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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955739

RESUMO

Superhydrophobic surfaces are imperative in flexible polymer foams for diverse applications; however, traditional surface coatings on soft skeletons are often fragile and can hardly endure severe deformation, making them unstable and highly susceptible to cyclic loadings. Therefore, it remains a great challenge to balance their mutual exclusiveness of mechanical robustness and surface water repellency on flexible substrates. Herein, we describe how robust superhydrophobic surfaces on soft poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) foams can be achieved using an extremely simple, ultrafast, and environmentally friendly flame scanning strategy. The ultrafast flame treatment (1-3 s) of PDMS foams produces microwavy and nanosilica rough structures bonded on the soft skeletons, forming robust superhydrophobic surfaces (i.e., water contact angles (WCAs) > 155° and water sliding angles (WSAs) < 5°). The rough surface can be effectively tailored by simply altering the flame scanning speed (2.5-15.0 cm/s) to adjust the thermal pyrolysis of the PDMS molecules. The optimized surfaces display reliable mechanical robustness and excellent water repellency even after 100 cycles of compression of 60% strain, stretching of 100% strain, and bending of 90° and hostile environmental conditions (including acid/salt/alkali conditions, high/low temperatures, UV aging, and harsh cyclic abrasion). Moreover, such flame-induced superhydrophobic surfaces are easily peeled off from ice and can be healable even after severe abrasion cycles. Clearly, the flame scanning strategy provides a facile and versatile approach for fabricating mechanically robust and surface superhydrophobic PDMS foam materials for applications in complex conditions.

3.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(4): 1, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792620

RESUMO

Purpose: RPE injury often induces epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Although RPE-EMT has been implicated in a variety of retinal diseases, including proliferative vitroretinopathy, neovascular and atrophic AMD, and diabetic retinopathy, it is not well-understood at the molecular level. To contribute to our understanding of EMT in human RPE, we performed a time-course transcriptomic analysis of human stem cell-derived RPE (hRPE) monolayers induced to undergo EMT using 2 independent, yet complementary, model systems. Methods: EMT of human stem cell-derived RPE monolayers was induced by either enzymatic dissociation or modulation of TGF-ß signaling. Transcriptomic analysis of cells at different stages of EMT was performed by RNA-sequencing, and select findings were confirmed by reverse transcription quantitative PCR and immunostaining. An ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was performed to identify signaling pathways and regulatory networks associated with EMT. Results: Proteocollagenolytic enzymatic dissociation and cotreatment with TGF-ß and TNF-α both induce EMT in human stem cell-derived RPE monolayers, leading to an increased expression of mesenchymal factors and a decreased expression of RPE differentiation-associated factors. Ingenuity pathway analysis identified the upstream regulators of the RPE-EMT regulatory networks and identified master switches and nodes during RPE-EMT. Of particular interest was the identification of widespread dysregulation of axon guidance molecules during RPE-EMT progression. Conclusions: The temporal transcriptome profiles described here provide a comprehensive resource of the dynamic signaling events and the associated biological pathways that underlie RPE-EMT onset. The pathways defined by these studies may help to identify targets for the development of novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of retinal disease.

4.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 258: 119798, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892304

RESUMO

Geographical origin is an important factor affecting the quality of traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, the identification of geographical origin of Gastrodia elata was performed by using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence and chemometric methods. Firstly, excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra of Gastrodia elata samples from different geographical origins were obtained. And then three chemometric methods, including multilinear partial least squares discriminant analysis (N-PLS-DA), unfold partial least squares discriminant analysis (U-PLS-DA), and k-nearest neighbor (kNN) method, were applied to build discriminant models. Finally, 45 Gastrodia elata samples could be differentiated from each other by these classification models according to their geographical origins. The results showed that all models obtained good classification results. Compared with the N-PLS-DA and U-PLS-DA, kNN got more accurate and reliable classification results and could identify Gastrodia elata samples from different geographical origins with 100% accuracy on the training and test set. Therefore, the proposed method was available for easily and quickly distinguishing the geographical origin of Gastrodia elata, which can be considered as a promising alternative method for determining the geographic origin of other traditional Chinese medicines.

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2229, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850132

RESUMO

Profiling of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may offer a non-invasive approach to monitor disease progression. Here, we develop a quantitative method, exploiting local tissue-specific cell-free DNA (cfDNA) degradation patterns, that accurately estimates ctDNA burden independent of genomic aberrations. Nucleosome-dependent cfDNA degradation at promoters and first exon-intron junctions is strongly associated with differential transcriptional activity in tumors and blood. A quantitative model, based on just 6 regulatory regions, could accurately predict ctDNA levels in colorectal cancer patients. Strikingly, a model restricted to blood-specific regulatory regions could predict ctDNA levels across both colorectal and breast cancer patients. Using compact targeted sequencing (<25 kb) of predictive regions, we demonstrate how the approach could enable quantitative low-cost tracking of ctDNA dynamics and disease progression.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/metabolismo , DNA Tumoral Circulante/metabolismo , Fragmentação do DNA , Carga Tumoral/fisiologia , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/sangue , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Progressão da Doença , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Genômica , Humanos , Mutação
6.
J Immunol ; 206(9): 2088-2100, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879580

RESUMO

Preserving appropriate function and metabolism in regulatory T (Treg) cells is crucial for controlling immune tolerance and inflammatory responses. Yet how Treg cells coordinate cellular metabolic programs to support their functional specification remains elusive. In this study, we report that BATF couples the TH2-suppressive function and triglyceride (TG) metabolism in Treg cells for controlling allergic airway inflammation and IgE responses. Mice with Treg-specific ablation of BATF developed an inflammatory disorder characterized by TH2-type dominant responses and were predisposed to house dust mite-induced airway inflammation. Loss of BATF enabled Treg cells to acquire TH2 cell-like characteristics. Moreover, BATF-deficient Treg cells displayed elevated levels of cellular TGs, and repressing or elevating TGs, respectively, restored or exacerbated their defects. Mechanistically, TCR/CD28 costimulation enhanced expression and function of BATF, which sustained IRF4 activity to preserve Treg cell functionality. Thus, our studies reveal that BATF links Treg cell functional specification and fitness of cellular TGs to control allergic responses, and suggest that therapeutic targeting of TG metabolism could be used for the treatment of allergic disease.

7.
Environ Int ; 153: 106538, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to multiple metals is recognized as a common and real scenario in daily life. However, limited prospective studies have assessed associations between multiple metals exposure and hypertension. METHODS: In total, 2625 adults in a local area on the Yangtze River were investigated at baseline from 2014 to 2015 and followed up in 2019. We measured baseline urine levels of 22 metals and used multivariate logistic analysis and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) to explore associations between multiple metals exposure and the risk of hypertension. RESULTS: A total of 385 individuals (29.6%) were diagnosed with hypertension. Five metals (cadmium, copper, magnesium, molybdenum and zinc) were positively associated with hypertension in single-metal models. Cadmium and zinc remained significantly positive associations after adjusting for these five metals, with the odds ratio (OR) in the highest quartiles of 1.49 (95% CI: 1.01, 2.21; p-trend = 0.05) and 1.60 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.38; p-trend = 0.02), respectively. BKMR analysis showed a significant joint effect of multiple metals on hypertension when the concentrations of five metals were at or above their 55th percentile compared with their median values. A potential interaction between cadmium and zinc in increasing the risk of hypertension was observed with the ORint of 1.41 (95%CI: 1.05, 1.89). CONCLUSIONS: We identified the joint effect of multiple metals on hypertension and observed a significant interaction between cadmium and zinc. Further cohort studies are needed to clarify the health effects of multiple metals exposure in a larger population.

8.
Life Sci ; : 119467, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811894

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maresin 1 (MaR1) is a pro-resolving lipid mediator that has been reported to have strong regulatory effects on oxidative stress and inflammation. This study aimed to determine the effect of MaR1 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis-related cardiac injury and explore its possible mechanisms. METHODS: Mice were administered MaR1 or PBS and then treated with LPS or saline for 6 h. Then, cardiac function, cardiac injury markers, cardiac macrophage differentiation, oxidative stress and myocardial cell apoptosis in each group were measured. RESULTS: MaR1 treatment significantly decreased the serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) and improved cardiac function in LPS-induced mice. Treatment with MaR1 also inhibited LPS-induced M1 macrophage differentiation and reduced M1 macrophage-related cytokine secretion while promoting M2 macrophage differentiation and increasing M2 macrophage-related inflammatory mediator expression. In addition, MaR1 decreased serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increased serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH), as well as cardiac expression of nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf-2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), in LPS-induced mice. Furthermore, fewer TUNEL-positive cells were observed in the LPS + MaR1 group than in the LPS group. CONCLUSIONS: Our experimental results show that MaR1 alleviates cardiac injury and protects against cardiac dysfunction and may be beneficial in reducing sepsis-induced cardiac injury.

9.
Food Chem ; 356: 129708, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845253

RESUMO

Quantification of human milk (HM) fat is important for determining the energy intake of infants. The simplest and most rapid method is the creamatocrit method. However, the reliability of the creamatocrit has not been comprehensively investigated. The aims of this study were to test the inter- and-intra-rater reliability of: 1) HM sampling after hand- or-machine mixing methods and 2) HM fat measurement by the creamatocrit method. Inter-and-intra rater HM sampling after hand- or-machine mixing methods had high intraclass correlation coefficient (>0.91). Inter-rater reliability of measurement of HM with low fat (<2%) resulted in high variability (median coefficient of variations (CVs) > 15%). Intra- and inter-rater reliability of measurement of HM with higher fat (>3.5%) had low variability (median CVs < 10%). As the greatest variation in the creamatocrit method occurred during the measurement of HM samples with low fat, duplicate readings are necessary to reduce discrepancies in every HM fat determination.

10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 94: 107475, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662690

RESUMO

Interleukin (IL)-10 cytokine family members, including IL-10, IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, IL-26 and the distantly related IL-28A, IL-28B, and IL-29, play critical roles in the regulation of inflammation. The occurrence and progression of cardiovascular diseases closely correlate with the regulation of inflammation, which may provide novel strategies for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, studies have focused on the association between the IL-10 cytokine family and the physiological and pathological progression of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this review is to summarize relevant studies and clarify whether the IL-10 cytokine family contributes to the regulation of cardiovascular diseases.

11.
J Gen Physiol ; 153(5)2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755721

RESUMO

Spontaneous exocytosis of single synaptic vesicles generates miniature synaptic currents, which provide a window into the dynamic control of synaptic transmission. To resolve the impact of different factors on the dynamics and variability of synaptic transmission, we recorded miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) from cocultures of mouse hippocampal neurons with HEK cells expressing the postsynaptic proteins GluA2, neuroligin 1, PSD-95, and stargazin. Synapses between neurons and these heterologous cells have a molecularly defined postsynaptic apparatus, while the compact morphology of HEK cells eliminates the distorting effect of dendritic filtering. HEK cells in coculture produced mEPSCs with a higher frequency, larger amplitude, and more rapid rise and decay than neurons from the same culture. However, mEPSC area indicated that nerve terminals in synapses with both neurons and HEK cells release similar populations of vesicles. Modulation by the glutamate receptor ligand aniracetam revealed receptor contributions to mEPSC shape. Dendritic cable effects account for the slower mEPSC rise in neurons, whereas the slower decay also depends on other factors. Lastly, expression of synaptobrevin transmembrane domain mutants in neurons slowed the rise of HEK cell mEPSCs, thus revealing the impact of synaptic fusion pores. In summary, we show that cocultures of neurons with heterologous cells provide a geometrically simplified and molecularly defined system to investigate the time course of synaptic transmission and to resolve the contribution of vesicles, fusion pores, dendrites, and receptors to this process.

12.
Food Chem ; 351: 129318, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647690

RESUMO

Linusorbs, known as cyclolinopeptides, are a group of cyclic hydrophobic peptides derived from flaxseed oil with various health benefits. However, the current research efforts on both the biological activities and antioxidant capacities of linusorbs are limited because of existing issues with their purification and characterization. A practical method based on preparative HPLC for isolating 12 linusorbs simultaneously was developed and factors such as the solvent selection, gradient elution program, flow rate, loaded mass, and loading concentration, were optimized. The optimum conditions were an initial acetonitrile (ACN) to water ratio of 40%, final ACN ratio of 80%, eluting time of 21 min, a flow rate of 16 mL/min, sample load of 12.5 mg, and concentration of 80 mg/mL (in methanol). The 12 linusorbs obtained were verified using off-line MS/MS, recording purities of above 95.5%. The method could serve as a practical and fast isolation method enabling further investigation of minor linusorbs.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Óleo de Semente do Linho/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Acetonitrilos/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Metanol/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1920, 2021 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772001

RESUMO

Adipogenesis associated Mth938 domain containing (AAMDC) represents an uncharacterized oncogene amplified in aggressive estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers. We uncover that AAMDC regulates the expression of several metabolic enzymes involved in the one-carbon folate and methionine cycles, and lipid metabolism. We show that AAMDC controls PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling, regulating the translation of ATF4 and MYC and modulating the transcriptional activity of AAMDC-dependent promoters. High AAMDC expression is associated with sensitization to dactolisib and everolimus, and these PI3K-mTOR inhibitors exhibit synergistic interactions with anti-estrogens in IntClust2 models. Ectopic AAMDC expression is sufficient to activate AKT signaling, resulting in estrogen-independent tumor growth. Thus, AAMDC-overexpressing tumors may be sensitive to PI3K-mTORC1 blockers in combination with anti-estrogens. Lastly, we provide evidence that AAMDC can interact with the RabGTPase-activating protein RabGAP1L, and that AAMDC, RabGAP1L, and Rab7a colocalize in endolysosomes. The discovery of the RabGAP1L-AAMDC assembly platform provides insights for the design of selective blockers to target malignancies having the AAMDC amplification.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Everolimo/farmacologia , Feminino , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Oncogenes/genética , Ligação Proteica , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646549

RESUMO

There has been increasing concern over the toxic effects of microplastics (MP), nanoplastics (NP), and copper (Cu) on microalgae. However, the combined toxicity of the metal in the presence of polystyrene (PS) MP/NP on microalgae has not been well studied, particularly after long-term exposure (i.e., longer than 4 days). The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of PS MP and NP on Cu toxicity on two freshwater microalgae, namely Chlorella sp. TJ6-5 and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata NIES-35 after acute exposure for 4 days and up to 16 days. The results showed that both microalgae were sensitive to Cu, but tolerant to MP/NP. However, MP/NP increased the toxicity of Cu at EC50 in both microalgae, which was only noticeable in chronic exposure. Single and combined treatment of MP/NP and Cu induced higher oxidative stress and caused morphological and ultrastructural changes in both microalgae. The adsorption of Cu to MP and NP was low (0.23-14.9%), with most of the Cu present in free ionic form (81.6-105.8%). The findings on different sensitivity of microalgae to Cu in the presence of MP/NP may have significant implication as microalgae are likely to be exposed to a mixture of both MP/NP and Cu in the environment. For example, in air-blasting technology, MP and NP are used as abrasive medium to remove Cu-containing antifouling paints on hulls of ship and submerged surfaces. Wastewater treatment plants receive household wastes containing MP and NP, as well as stormwater runoffs and industrial wastes contaminated with heavy metals.

15.
Thromb Haemost ; 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742437

RESUMO

The capacity of blood to form thrombin is a critical determinant of coagulability. Plasma thrombin generation (TG), a test that probes the capacity of plasma to form thrombin, has improved our knowledge of the coagulation system and shows promising utility in coagulation management. Although plasma TG gives comprehensive insights in the function of pro- and anticoagulation drivers, it does not measure the role of blood cells in TG. In this literature review, we discuss currently available continuous TG tests that can reflect the involvement of blood cells in coagulation, in particular the fluorogenic assays that allow continuous measurement in platelet rich plasma and whole blood. We also provide an overview about the influence of blood cells on blood coagulation, with emphasis on the direct influence of blood cells on TG. Platelets accelerate the initiation and velocity of thrombin generation by phosphatidylserine exposure, granule content release and surface receptor interaction with coagulation proteins. Erythrocytes are also major providers of phosphatidylserine and erythrocyte membranes trigger contact activation. Furthermore, leukocytes and cancer cells may be important players in cell-mediated coagulation, because under certain conditions, they express tissue factor, release procoagulant components and can induce platelet activation. We argue that testing TG in the presence of blood cells may be useful to distinguish blood cells-related coagulation disorders. However, it should also be noted that these blood cells-dependent TG assays are not clinically validated. Further standardization and validation studies are needed to explore their clinical usefulness.

16.
Neoplasma ; 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724860

RESUMO

Osimertinib (OSI) resistance commonly occurs during the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study aims to investigate whether the thermal effects of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) can increase the sensitivity of OSI-resistant NSCLC to OSI treatment and whether OSI effectively inhibits the recurrence of OSI-resistant NSCLC following RFA treatment and improve survival of NSCLC patients. In vitro, OSI-resistant NCI-H1975 (NCI-H1975/OSIR) cells and thermotolerant NCI-H1975/OSIR (NCI-H1975/OSIR-a-h) cells were established using human NSCLC cell line NCI-H1975. Cell viability, apoptosis, sensitivity to OSI, threonine-methionine amino acid substitution at position 790 (T790M) mutation levels, and protein expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (AKT), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1a) were detected using different methods. In vivo, a nude mouse model of metastatic human lung cancer was constructed and subjected to RFA treatment. The tumor growth, apoptosis, sensitivity to OSI, expression of EGFR/PI3K/AKT/HIF-1a, and CD34 levels were detected in the micrometastases of the transition zone (TZ) around the central ablation zone, and the reference zone (RZ) far from central ablation zone. NCI-H1975/OSIR and thermotolerant NCI-H1975/OSIR cell models were successfully established. Thermotolerant NCI-H1975/OSIR cells show higher sensitivity to OSI than NCI-H1975/OSIR cells and NCI-H1975 cells. OSI treatment can inhibit the EGFR/PI3K/AKT pathway and induce apoptosis in both NCI-H1975 cells and thermotolerant NCI-H1975/OSIR cells, but not in NCI-H1975/OSIR cells. In vivo, RFA treatment increases sensitivity to OSI in NCI-H1975/OSIR cell micrometastases in the TZ but not in the RZ. OSI intervention effectively inhibits the over-proliferation of micrometastases and activation of the EGFR/PI3K/AKT pathway, and induces apoptosis of micrometastases in the TZ, but shows little effects on the micrometastases in the RZ. The thermal effects can increase the sensitivity of OSI-resistant NSCLC cells to OSI through the EGFR/PI3K/AKT/HIF-1a signaling pathway, indicating that RFA combined with OSI might be a clinically effective and comprehensive therapy for the treatment of OSI-resistant NSCLC.

17.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(8): 1768-1777, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746594

RESUMO

Aim: In other respiratory infectious diseases, obesity may be associated with a poor outcome. For coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the association between obesity and severity or prognosis requires further analysis. Methods: This was a retrospective, single-center study. Hospitalized patients were recruited in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 2, 2020 to February 20, 2020. The data of body mass index (BMI) was obtained from follow-up of surviving patients. According to BMI, normal weight was defined as 18.5-23.9 kg/m2, overweight as 24.0-27.9 kg/m2 and obesity as > 28.0 kg/m2. Results: A total of 463 patients were enrolled, of which 242 (52.3%) patients were in the normal weight group; 179 (38.7%) were in the overweight group; and 42 (9.1%) were in the obesity group. Compared to the normal group, obese patients were more likely to have a higher heart rate; lower finger oxygen saturation; higher levels of white blood cells, neutrophil counts, basophil counts, intravenous glucose, triacylglycerol, uric acid, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase-MB, CD19+ cell counts and percentage; and lower levels of monocyte percentage, high density lipoprotein and CD3+ cell percentage. In addition, the proportions of hypertension (21.5% vs. 42.6%) and severe+critical illness (47.8 vs. 81.0 %) were significantly higher in the obesity group than those in normal group. However, no significant differences were observed between the normal and obesity groups in critical illness, organ damage and defined endpoint (mechanical ventilation or intensive care unit). Multiple logistic regression showed that obesity increased the risk of developing severe+critical illness (Odd ratio 3.586, 95% CI 1.550-8.298, P=0.003) in patients with COVID-19, and did not affect the risk of critical illness, organ damage and endpoints. Overweight did not affect the risk of severity, organ damage or endpoint in patients with COVID-19. Conclusion: Obesity may be a risk factor for developing severity in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Idoso , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , /diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia Torácica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
18.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2021 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774766

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the synergistic effect of sarcopenia and poor balance on osteoporotic vertebral fracture (VOPF) in Chinese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: A total of 238 RA patients and 158 normal subjects were enrolled in the case-control study. Poor balance capability (Berg balance scale (BBS) score < 40) and sarcopenia (skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) <7.0 (male)/5.7 (female)) between RA patients and normal subjects were compared. Associations of poor balance capability or sarcopenia with disease activity, structural damage, and joint function in different groups were also investigated. RESULTS: The incidence of sarcopenia in RA was 58.4%, significantly higher than that in controls (P<0.0001). Moreover, the percentages of low balance capacity (BBS<40) in RA were 43.7%, which was higher than that in controls (P<0.0001). The prevalence of VOPF in the case group was 19.3%, which was higher than that in the controls (P<0.0001). In the RA group, compared to RA patients without VOPF, RA patients with VOPF had higher percentages of poor balance and sarcopenia (P<0.05). Compared with RA patients without sarcopenia or good balance, RA patients with sarcopenia or poor balance had a higher incidence of VOPF, higher disease activity, severer structural damage, and worse joint function (P<0.05). The incidence of VOPF in patients combined with good balance and non-sarcopenia (4.8%) was significantly lower than that in patients combined with poor balance and sarcopenia (38.2%) (P<0.0001). Logistic regression indicated that higher SMI and higher BBS scores were protective factors for VOPF in RA patients, while age was a risk factor for VOPF in RA patients (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Sarcopenia and poor balance are popular in Chinese patients with RA, and they are associated with disease activity and structural damage. There is a synergistic effect of sarcopenia and poor balance on VOPF in RA. Key Points • Sarcopenia and balance capability were popular (about a half) in patients with RA. • Sarcopenia and poor balance had a synergistic effect on VOPF in RA.

19.
Food Chem ; 350: 129275, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601090

RESUMO

Oleofoams have emerged as attractive low-calorie aeration systems, but saturated lipids or large amount of surfactants are commonly required. Herein, an innovative strategy was proposed to create oleofoams using medium-long chain diacylglycerol (MLCD) and ß-sitosterol (St). The oleofoams prepared using MLCD and St in ratios of 15:5 and 12:8 exhibited smaller bubble size and much higher stability. MLCD crystals formed rigid Pickering shell, whereby air bubbles acted as "active fillers" leading to enhanced rigidity. Both Pickering and network stabilization for the MLCD-St oleofoam provided a steric hindrance against coalescence. The gelators interacted via hydrogen bonding, causing a condensing effect in improving the gel elasticity. The oleofoams and foam-based emulsions exhibited a favorable capacity in controlling volatile release where the maximum headspace concentrations and partition coefficients showed a significantly decrease. Overall, the oleofoams have shown great potential for development of low-calorie foods and delivery systems with enhanced textural and nutritional features.


Assuntos
Diglicerídeos/química , Sitosteroides/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Tensoativos/química
20.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech ; 1864(3): 194691, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556624

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease, with an estimated global prevalence of 1 in 4 individuals. Aberrant transcriptional control of gene expression is central to the pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to gene dysregulation are not well understood. Histone modifications play important roles in the control of transcription. Acetylation of histone 3 at lysine 9 (H3K9ac) is associated with transcriptional activity and is implicated in transcript elongation by controlling RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) pause-release. Hence, changes in this histone modification may shed information on novel pathways linking transcription control and metabolic dysfunction. Here, we carried out genome-wide analysis of H3K9ac in the liver of mice fed a control or a high-fat diet (an animal model of NAFLD), and asked whether this histone mark associates with changes in gene expression. We found that over 70% of RNAPII peaks in promoter-proximal regions overlapped with H3K9ac, consistent with a role of H3K9ac in the regulation of transcription. When comparing high-fat with control diet, approximately 17% of the differentially expressed genes were associated with changes in H3K9ac in their promoters, showing a strong correlation between changes in H3K9ac signal and gene expression. Overall, our data indicate that in response to a high-fat diet, dysregulated gene expression of a subset of genes may be attributable to changes in transcription elongation driven by H3K9ac. Our results point at an added mechanism of gene regulation that may be important in the development of metabolic diseases.

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