hypertension and CVD groups of patients were significantly lower than the respective baseline I-FRS. Cox multivariate analyses revealed that patients in the medium and high FRS strata had higher incidences of endpoint events than those in the low FRS stratum. CONCLUSIONS: The I-FRS plays an important role in predicting CVD in patients with T2DM. Multifactorial interventions for CVD risk factors over 10-year follow-up lowered the estimated 10-year risk for CVD events in persons with diabetes. We suggest the use of the I-FRS score to stratify a patient's risk of CVD when analyzing the efficacy of diabetes management. Aggressive risk reduction should be focused on those individuals with a high I-FRS score. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR-TRC-13003978 and ChiCTR-OOC-15006090.

18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 184, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924767

RESUMO

Ionic substitution forms an essential pathway to manipulate the structural phase, carrier density and crystalline symmetry of materials via ion-electron-lattice coupling, leading to a rich spectrum of electronic states in strongly correlated systems. Using the ferromagnetic metal SrRuO3 as a model system, we demonstrate an efficient and reversible control of both structural and electronic phase transformations through the electric-field controlled proton evolution with ionic liquid gating. The insertion of protons results in a large structural expansion and increased carrier density, leading to an exotic ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition. Importantly, we reveal a novel protonated compound of HSrRuO3 with paramagnetic metallic as ground state. We observe a topological Hall effect at the boundary of the phase transition due to the proton concentration gradient across the film-depth. We envision that electric-field controlled protonation opens up a pathway to explore novel electronic states and material functionalities in protonated material systems.

19.
Adv Mater ; 32(2): e1905548, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782566

RESUMO

Advances in the chemical and electrochemical transformation of carbon and water are vital for delivering affordable and environmentally friendly energy sources and chemicals. Central to this challenge is the performance of materials. Traditionally, noble metal particles or metal complexes have been used as catalysts for many reactions. Recently, 3d transition-metal single-site catalysts (3dTM-SSCs) have emerged as potentially transformational candidates for the next-generation high-performance noble-metal-free catalysts. Designing catalysts at the molecular level can lead to a more efficient utilization of metal atoms and at the same time enhance catalytic performance under harsh reaction conditions. Despite this promise, several fundamental issues remain, in particular the structural evolution of 3dTM-SSCs during the synthesis, the molecular-level insights into the structure of the active sites, catalytic mechanisms, and the long-term cycling stability. Here, the material chemistries that facilitate the 3dTM-SSCs generation through a controlled pyrolytic synthesis are discussed, with focus on elucidating the underlying performance descriptors that can tune the catalytic properties in various critical reactions in carbon and water cycles. The current challenges and possible solutions for improving these novel catalytic materials are also highlighted.

20.
ChemSusChem ; 13(4): 811-818, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802649

RESUMO

Nickel-iron layered double hydroxide (NiFe LDH) is a promising oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalyst under alkaline conditions. Much research has been performed to understand the structure-activity relationship of NiFe LDH under OER conditions. However, the specific role of the Fe species remains unclear and under debate. Herein, based on DFT calculations, it was discovered that the edge Fe sites show higher activity towards OER than either the edge Ni sites or lattice sites. Therefore, a facile acid-etching method was proposed to controllably induce the formation of edge Fe sites in NiFe LDH, and the obtained sample exhibited higher OER activity. X-ray absorption near edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analyses further revealed that the interaction of the edge Fe species with Ni is believed to contribute to the enhancement of the OER performance. This work provides a new understanding of the structure-activity relationship in NiFe LDH and offers a facile method for the design of efficient electrocatalysts in an alkaline environment.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA