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1.
Nat Genet ; 53(1): 65-75, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398198

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is a highly heritable disease with large disparities in incidence rates across ancestry populations. We conducted a multiancestry meta-analysis of prostate cancer genome-wide association studies (107,247 cases and 127,006 controls) and identified 86 new genetic risk variants independently associated with prostate cancer risk, bringing the total to 269 known risk variants. The top genetic risk score (GRS) decile was associated with odds ratios that ranged from 5.06 (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.84-5.29) for men of European ancestry to 3.74 (95% CI, 3.36-4.17) for men of African ancestry. Men of African ancestry were estimated to have a mean GRS that was 2.18-times higher (95% CI, 2.14-2.22), and men of East Asian ancestry 0.73-times lower (95% CI, 0.71-0.76), than men of European ancestry. These findings support the role of germline variation contributing to population differences in prostate cancer risk, with the GRS offering an approach for personalized risk prediction.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Invasividade Neoplásica , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco
3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to identify factors specifically associated with aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) risk. We investigated whether rare pathogenic, likely pathogenic, or deleterious (P/LP/D) germline variants in DNA repair genes are associated with aggressive PCa risk in a case-case study of aggressive versus non-aggressive disease. METHODS: Participants were 5,545 European-ancestry men, including 2,775 non-aggressive and 2,770 aggressive PCa cases, which included 467 metastatic cases (16.9%). Samples were assembled from 12 international studies and germline sequenced together. Rare (minor allele frequency<0.01) P/LP/D variants were analyzed for 155 DNA repair genes. We compared single variant, gene-based, and DNA repair pathway-based burdens by disease aggressiveness. All statistical tests are two-sided. RESULTS: BRCA2 and PALB2 had the most statistically significant gene-based associations, with 2.5% of aggressive and 0.8% of non-aggressive cases carrying P/LP/D BRCA2 alleles (OR = 3.19, 95% CI = 1.94 to 5.25, P = 8.58x10-7) and 0.65% of aggressive and 0.11% of non-aggressive cases carrying P/LP/D PALB2 alleles (OR = 6.31, 95% CI = 1.83 to 21.68, P = 4.79x10-4). ATM had a nominal association, with 1.6% of aggressive and 0.8% of non-aggressive cases carrying P/LP/D ATM alleles (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.10 to 3.22, P=.02). In aggregate, P/LP/D alleles within 24 literature-curated candidate PCa DNA repair genes were more common in aggressive than non-aggressive cases (carrier frequencies=14.2% versus 10.6%, respectively; P = 5.56x10-5). However, this difference was statistically non-significant (P=.18) upon excluding BRCA2, PALB2, and ATM. Among these 24 genes, P/LP/D carriers had a 1.06-year younger diagnosis age (95% CI=-1,65 to 0.48, P = 3.71x10-4). CONCLUSIONS: Risk conveyed by DNA repair genes is largely driven by rare P/LP/D alleles within BRCA2, PALB2, and ATM. These findings support the importance of these genes in both screening and disease management considerations.

4.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(13): 2275-2284, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491157

RESUMO

Statistical imputation applied to genome-wide array data is the most cost-effective approach to complete the catalog of genetic variation in a study population. However, imputed genotypes in underrepresented populations incur greater inaccuracies due to ascertainment bias and a lack of representation among reference individuals, further contributing to the obstacles to study these populations. Here we examined the consequences due to the lack of representation by genotyping in a large number of self-reported Native Hawaiians (N = 3693) a functionally important, Polynesian-specific variant in the CREBRF gene, rs373863828. We found the derived allele was significantly associated with several adiposity traits with large effects (e.g. ~ 1.28 kg/m2 per allele in body mass index as the most significant; P = 7.5 × 10-5), consistent with the original findings in Samoans. Due to the current absence of Polynesian representation in publicly accessible reference sequences, rs373863828 or its proxies could not be tested through imputation using these existing resources. Moreover, the association signals at the entire CREBRF locus could not be captured by alternative approaches, such as admixture mapping. In contrast, highly accurate imputation can be achieved even if a small number (<200) of internally constructed Polynesian reference individuals were available; this would increase sample size and improve the statistical evidence of associations. Taken together, our results suggest the alarming possibility that lack of representation in reference panels could inhibit discovery of functionally important loci such as CREBRF. Yet, they could be easily detected and prioritized with improved representation of diverse populations in sequencing studies.

5.
Eur Urol ; 78(3): 316-320, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409115

RESUMO

Although men of African ancestry have a high risk of prostate cancer (PCa), no genes or mutations have been identified that contribute to familial clustering of PCa in this population. We investigated whether the African ancestry-specific PCa risk variant at 8q24, rs72725854, is enriched in men with a PCa family history in 9052 cases, 143 cases from high-risk families, and 8595 controls of African ancestry. We found the risk allele to be significantly associated with earlier age at diagnosis, more aggressive disease, and enriched in men with a PCa family history (32% of high-risk familial cases carried the variant vs 23% of cases without a family history and 12% of controls). For cases with two or more first-degree relatives with PCa who had at least one family member diagnosed at age <60 yr, the odds ratios for TA heterozygotes and TT homozygotes were 3.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.13-7.22) and 33.41 (95% CI = 10.86-102.84), respectively. Among men with a PCa family history, the absolute risk by age 60 yr reached 21% (95% CI = 17-25%) for TA heterozygotes and 38% (95% CI = 13-65%) for TT homozygotes. We estimate that in men of African ancestry, rs72725854 accounts for 32% of the total familial risk explained by all known PCa risk variants. PATIENT SUMMARY: We found that rs72725854, an African ancestry-specific risk variant, is more common in men with a family history of prostate cancer and in those diagnosed with prostate cancer at younger ages. Men of African ancestry may benefit from the knowledge of their carrier status for this genetic risk variant to guide decisions about prostate cancer screening.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1381-1388, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The four-kallikrein (4K) panel has been demonstrated to improve prediction of aggressive prostate cancer compared with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) among men with moderately elevated PSA levels. However, the development and testing of the 4K panel has been conducted primarily in White men, with limited data in African Americans and no studies in other racial and ethnic groups. METHODS: We evaluated the 4K panel in a nested case-control study among African American, Latino, Japanese, Native Hawaiian, and White men in the Multiethnic Cohort. Prediagnostic blood levels of free, intact, and total PSA and human kallikrein-related peptidase 2 were measured among 1,667 incident prostate cancer cases and 691 controls with PSA ≥2 ng/mL. We evaluated the discriminative ability of the 4K panel within and across all racial/ethnic groups. RESULTS: The 4K panel enhanced discrimination of overall prostate cancer compared with free plus total PSA and total PSA alone (AUC 0.748 vs. 0.711 and 0.669, respectively). Discrimination was further enhanced for Gleason 8+ prostate cancer, aggressive prostate cancer, and death due to prostate cancer, and to a lesser degree for nonaggressive prostate cancer. Improvement of the 4K panel over PSA was observed in each population. Adding a prostate cancer polygenic risk score slightly improved upon the discriminative ability of the 4K panel. CONCLUSIONS: The superior discriminative ability of the 4K panel over PSA for overall and aggressive prostate cancer across multiethnic populations indicates the broad clinical applicability of the 4K panel. IMPACT: Our multiethnic investigation suggests potential for the 4K panel to improve current prostate cancer screening practices.

7.
Prostate ; 78(5): 370-376, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29356057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Men of African-ancestry have elevated prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality compared to men of other racial groups. There is support for a genetic contribution to this disparity, with evidence of genetic heterogeneity in the underlying risk alleles between populations. Studies of PCa among African men may inform the contribution of genetic risk factors to the elevated disease burden in this population. METHODS: We conducted an association study of >100 previously reported PCa risk alleles among 571 incidence cases and 485 controls among Uganda men. Unconditional logistic regression was used to test genetic associations and a polygenic risk score (PRS) was derived to assess the cumulative effect of the known risk alleles in association with PCa risk. In an exploratory analysis, we also tested associations of 17 125 421 genotyped and imputed markers genome-wide in association with PCa risk. RESULTS: Of the 111 known risk loci with a frequency >1%, 75 (68%) had effects that were directionally consistent with the initial discovery population,14 (13%) of which were nominally significantly associated with PCa risk at P < 0.05. Compared to men with average risk (25th -75th percentile in PRS distribution), Ugandan men in the top 10% of the PRS, constructed of alleles outside of 8q24, had a 2.9-fold (95%CI: 1.75, 4.97) risk of developing PCa; risk for the top 10% increased to 4.86 (95%CI: 2.70, 8.76) with the inclusion of risk alleles at 8q24. In genome-wide association testing, the strongest associations were noted with known risk alleles located in the 8q24 region, including rs72725854 (OR = 3.37, P = 2.14 × 10-11 ) that is limited to populations of African ancestry (6% frequency). CONCLUSIONS: The ∼100 known PCa risk variants were shown to effectively stratify PCa risk in Ugandan men, with 10% of men having a >4-fold increase in risk. The 8q24 risk region was also found to be a major contributor to PCa risk in Ugandan men, with the African ancestry-specific risk variant rs72725854 estimated to account for 12% of PCa in this population.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Idoso , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
8.
Carcinogenesis ; 37(6): 547-556, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27207650

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 58 susceptibility alleles across 37 regions associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) with P < 5×10(-8) Most studies have been conducted in non-Hispanic whites and East Asians; however, the generalizability of these findings and the potential for ethnic-specific risk variation in Hispanic and Latino (HL) individuals have been largely understudied. We describe the first GWAS of common genetic variation contributing to CRC risk in HL (1611 CRC cases and 4330 controls). We also examine known susceptibility alleles and implement imputation-based fine-mapping to identify potential ethnicity-specific association signals in known risk regions. We discovered 17 variants across 4 independent regions that merit further investigation due to suggestive CRC associations (P < 1×10(-6)) at 1p34.3 (rs7528276; Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.86 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47-2.36); P = 2.5×10(-7)], 2q23.3 (rs1367374; OR = 1.37 (95% CI: 1.21-1.55); P = 4.0×10(-7)), 14q24.2 (rs143046984; OR = 1.65 (95% CI: 1.36-2.01); P = 4.1×10(-7)) and 16q12.2 [rs142319636; OR = 1.69 (95% CI: 1.37-2.08); P=7.8×10(-7)]. Among the 57 previously published CRC susceptibility alleles with minor allele frequency ≥1%, 76.5% of SNPs had a consistent direction of effect and 19 (33.3%) were nominally statistically significant (P < 0.05). Further, rs185423955 and rs60892987 were identified as novel secondary susceptibility variants at 3q26.2 (P = 5.3×10(-5)) and 11q12.2 (P = 6.8×10(-5)), respectively. Our findings demonstrate the importance of fine mapping in HL. These results are informative for variant prioritization in functional studies and future risk prediction modeling in minority populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Idoso , Alelos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Am J Epidemiol ; 181(11): 889-97, 2015 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25858290

RESUMO

Studies have provided evidence of an inverse association between atopic allergic conditions (AACs) and invasive colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality in predominantly white populations. We examined the association between AACs (asthma, hay fever, or allergy) and CRC among white, African-American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese-American, and Latino men and women in the Multiethnic Cohort Study within Hawaii and Los Angeles, California. The prospective analysis included 4,834 incident CRC cases and 1,363 CRC-related deaths ascertained between 1993 and 2010. We examined associations by ethnicity, location, stage, and potential effect modification by CRC risk factors. AACs were associated with a reduced risk of CRC incidence among both men and women (relative risk (RR) = 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80, 0.92). The reduction in risk was noted in all populations except Latinos and was significant in whites (RR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.73, 0.98), African Americans (RR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.70, 0.95), Native Hawaiians (RR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.96), and Japanese Americans (RR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.78, 0.98). Individuals with AACs also had a 20% reduction in CRC-related mortality (P = 0.001). These findings provide evidence for the potential protective role of the reactive immune system in colorectal cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/etnologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hawaii/epidemiologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Japão/etnologia , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Nat Genet ; 46(10): 1103-9, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25217961

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 76 variants associated with prostate cancer risk predominantly in populations of European ancestry. To identify additional susceptibility loci for this common cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of > 10 million SNPs in 43,303 prostate cancer cases and 43,737 controls from studies in populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry. Twenty-three new susceptibility loci were identified at association P < 5 × 10(-8); 15 variants were identified among men of European ancestry, 7 were identified in multi-ancestry analyses and 1 was associated with early-onset prostate cancer. These 23 variants, in combination with known prostate cancer risk variants, explain 33% of the familial risk for this disease in European-ancestry populations. These findings provide new regions for investigation into the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and demonstrate the usefulness of combining ancestrally diverse populations to discover risk loci for disease.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
11.
BMC Med Genet ; 14: 98, 2013 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24063630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS) within European populations have implicated common genetic variants associated with insulin and glucose concentrations. In contrast, few studies have been conducted within minority groups, which carry the highest burden of impaired glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes in the U.S. METHODS: As part of the 'Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Consortium, we investigated the association of up to 10 GWAS-identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 genetic regions with glucose or insulin concentrations in up to 36,579 non-diabetic subjects including 23,323 European Americans (EA) and 7,526 African Americans (AA), 3,140 Hispanics, 1,779 American Indians (AI), and 811 Asians. We estimated the association between each SNP and fasting glucose or log-transformed fasting insulin, followed by meta-analysis to combine results across PAGE sites. RESULTS: Overall, our results show that 9/9 GWAS SNPs are associated with glucose in EA (p = 0.04 to 9 × 10-15), versus 3/9 in AA (p= 0.03 to 6 × 10-5), 3/4 SNPs in Hispanics, 2/4 SNPs in AI, and 1/2 SNPs in Asians. For insulin we observed a significant association with rs780094/GCKR in EA, Hispanics and AI only. CONCLUSIONS: Generalization of results across multiple racial/ethnic groups helps confirm the relevance of some of these loci for glucose and insulin metabolism. Lack of association in non-EA groups may be due to insufficient power, or to unique patterns of linkage disequilibrium.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Insulina/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Idoso , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Loci Gênicos , Genômica , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/genética , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/genética
12.
PLoS One ; 8(2): e57298, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23468962

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) simultaneously investigating hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have become a powerful tool in the investigation of new disease susceptibility loci. Haplotypes are sometimes thought to be superior to SNPs and are promising in genetic association analyses. The application of genome-wide haplotype analysis, however, is hindered by the complexity of haplotypes themselves and sophistication in computation. We systematically analyzed the haplotype effects for breast cancer risk among 5,761 African American women (3,016 cases and 2,745 controls) using a sliding window approach on the genome-wide scale. Three regions on chromosomes 1, 4 and 18 exhibited moderate haplotype effects. Furthermore, among 21 breast cancer susceptibility loci previously established in European populations, 10p15 and 14q24 are likely to harbor novel haplotype effects. We also proposed a heuristic of determining the significance level and the effective number of independent tests by the permutation analysis on chromosome 22 data. It suggests that the effective number was approximately half of the total (7,794 out of 15,645), thus the half number could serve as a quick reference to evaluating genome-wide significance if a similar sliding window approach of haplotype analysis is adopted in similar populations using similar genotype density.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos
13.
Hum Genet ; 132(1): 39-48, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22923054

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in diverse populations are needed to reveal variants that are more common and/or limited to defined populations. We conducted a GWAS of breast cancer in women of African ancestry, with genotyping of >1,000,000 SNPs in 3,153 African American cases and 2,831 controls, and replication testing of the top 66 associations in an additional 3,607 breast cancer cases and 11,330 controls of African ancestry. Two of the 66 SNPs replicated (p < 0.05) in stage 2, which reached statistical significance levels of 10(-6) and 10(-5) in the stage 1 and 2 combined analysis (rs4322600 at chromosome 14q31: OR = 1.18, p = 4.3 × 10(-6); rs10510333 at chromosome 3p26: OR = 1.15, p = 1.5 × 10(-5)). These suggestive risk loci have not been identified in previous GWAS in other populations and will need to be examined in additional samples. Identification of novel risk variants for breast cancer in women of African ancestry will demand testing of a substantially larger set of markers from stage 1 in a larger replication sample.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 7(10): e46454, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23071574

RESUMO

Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is widely used as a diagnostic biomarker for prostate cancer (PC). However, due to its low predictive performance, many patients without PC suffer from the harms of unnecessary prostate needle biopsies. The present study aims to evaluate the reproducibility and performance of a genetic risk prediction model in Japanese and estimate its utility as a diagnostic biomarker in a clinical scenario. We created a logistic regression model incorporating 16 SNPs that were significantly associated with PC in a genome-wide association study of Japanese population using 689 cases and 749 male controls. The model was validated by two independent sets of Japanese samples comprising 3,294 cases and 6,281 male controls. The areas under curve (AUC) of the model were 0.679, 0.655, and 0.661 for the samples used to create the model and those used for validation. The AUCs were not significantly altered in samples with PSA 1-10 ng/ml. 24.2% and 9.7% of the patients had odds ratio <0.5 (low risk) or >2 (high risk) in the model. Assuming the overall positive rate of prostate needle biopsies to be 20%, the positive biopsy rates were 10.7% and 42.4% for the low and high genetic risk groups respectively. Our genetic risk prediction model for PC was highly reproducible, and its predictive performance was not influenced by PSA. The model could have a potential to affect clinical decision when it is applied to patients with gray-zone PSA, which should be confirmed in future clinical studies.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco
15.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 21(11): 2048-58, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22923026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There have been few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of prostate cancer among diverse populations. To search for novel prostate cancer risk variants, we conducted GWAS of prostate cancer in Japanese and Latinos. In addition, we tested prostate cancer risk variants and developed genetic risk models of prostate cancer for Japanese and Latinos. METHODS: Our first-stage GWAS of prostate cancer included Japanese (cases/controls = 1,033/1,042) and Latino (cases/controls = 1,043/1,057) from the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC). Significant associations from stage I (P < 1.0 × 10(-4)) were examined in silico in GWAS of prostate cancer (stage II) in Japanese (cases/controls = 1,583/3,386) and Europeans (cases/controls = 1,854/1,894). RESULTS: No novel stage I single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) outside of known risk regions reached genome-wide significance. For Japanese, in stage I, the most notable putative novel association was seen with 10 SNPs (P ≤ 8.0 × 10(-6)) at chromosome 2q33; however, this was not replicated in stage II. For Latinos, the most significant association was observed with rs17023900 at the known 3p12 risk locus (stage I: OR = 1.45; P = 7.01 × 10(-5) and stage II: OR = 1.58; P = 3.05 × 10(-7)). The majority of the established risk variants for prostate cancer, 79% and 88%, were positively associated with prostate cancer in Japanese and Latinos (stage I), respectively. The cumulative effects of these variants significantly influence prostate cancer risk (OR per allele = 1.10; P = 2.71 × 10(-25) and OR = 1.07; P = 1.02 × 10(-16) for Japanese and Latinos, respectively). CONCLUSION AND IMPACT: Our GWAS of prostate cancer did not identify novel genome-wide significant variants. However, our findings show that established risk variants for prostate cancer significantly contribute to risk among Japanese and Latinos.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , California/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Hawaii/epidemiologia , Humanos , Japão/etnologia , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Risco , Programa de SEER
16.
Diabetes ; 61(6): 1642-7, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22474029

RESUMO

Common genetic risk variants for type 2 diabetes (T2D) have primarily been identified in populations of European and Asian ancestry. We tested whether the direction of association with 20 T2D risk variants generalizes across six major racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. as part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology Consortium (16,235 diabetes case and 46,122 control subjects of European American, African American, Hispanic, East Asian, American Indian, and Native Hawaiian ancestry). The percentage of positive (odds ratio [OR] >1 for putative risk allele) associations ranged from 69% in American Indians to 100% in European Americans. Of the nine variants where we observed significant heterogeneity of effect by racial/ethnic group (P(heterogeneity) < 0.05), eight were positively associated with risk (OR >1) in at least five groups. The marked directional consistency of association observed for most genetic variants across populations implies a shared functional common variant in each region. Fine-mapping of all loci will be required to reveal markers of risk that are important within and across populations.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Grupos Populacionais/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Fatores de Risco
17.
PLoS Genet ; 7(5): e1001387, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21637779

RESUMO

GWAS of prostate cancer have been remarkably successful in revealing common genetic variants and novel biological pathways that are linked with its etiology. A more complete understanding of inherited susceptibility to prostate cancer in the general population will come from continuing such discovery efforts and from testing known risk alleles in diverse racial and ethnic groups. In this large study of prostate cancer in African American men (3,425 prostate cancer cases and 3,290 controls), we tested 49 risk variants located in 28 genomic regions identified through GWAS in men of European and Asian descent, and we replicated associations (at p≤0.05) with roughly half of these markers. Through fine-mapping, we identified nearby markers in many regions that better define associations in African Americans. At 8q24, we found 9 variants (p≤6×10(-4)) that best capture risk of prostate cancer in African Americans, many of which are more common in men of African than European descent. The markers found to be associated with risk at each locus improved risk modeling in African Americans (per allele OR = 1.17) over the alleles reported in the original GWAS (OR = 1.08). In summary, in this detailed analysis of the prostate cancer risk loci reported from GWAS, we have validated and improved upon markers of risk in some regions that better define the association with prostate cancer in African Americans. Our findings with variants at 8q24 also reinforce the importance of this region as a major risk locus for prostate cancer in men of African ancestry.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Carcinogenesis ; 31(6): 1060-7, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20064828

RESUMO

Observational epidemiological studies and randomized trials have reported a protective effect of estrogen and progestin therapy (EPT) on the risk of colorectal cancer but the findings on estrogen-alone therapy (ET) are less consistent. The mechanism by which menopausal hormones influence risk of colorectal cancer has not been well studied. To further investigate the relationship between menopausal hormones and risk of colon cancer, we conducted a population-based case-control study in Los Angeles County involving 831 women with newly diagnosed colon cancer and 755 population-based control women. Risk of colon cancer decreased significantly with increasing duration of current use of ET and EPT; the adjusted relative risk was 0.83 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.76-0.99)] per 5 years of ET use and 0.88 (95% CI = 0.78-0.99) per 5 years of EPT use. Risk of colon cancer was unrelated to past ET or EPT use. We explored if current use of menopausal hormones is associated with DNA methylation of estrogen receptor (ESR1 and ESR2), progesterone receptor and other genes in the colonic tissues of a subset of colon cancer patients (n = 280) we interviewed. Our results suggest that current menopausal hormone users compared with non-current users displayed increased DNA methylation of progesterone receptor in the 'normal' colonic tissues (P = 0.055) and increased DNA methylation of ESR1 in the 'tumorous' colonic tissues (P = 0.056). These findings on DNA methylation and hormone therapy use need confirmation in larger studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Metilação de DNA , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
19.
Am J Epidemiol ; 169(8): 937-45, 2009 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19240222

RESUMO

Among men of European ancestry, diabetics have a lower risk of prostate cancer than do nondiabetics. The biologic basis of this association is unknown. The authors have examined whether the association is robust across populations in a population-based prospective study. The analysis included 5,941 prostate cancer cases identified over a 12-year period (1993-2005) among 86,303 European-American, African-American, Latino, Japanese-American, and Native Hawaiian men from the Multiethnic Cohort. The association between diabetes and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels (n = 2,874) and PSA screening frequencies (n = 46,970) was also examined. Diabetics had significantly lower risk of prostate cancer than did nondiabetics (relative risk = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74, 0.87; P < 0.001), with relative risks ranging from 0.65 (95% CI: 0.50, 0.84; P = 0.001) among European Americans to 0.89 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.03; P = 0.13) among African Americans. Mean PSA levels were significantly lower in diabetics than in nondiabetics (mean PSA levels, 1.07 and 1.28, respectively; P = 0.003) as were PSA screening frequencies (44.7% vs. 48.6%; P < 0.001); however, this difference could explain only a small portion ( approximately 20%) of the inverse association between these diseases. Diabetes is a protective factor for prostate cancer across populations, suggesting shared risk factors that influence a common mechanism.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais Nativos do Continente Americano/estatística & dados numéricos , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguimentos , Hawaii/epidemiologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Antígeno Prostático Específico/análise , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco
20.
PLoS One ; 2(4): e377, 2007 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17440613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality varies across racial and ethnic groups in the U.S., and the extent that known risk factors can explain the differences has not been extensively explored. METHODS: We examined the risk of dying from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and other heart disease (OHD) among 139,406 African-American (AA), Native Hawaiian (NH), Japanese-American (JA), Latino and White men and women initially free from cardiovascular disease followed prospectively between 1993-1996 and 2003 in the Multiethnic Cohort Study (MEC). During this period, 946 deaths from AMI and 2,323 deaths from OHD were observed. Relative risks of AMI and OHD mortality were calculated accounting for established CVD risk factors: body mass index (BMI), hypertension, diabetes, smoking, alcohol consumption, amount of vigorous physical activity, educational level, diet and, for women, type and age at menopause and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use. RESULTS: Established CVD risk factors explained much of the observed racial and ethnic differences in risk of AMI and OHD mortality. After adjustment, NH men and women had greater risks of OHD than Whites (69% excess, P<0.001 and 62% excess, P = 0.003, respectively), and AA women had greater risks of AMI (48% excess, P = 0.01) and OHD (35% excess, P = 0.007). JA men had lower risks of AMI (51% deficit, P<0.001) and OHD (27% deficit, P = 0.001), as did JA women (AMI, 37% deficit, P = 0.03; OHD, 40% deficit, P = 0.001). Latinos had underlying lower risk of AMI death (26% deficit in men and 35% in women, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Known risk factors explain the majority of racial and ethnic differences in mortality due to AMI and OHD. The unexplained excess in NH and AA and the deficits in JA suggest the presence of unmeasured determinants for cardiovascular mortality that are distributed unequally across these populations.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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