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1.
Chin J Integr Med ; 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731432

RESUMO

Mitophagy is one of the important targets for the prevention and treatment of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI). Moderate mitophagy can remove damaged mitochondria, inhibit excessive reactive oxygen species accumulation, and protect mitochondria from damage. However, excessive enhancement of mitophagy greatly reduces adenosine triphosphate production and energy supply for cell survival, and aggravates cell death. How dysfunctional mitochondria are selectively recognized and engulfed is related to the interaction of adaptors on the mitochondrial membrane, which mainly include phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN)-induced kinase 1/Parkin, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α/Bcl-2 and adenovirus e1b19k Da interacting protein 3, FUN-14 domain containing protein 1 receptor-mediated mitophagy pathway and so on. In this review, the authors briefly summarize the main pathways currently studied on mitophagy and the relationship between mitophagy and MIRI, and incorporate and analyze research data on prevention and treatment of MIRI with Chinese medicine, thereby provide relevant theoretical basis and treatment ideas for clinical prevention of MIRI.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724133

RESUMO

Pediatric anxiety disorders and sleep-related problems (SRPs) are highly prevalent and are associated with serious health or psychopathological consequences. This narrative review aims to provide an overview of the current evidence of the associations between anxiety disorders and SRPs, to examine how this relationship may affect treatment, and to evaluate future directions for the field. Despite their strong bi-directional relationship, SRPs are often neglected in pediatric anxiety literature. There is little consensus on the conceptualization and related measurements of SRPs, which has led to methodological limitations and difficulties. Furthermore, available research suggests that anxiety treatment alone may be inadequate as clinically impairing SRPs were still present post-treatment, which may, in turn, diminish effects of therapy. Understanding the implications of the relationship between anxiety and SRPs on treatment outcomes may be helpful in recognizing opportunities for high impact and enduring interventions.

3.
Surgeon ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34782237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergence delirium (ED) is a common phenomenon occurring in the recovery period. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, risk factors, and consequences of ED in adults after elective brain tumor resection. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of a prospective cohort performed in a tertiary university hospital. Adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) immediately after elective brain tumor resection were consecutively enrolled. Level of consciousness was assessed using the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale and ED was assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU. Risk factors for ED were determined by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 659 patients met the inclusion criteria, of which 41 patients with coma were excluded. Among the remaining 618 patients, 131 (21.2%) developed ED. Independent risk factors for ED were: age, education level, use of anticholinergic and mannitol, Glasgow Coma Score and arterial partial pressure of oxygen postoperatively, postoperative pain, malignant tumor, and frontal approach craniotomy. ED was associated with increased postoperative delirium, longer length of hospital stay, and higher hospitalization costs. There was no significant difference in the neurological function deficits (modified Rankin Scale score) between ED and non-ED groups. CONCLUSIONS: ED has a high incidence and is associated with poor outcomes in adults after elective brain tumor resection. Early screening and prevention for ED should be established in perioperative management of this population.

4.
Surg Endosc ; 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34761283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential advantage of laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) compared with open gastrectomy (OG) for serosa-invasive (pT4a) Siewert type II and III adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG) remains uncertain. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the short- and long-term outcomes of LG compared to OG for pT4a Siewert type II/III AEG cancers. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 283 patients with pathological confirmed T4a Siewert type II and type III AEG who underwent LG or OG in our center between January 2004 and September 2015. The short- and long-term outcomes were compared between the groups using a 1:1 matched propensity score matching method (PSM). RESULTS: The LG group had a longer operation time, less estimated blood loss, less time to first flatus, less time to start liquid diet, less time to first ambulation, and shorter length of incision than the OG group. The conversion rates were 5.4% in the LG groups. There was no significant difference in the overall complication rate between the LG and OG groups. The 5-year overall survival (OS) and the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) were comparable between the LG and OG groups (35.4% vs 32.1%, p = 0.541; 34.1% vs 31.0%, p = 0.523, respectively). There was no significant difference in the recurrence rate and pattern between the LG and OG groups. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic gastrectomy is associated with better short-term outcomes and similar long-term outcomes for pT4a Siewert type II/III AEG. This study reveals that LG could be a safe and feasible option for pT4a Siewert type II/III AEG compared to OG.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753623

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Droplet spreading on surfaces is a ubiquitous phenomenon in nature and is relevant with a wide range of applications. In practical scenarios, surfaces are usually associated with certain levels of vibration. Although vertical or horizontal modes of vibration have been used to promote droplet dewetting, bouncing from immiscible medium, directional transport, etc., a quantitative understanding of how external vibration mediates the droplet behaviors remains to be revealed. METHODS: We studied droplets impacting on stationary and vibratory surfaces, respectively. In analogy to the Weber number We=ρUi2D0/γWe = ρUi2D0/γ, we define the vibration Weber number We*=ρUv2D0/γ to quantitively analyze the vibration-induced dynamic pressure on droplet behaviors on vibratory surfaces, where ρ,γ,D0,UiandUv are liquid density, surface tension, initial droplet diameter, impact velocity of the droplet, and velocity amplitude of vibration, respectively. FINDINGS: We demonstrate that the effect of vibration on promoting droplet spreading can be captured by a new scaling number expressed as We*/[We1\2sin(θ/2)], leading to (Dm - Dm0)/Dm0 âˆ We*/[We1\2sin(θ/2)], where θ is the contact angle, and Dm0 and Dm are the maximum diameter of the droplet on stationary and vibratory surfaces, respectively. The scaling number illustrates the relative importance of vibration-induced dynamic pressure compared to inertial force and surface tension. Together with other well-established non-dimensional numbers, this scaling number provides a new dimension and framework for understanding and controlling droplet dynamics. Our findings can also find applications such as improving the power generation efficiency, intensifying the deposition of paint, and enhancing the heat transfer of droplets.

6.
J Texture Stud ; 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689342

RESUMO

Soy-cow blended milk is a potential nutritional beverage and raw material for dairy products. This study determined the particle size, flow, lubrication, flavor and sensory properties of cow milk, soy milk and their blends. Twenty-one major volatile compounds were identified using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography (SPME-GCMS) in cow milk and soy milk. Among all the compounds detected in the milk samples, hexanal, associated with off flavor was found highest in soymilk followed by cow milk and blended milk. From confocal images, soy-cow blended milk at a ratio of 1:1 showed a homogenous distribution of small fat globules and protein compared to the soy milk and cow milk. The addition of soy milk to cow milk lowers the particle size although not significantly (p > .05) and decreases the viscosity of blended milk. Cow milk was the most viscous (2.66 mPa·s at 50 s-1 ) with large particles (0.48 µm) observed from confocal images. However, soymilk was found to have better lubrication properties (boundary regime) with a lower friction coefficient (~0.30) compared to cow milk (~0.40) and blended milk (~0.50) at low entrainment speed (0.1-2 mm/s). The sensory panel ranked cow milk as creamier and more viscous while soymilk was perceived as more astringent with beany flavor. Overall, a proportion of 3:7 soy-cow blended milk was more acceptable than the other two blended milks with less beany flavor, as confirmed by the lower amount of hexanal from gas chromatography mass spectrometer.

7.
J Org Chem ; 86(21): 15785-15791, 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645268

RESUMO

An unprecedented method for the synthesis of dichlorinated and dibrominated 2-amino-substituted chromanones is developed by employing enaminones and NCS/NBS as starting materials under microwave irradiation. The reactions proceed quickly to deliver products without using any catalyst or additive, thus providing practical access to 3,3-dihalogenated 2-aminochromanones.

8.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531116

RESUMO

AIM: Log Odds of Positive Lymph Nodes (LODDS) have a better predictive ability than N stage for colon cancer. However, the prognostic value of developing a novel prognostic classification by combining T stage and LODDS (TLODDS) for colon cancer remains unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to develop a TLODDS classification for colon cancer, and assess whether or not the novel TLODDS classification could improve survival stratification by comparing its discrimination, model-fitting, and net benefits, with the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Tumor/Node/Metastasis (TNM) classification. METHODS: 45,558 Western colon cancers were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database as a training set. A novel LODDS stage was established and patients with similar survival rates were grouped by combining T and LODDS stages to develop a novel TLODDS classification. The TLODDS classification was further assessed in a Chinese validation set of 3,515 colon cancers and an application set of 3,053 rectal cancers. RESULTS: We developed a novel TLODDS classification that incorporated 7 stages: stage I (T1LODDS1), IIA (T2LODDS1, T1LODDS2, T1LODDS3), IIB (T2LODDS2-3, T3LODDS1, T1LODDS4), IIC (T3LODDS2, T2LODDS4, T4aLODDS1), IIIA (T3LODDS3, T1-2LODDS5, T4bLODDS1, T4aLODDS2), IIIB (T3LODDS4-5, T4aLODDS3-4, T4bLODDS2) and IIIC (T4bLODDS3-5, T4aLODDS5). In the training set, it showed significantly better discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, 0.691 vs. 0.664, P < 0.001), better model-fitting (Akaike information criteria, 265,644 vs. 267,410), and superior net benefits, than the latest AJCC TNM classification. The predictive performance of the TLODDS classification was further validated in colon cancers and was successfully applied in rectal cancers with regards to both overall and disease-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: The TLODDS classification has better discriminatory ability, model-fitting, and net benefits than the existing TNM classification, and represents an alternative to the current TNM classifications for colon and rectal cancers.

9.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 716383, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483886

RESUMO

Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common complication in elderly patients. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) may contribute to neurodegenerative diseases. However, the role of circRNAs in POCD in aged mice has not yet been reported. This study aimed to explore the potential circRNAs in a POCD model. First, a circRNA microarray was used to analyze the expression profiles. Differentially expressed circRNAs were validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. A bioinformatics analysis was then used to construct a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network. The database for annotation, visualization, and integrated discovery was used to perform Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis of circRNA-related genes. Moreover, protein-protein interactions were analyzed to predict the circRNA-regulated hub genes using the STRING and molecular complex detection plug-in of Cytoscape. Microarray screen 124 predicted circRNAs in the POCD of aged mice. We found that the up/downregulated circRNAs were involved in multiple signaling pathways. Hub genes, including Egfr and Prkacb, were identified and may be regulated by ceRNA networks. These results suggest that circRNAs are dysexpressed in the hippocampus and may contribute to POCD in aged mice.

10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(72): 9112-9115, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498638

RESUMO

A highly practical method for C-CN bond formation by C-N bond cleavage on enaminones leading to the efficient synthesis of ß-cyano enones is developed. The reactions take place efficiently to provide (E)-ß-cyano enones with only a molecular iodine catalyst. In addition, the additional employment of oxalic acid enables the selective synthesis of (Z)-ß-cyano enones.

11.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 167: 105986, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efavirenz is a vital component used to treat HIV-1 infection. Nevertheless, it shows large between-subject variability, which affects both its therapeutic response and adverse effects. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of gene polymorphisms and non-genetic factors on the variability of efavirenz pharmacokinetics and to propose the optimal dose regimens. METHODS: A total of 769 plasma samples from 376 HIV-infected Han Chinese outpatients were collected to develop a population pharmacokinetic model using NONMEM software. The impact of patient demographics, laboratory tests, concomitant medication, and genetic polymorphisms of CYP2B6 and ABCB1 on efavirenz pharmacokinetics were explored. According to the final model, the model-informed dose optimization was conducted. RESULTS: The pharmacokinetics of efavirenz was characterized by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. The typical values of the estimated apparent oral clearance, volume of distribution, and absorption rate constant in the final model were 9.44 L/h, 200 L, and 0.727 h - 1, respectively. Efavirenz clearance was significantly influenced by CYP2B6 variants, including rs2099361, rs3745274, and rs2279343, along with albumin and weight. The volume of distribution was affected by albumin and weight. Based on the CYP2B6 polymorphisms of patients, the recommended daily doses of efavirenz were 100 mg for CYP2B6 slow metabolizers, 400 or 600 mg for intermediate metabolizers, and 800 or 1000 mg for extensive metabolizers. CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphisms of CYP2B6, along with albumin and weight, resulted as the predictors of efavirenz pharmacokinetic variability, which could be used in prescribing optimal efavirenz doses.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Adulto , Albuminas , Alcinos/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Benzoxazinas , China , Ciclopropanos , Citocromo P-450 CYP2B6/genética , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo Genético
12.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 665767, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335154

RESUMO

Even without formal training, humans experience a wide range of emotions in response to changes in musical features, such as tonality and rhythm, during music listening. While many studies have investigated how isolated elements of tonal and rhythmic properties are processed in the human brain, it remains unclear whether these findings with such controlled stimuli are generalizable to complex stimuli in the real world. In the current study, we present an analytical framework of a linearized encoding analysis based on a set of music information retrieval features to investigate the rapid cortical encoding of tonal and rhythmic hierarchies in natural music. We applied this framework to a public domain EEG dataset (OpenMIIR) to deconvolve overlapping EEG responses to various musical features in continuous music. In particular, the proposed framework investigated the EEG encoding of the following features: tonal stability, key clarity, beat, and meter. This analysis revealed a differential spatiotemporal neural encoding of beat and meter, but not of tonal stability and key clarity. The results demonstrate that this framework can uncover associations of ongoing brain activity with relevant musical features, which could be further extended to other relevant measures such as time-resolved emotional responses in future studies.

13.
J Org Chem ; 86(17): 12378-12385, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392684

RESUMO

Without employing an external oxidant, the simple synthesis of 3-halochromones and various halogenated electron-rich arenes has been realized with electrode oxidation by employing the simplest sodium halide (NaX, X = Cl, Br, I) as halogen source. This electrochemical method is advantageous for the simple and mild room temperature operation, environmental friendliness as well as broad substrate scope in both C-H bond donor and halogen source components.

14.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e048891, 2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452962

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a common disease worldwide, and imposes a substantial burden to the healthcare system. In CHF, limited exercise capacity and affected mental well-being leads to a reduced quality of life (QOL). How to improve the QOL and exercise endurance is critical for patients with CHF. Exercise therapy, such as some traditional Asian exercises (TAEs) including Taichi, Baduanjin and Yoga, plays an important role in the rehabilitation of patients with CHF. TAE is suitable for the rehabilitation of patients with CHF because of its soft movements and can relax the body and mind. Studies have shown that TAE can regulate the overall health status of the body and exercise tolerance, improve QOL and reduce rehospitalisation rate in patients with CHF. However, the difference in efficacy of TAE in patients with CHF is not yet clear. The main purpose of this study is to conduct a network meta-analysis (NMA) of randomised trials to determine the impact of TAE on patients with CHF of different types, different causes and different New York Heart Association (NYHA) heart function classifications and to provide references for different types of patients with CHF to choose appropriate exercise rehabilitation therapy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The literature search will be retrieved from PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang database, Chinese biomedical literature service system (SinoMed) and Chinese Scientific Journals Database (VIP) from the date of their inception until 1 August 2021. All randomised controlled trials that evaluated the effects of three different TAE therapies (Taichi, Baduanjin and Yoga) on patients with CHF will be included. The primary outcomes are peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2), exercise capacity (6-min walking distance) and QOL tested with the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include the levels of N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide, left ventricular ejection fraction, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. For included articles, two reviewers will independently extract the data, and Cochrane Collaboration's tool will be used to assess risk of bias. We will perform the Bayesian NMA to pool all treatment effects. The ranking probabilities for the optimal intervention of various treatments (Taichi, Baduanjin or Yoga) will be estimated by the mean ranks and surface under the cumulative ranking curve. Subgroup analysis for different types, different causes and different NYHA heart function classifications of CHF will be performed. We will use the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system to assess the quality of evidence contributing to each network estimate. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications. They will provide useful information to inform clinicians on the potential functions of TAE in CHF, and to provide consolidated evidence for clinical practice and further research of TAE. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020179304.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Meditação , Teorema de Bayes , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Metanálise em Rede , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda
15.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(7): 7942-7959, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The herbal pairing of Dangshen (DS) [Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf.] and Huangqi (HQ) [Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge.] (DHP) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that is frequently used to treat chronic heart failure (CHF) in China. However, the pharmacological mechanism of DHP has not been fully elucidated. This is the first study aimed to reveal the active mechanism of DHP in the treatment of CHF by using network pharmacology methods. METHODS: The active ingredients of DHP were obtained from the TCMSP database, and the potential targets of DHP were predicted using the SwissTargetPrediction database. CHF-related targets were searched by the DisGeNET and GeneCards databases. The common targets between the disease and herbs were obtained using a Venn diagram. The STRING database was utilized to obtain the protein-protein interaction data. Next, we used Cytoscape 3.7.2 software to construct and analyze the herb-ingredient-potential targets-disease network. Topology analysis was used to identify the key ingredients and hub genes. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed using the Metascape database to reveal the mechanism. Furthermore, molecular docking simulation was performed using AutoDock Vina software to assess the affinity of the key ingredients and hub genes. RESULTS: Five key ingredients and six hub genes were screened. The six hub genes were closely related to PI3K /AKT or ERK1/2 pathways. The KEGG pathways mainly involved the TNF signaling pathway, calcium signaling pathway, and cancer-related pathways. The GO enrichment analysis results showed that DHP might act on biological processes including positive regulation of kinase activity and cellular response to nitrogen compound via the three above-mentioned pathways in the treatment of CHF. Finally, the molecular docking results showed that the five key ingredients exhibited strong affinities to the six hub genes. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the molecular mechanism that the flavonoids in DHP may alleviate endothelial dysfunction and cardiac hypertrophy via regulation of the TNF pathway and its downstream PI3K/Akt or ERK1/2 signaling pathways, or improve excitation-contraction coupling by regulating calcium signaling pathway, thereby improving CHF. These results provide insights for further experimentation on its pharmacological effects.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Astragalus propinquus , Codonopsis , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Transdução de Sinais
16.
Australas J Ageing ; 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382719

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of a locally developed Arts and Dementia Program on the short-term well-being of older persons with dementia in Singapore. METHODS: Single-arm study with 21 persons with dementia. Behavioural tendencies and mood and engagement values were assessed using Dementia Care Mapping at baseline and during the program. The averaged mood and engagement value over the mapping period produced a well-/ill-being score for each person with dementia. RESULTS: Well-/ill-being scores were significantly higher during the program compared to at baseline. The behavioural tendencies most frequently captured during the program were creative expression, reminiscence and leisure. In contrast, there were more eating or drinking behaviours during the baseline. Analyses revealed that the changes in occurrences of reminiscence, leisure, and eating or drinking behaviours across time were significant. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests potential benefits of the Arts and Dementia Program in enhancing the well-being of persons with dementia.

17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 696734, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413850

RESUMO

Bronchial asthma is one of the most chronic pulmonary diseases and major public health problems. In general, asthma prevails in developed countries than developing countries, and its prevalence is increasing in the latter. For instance, the hygiene hypothesis demonstrated that this phenomenon resulted from higher household hygienic standards that decreased the chances of infections, which would subsequently increase the occurrence of allergy. In this review, we attempted to integrate our knowledge with the hygiene hypothesis into beneficial preventive approaches for allergic asthma. Therefore, we highlighted the studies that investigated the correlation between allergic asthma and the two different types of infections that induce the two major antagonizing arms of T cells. This elucidation reflects the association between various types of natural infections and the immune system, which is predicted to support the main objective of the current research on investigating of the benefits of natural infections, regardless their immune pathways for the prevention of allergic asthma. We demonstrated that natural infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) prevents the development of allergic asthma, thus Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is suggested at early age to mediate the same prevention particularly with increasing its efficiency through genetic engineering-based modifications. Likewise, natural helminth infections might inhabit the allergic asthma development. Therefore, helminth-derived proteins at early age are good candidates for designing vaccines for allergic asthma and it requires further investigation. Finally, we recommend imitation of natural infections as a general strategy for preventing allergic asthma that increased dramatically over the past decades.

18.
Brain Res Bull ; 174: 339-348, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245841

RESUMO

Comorbid chronic pain and depression are increasingly becoming a concerning public problem, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that pain-related depression-like behaviors are induced in a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI). Using this model, we found that chronic neuropathic pain decreased the activity and expression of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1, an NAD+-dependent deacetylase) in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). In addition, the pharmacologic activation of SIRT1 in the CeA could alleviate the depression-like behaviors associated with chronic pain while relieving sensory pain. Accordingly, adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated SIRT1 overexpression in the CeA produced a positive effect on the easement of chronic pain and comorbid depression. Taken together, these findings highlight the role of SIRT1 in the CeA in chronic pain and depression states and reveal that the upregulation of SIRT1 may be a potential therapy for the treatment of pain-depression comorbidities.

19.
Surgery ; 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative frailty is associated with poor outcomes in major surgery. Postoperative delirium is common after neurosurgery. To date, the association of preoperative frailty with postoperative delirium after neurosurgery has not been established. We aimed to determine the association between preoperative frailty and postoperative delirium in patients undergoing elective brain tumor resection. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of a prospective cohort, consecutively enrolling adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit after elective craniotomy for brain tumor resection under general anesthesia in a tertiary hospital in China from March 1, 2017 to February 2, 2018. Preoperative frailty was evaluated using the modified frailty index. The primary outcome was postoperative delirium, assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses were performed to examine the association. RESULTS: 659 patients met inclusion criteria for our analysis. There were 398 (60.4%) non-frail (modified frailty index = 0), 237 (36.0%) pre-frail (modified frailty index = 1-2), and 24 (3.6%) frail (modified frailty index ≥ 3) patients. Of these, 124 (18.8%) developed postoperative delirium. In adjusted analyses, frailty was independently associated with postoperative delirium (odds ratio 1.7, 95% confidence interval 1.0-2.7, P = .032). Frail patients had longer length of hospital stay and higher total costs than non-frail patients. CONCLUSION: Preoperative frailty is associated with postoperative delirium, length of hospital stay, and total costs in patients undergoing elective brain tumor resection. Preoperative frailty assessment and appropriate management strategies should be involved in the perioperative management of postoperative delirium.

20.
Org Lett ; 23(13): 5049-5053, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137270

RESUMO

This paper reports an unprecedented trifunctionalization of tertiary enaminones for the synthesis phosphoryl nitriles by the reactions of enaminones with diarylphosphine oxides and trimethylsilyl cyanide (TMSCN) without the use of any metal reagent. Employing tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide (TBAH) as the catalyst (0.2 equiv) enables discrete cyanophosphonation. On the other hand, selective proximal cyanophosphonation has been realized in the presence of acetic acid only (AcOH).

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