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1.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(2)2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893856

RESUMO

Domestic sheep and their wild relatives harbor substantial genetic variants that can form the backbone of molecular breeding, but their genome landscapes remain understudied. Here, we present a comprehensive genome resource for wild ovine species, landraces and improved breeds of domestic sheep, comprising high-coverage (∼16.10×) whole genomes of 810 samples from 7 wild species and 158 diverse domestic populations. We detected, in total, ∼121.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms, ∼61 million of which are novel. Some display significant (P < 0.001) differences in frequency between wild and domestic species, or are private to continent-wide or individual sheep populations. Retained or introgressed wild gene variants in domestic populations have contributed to local adaptation, such as the variation in the HBB associated with plateau adaptation. We identified novel and previously reported targets of selection on morphological and agronomic traits such as stature, horn, tail configuration, and wool fineness. We explored the genetic basis of wool fineness and unveiled a novel mutation (chr25: T7,068,586C) in the 3'-UTR of IRF2BP2 as plausible causal variant for fleece fiber diameter. We reconstructed prehistorical migrations from the Near Eastern domestication center to South-and-Southeast Asia and found two main waves of migrations across the Eurasian Steppe and the Iranian Plateau in the Early and Late Bronze Ages. Our findings refine our understanding of genome variation as shaped by continental migrations, introgression, adaptation, and selection of sheep.


Assuntos
Genoma , Carneiro Doméstico , Animais , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Variação Genética , Irã (Geográfico) , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética
2.
Mol Biol Evol ; 38(3): 838-855, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941615

RESUMO

How animals, particularly livestock, adapt to various climates and environments over short evolutionary time is of fundamental biological interest. Further, understanding the genetic mechanisms of adaptation in indigenous livestock populations is important for designing appropriate breeding programs to cope with the impacts of changing climate. Here, we conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of diversity, interspecies introgression, and climate-mediated selective signatures in a global sample of sheep and their wild relatives. By examining 600K and 50K genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from 3,447 samples representing 111 domestic sheep populations and 403 samples from all their seven wild relatives (argali, Asiatic mouflon, European mouflon, urial, snow sheep, bighorn, and thinhorn sheep), coupled with 88 whole-genome sequences, we detected clear signals of common introgression from wild relatives into sympatric domestic populations, thereby increasing their genomic diversities. The introgressions provided beneficial genetic variants in native populations, which were significantly associated with local climatic adaptation. We observed common introgression signals of alleles in olfactory-related genes (e.g., ADCY3 and TRPV1) and the PADI gene family including in particular PADI2, which is associated with antibacterial innate immunity. Further analyses of whole-genome sequences showed that the introgressed alleles in a specific region of PADI2 (chr2: 248,302,667-248,306,614) correlate with resistance to pneumonia. We conclude that wild introgression enhanced climatic adaptation and resistance to pneumonia in sheep. This has enabled them to adapt to varying climatic and environmental conditions after domestication.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Introgressão Genética , Ovinos/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Mudança Climática , Variação Genética , Filogeografia , Pneumonia/imunologia , Ovinos/imunologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2815, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499537

RESUMO

Understanding the genetic changes underlying phenotypic variation in sheep (Ovis aries) may facilitate our efforts towards further improvement. Here, we report the deep resequencing of 248 sheep including the wild ancestor (O. orientalis), landraces, and improved breeds. We explored the sheep variome and selection signatures. We detected genomic regions harboring genes associated with distinct morphological and agronomic traits, which may be past and potential future targets of domestication, breeding, and selection. Furthermore, we found non-synonymous mutations in a set of plausible candidate genes and significant differences in their allele frequency distributions across breeds. We identified PDGFD as a likely causal gene for fat deposition in the tails of sheep through transcriptome, RT-PCR, qPCR, and Western blot analyses. Our results provide insights into the demographic history of sheep and a valuable genomic resource for future genetic studies and improved genome-assisted breeding of sheep and other domestic animals.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais Selvagens/genética , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Alelos , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Variação Genética , Genética , Genômica , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Mutação , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Seleção Genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ovinos , Especificidade da Espécie , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
4.
Theriogenology ; 107: 85-94, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29132039

RESUMO

Gonadotropins and growth factors synergistically regulate folliculogenesis and oocyte development. C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12) and its receptor CXCR4 are expressed in ovaries of sheep, cattle and other species, however, roles of this multifunctional signal axis in oocyte maturation are not defined. Using sheep as a model, we examined the expression patterns and functions of the CXCL12-CXCR4 axis during oocyte maturation. CXCL12 and CXCR4 mRNA and protein were present in oocytes and granulosa cells. Relative abundance of CXCR4 transcript was controlled by epidermal growth factor (EGF). Transient inhibition of CXCR4 suppressed oocyte nuclear maturation while supplementing recombination CXCL12 significantly increased percent of oocyte undergone metaphase I phase. Inhibition of CXCR4 function decreased cumulus expansion growth rate. Furthermore, granulosa cell migration was impaired and expression of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) and hyaluronan binding protein tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 6 (TNFAIP6) were downregulated by CXCR4 inhibition. These findings revealed a novel role of the CXCL12-CXCR4 signaling in oocyte development in sheep.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL12/metabolismo , Células do Cúmulo/fisiologia , Oócitos/fisiologia , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo , Ovinos , Animais , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL12/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células da Granulosa/fisiologia , Hialuronan Sintases/genética , Hialuronan Sintases/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores CXCR4/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
5.
Int Dent J ; 66(6): 325-329, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27424879

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between post-extraction pain and acute pulpitis in third molars. METHODS: This study was a randomised controlled trial. Sixty patients requiring removal of a single maxillary third molar with acute pulpitis were included and randomly divided into two groups: group A (n = 30); and group B (n = 30). In group A, third molars were directly extracted, and group B received endodontic therapy (pulp chamber opening and drainage) and underwent extraction 24 hours later, aiming to eliminate the acute inflammation. Another 30 patients requiring removal of a single maxillary third molar and with the same inclusion criteria but without caries or acute pulpitis were recruited into group C, in which the maxillary third molars were also directly extracted. The level of postoperative pain reported each day among the three groups was statistically evaluated. RESULTS: On the first, second and third days after surgery, there was a statistically significant difference between group A and group B and between group A and group C, but there was no statistically significant difference between group B and group C. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study indicate that there is more pain when third molars with acute pulpitis are directly removed compared with the pain level of the removal of third molars without acute pulpitis.


Assuntos
Dente Serotino/cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Pulpite/cirurgia , Extração Dentária/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pulpite/complicações , Extração Dentária/métodos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Yi Chuan ; 33(7): 757-62, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22049690

RESUMO

RNA interference is an efficient method for exploring gene function. Accumulating evidence suggests that RNA Pol II promoters can direct cell- or tissue-specific gene silencing. A eGFP-shRNA fusion construct transcribed from an RNA Pol II promoter (K14 promoter) was used to induce gene-specific shRNA silencing ofBMP4 gene expression. Recombinant vectors (pEGFP-C1-shRNA, psiCHECK-BMP4, and pEGFP-K14-shRNA) were constructed. Vectors pEGFP-C1-shRNA and psiCHECK-BMP4 were cotransfected into Hela cells (in vitro) and shRNA-induced inhibition efficiency was tested by a luciferase assay. The results showed that all the six interference sequences inhibited the expression of BMP4 with high efficiency (>60%), and the interference sequence 5# showed the highest efficiency. For in vivo screening of JB6-C41 cells transfected with vector pEGFP-K14-shRNA, the inhibition efficiency was assayed by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses. The results showed that the mRNA and protein products of the exogenous BMP4 gene were efficiently and specifically inhibited. The efficiency of gene silencing was greater than 60%, except for sequence 3#. The declines in mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly correlated during gene silence by the shRNA. This system may be adapted for in vivo shRNA expression and gene silencing. This method may provide a novel approach for the application of RNAi technology in suppressing gene expression in the analysis of the mechanisms of hair follicle development in sheep.


Assuntos
DNA Polimerase II/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Clonagem Molecular , Humanos , Camundongos , Especificidade de Órgãos , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Ovinos
7.
Reprod Fertil Dev ; 21(2): 323-32, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19210923

RESUMO

The present study aims to investigate major changes in porcine oocytes during ageing in vitro. After the oocytes were cultured for 44, 56, 68 and 80 h, changes to porcine oocytes in ultrastructure, mitochondrial distribution, glutathione (GSH) and ATP content, Ca(2+) release patterns and developmental competence after electro-activation were observed. Mitochondria were evenly distributed in oocytes at 44 h, aggregated in clusters or in peripheral cytoplasm at 68 h and dimly dispersed throughout ooplasm at 80 h. Mitochondrial shape during ageing was also observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) at the same time intervals. Most mitochondria were spherical at 44 h, and became elongated when the culture time was extended to 68 h and 80 h. Moreover, mitochondrial clustering became increasingly loose from 56 h. Lipid droplets in oocytes appeared prominent and electron-dense at 44 h, but electron density was lost at 56 h. Lipid droplets were solidified as of 68 h. There was an age-dependent decrease in ATP content per oocyte. Glutathione content per oocyte decreased significantly and remained lower after 56 h. Amplitudes of [Ca(2+)] rise decreased dramatically following 56 h, and the time required for [Ca(2+)] to plateau became shorter after electro-activation with prolonged culture time. Cleavage and blastocyst rates of aged oocytes progressively decreased, while the fragmentation rate gradually increased after electro-activation. It is concluded that abnormal changes in mitochondria, lipid droplets, Ca(2+) release after electro-activation, and ATP and GSH content in oocytes during ageing may result in poor developmental competence of parthenotes.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Sinalização do Cálcio , Senescência Celular , Glutationa/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Oócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Estimulação Elétrica , Feminino , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Oócitos/ultraestrutura , Partenogênese , Suínos , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 114(1-3): 279-88, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19008058

RESUMO

The present study was to investigate effects of synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF) and Charles Rosenkrans medium (CR1) culture systems on developmental competence and cell apoptosis of ovine in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos. Ovine presumptive IVF zygotes were cultured in the following six media: (1) SOF supplemented with amino acids (SOFaa) and 8 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA) for 9 days (SOFaaBSA); (2) SOFaa supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 9 days (SOFaaFBS); (3) SOFaaBSA for first 3 days and then SOFaaFBS for later 6 days (SOFaaBSA-FBS); (4) CR1 supplemented with amino acids (CR1aa) and 8 mg/ml BSA for 9 days (CR1aaBSA); (5) CR1aa supplemented with 10% FBS for 9 days (CR1aaFBS); (6) CR1aaBSA for first 3 days and then CR1aaFBS for later 6 days (CR1aaBSA-FBS). The rates of blastocyst and hatched blastocyst in group 1, group 3 and group 6 were not different (P>0.05), but were greater than in other three groups (P<0.05). In SOF and CR1 cultural system, SOFaaBSA and CR1aaBSA-FBS provided the highest blastocyst rates respectively. Both numbers of total cell and trophectoderm (TE) in expanded or hatched blastocyst from SOFaaBSA were significantly higher than CR1aaBSA-FBS (P<0.05). However, the inner cell mass (ICM) cell number and ratio of ICM to TE cell in expanded or hatched blastocysts were not different between two groups (P>0.05). The apoptotic signals were firstly observed at 8-cell stage in two groups and became stronger and stronger with the development of embryos. Rates of embryos with apoptotic signals in group 6 at morula or blastocyst were greater than in group 1 (P<0.05). The apoptotic nuclei numbers of morula or blastocyst in group 6 were also significantly higher than group 1 (P<0.05). It is concluded that CR1aaBSA-FBS can support in vitro development of ovine IVF embryos, but SOFaaBSA is more suitable.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultura/química , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária/veterinária , Fertilização In Vitro/veterinária , Ovinos/embriologia , Zigoto/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Contagem de Células , Feminino , Coloração e Rotulagem
9.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 113(1-4): 156-66, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18804336

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate factors that affect the efficiency of blastocyst development and enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) expression in porcine embryos following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-mediated DNA transfer. Frozen-thawed dead spermatozoa were exposed to different concentrations (0.01 microg/mL, 0.05 microg/mL or 0.1 microg/mL) of EGFP DNA solution, and then microinjected into in vitro matured oocytes. The optimal concentration for EGFP expression of resultant embryos was 0.05 microg/mL. When oocytes were microinjected on a warm stage at 30 degrees C, the percentage of EGFP-expressing embryos was higher than that at 38.5 degrees C (40.1% vs. 20.9%, P<0.01). The efficiency of EGFP expression in embryos following ICSI using linear EGFP DNA-exposed spermatozoa was higher than using circular DNA (40.8% vs. 28.2%, P<0.05). ICSI oocytes treated with 6-DMAP after electro-activation had a higher percentage of embryos expressing EGFP than those not treated (52.5% vs. 26.3%, P<0.01). However, neither incubation temperatures of spermatozoa and DNA (4 degrees C, 24 degrees C or 39 degrees C) nor BSA addition to the incubation medium affected the efficiency of producing EGFP-expressing embryos. Furthermore, treatment with DNase I after preincubation of sperm and DNA prevented the embryos from expressing EGFP. The EGFP expression of ICSI oocytes was affected neither by intracytoplasmic injection using sperm heads or whole spermatozoa, nor by washing of the sperm after preincubation. The above-mentioned factors did not affect embryonic developmental competence, apart from 6-DMAP treatment after electro-activation. In conclusion, most exogenous DNA molecules were tightly bound on the membranes of sperm head after incubation of DNA and sperm, and the temperature during ICSI, 6-DMAP treatment, exogenous DNA concentrations and constructs could significantly affect EGFP expression in porcine embryos following ICSI-mediated DNA transfer.


Assuntos
Clonagem de Organismos , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas , Sus scrofa/embriologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Clonagem de Organismos/métodos , Clonagem de Organismos/veterinária , Eficiência , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Feminino , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Masculino , Controle de Qualidade , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas/métodos , Sus scrofa/genética
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