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1.
Org Biomol Chem ; 18(3): 400-404, 2020 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907499

RESUMO

A mild silver-catalyzed decarboxylative difluoromethylarylation of electron-deficient N-heteroarenes has been developed by using aryldifluoro acetic acid as difluoromethyl sources. This protocol provides an efficient and straightforward access to difluoromethylated heteroarenes in moderate to excellent yields with good selectivities. Furthermore, this reaction was applicable to bioactive heteroarenes, providing a straightforward approach for the late-stage C-H difluoromethylation of pharmacophores.

2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(3): 703-711, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904950

RESUMO

In crop plants, the yield loss caused by drought exceeds the losses resulting from other adverse environment stresses. In numerous plant species, seedling establishment is positively correlated with the initial seed size under drought stress conditions. In intra- and interspecies, plants with large seeds can withstand water deficiency stresses, whereas those with small seeds are efficient colonizers as a result of their ability to produce more seeds. Therefore, larger initial seeds confer more drought resistance on germinating seedlings. Although this phenomenon has been observed by evolutionary biologists and ecologists, the correlation of initial seed size with the drought resistance of seedlings/plants is not well-reviewed and characterized. Furthermore, the related molecular mechanisms are unknown. Understanding these mechanisms will benefit future breeding or design strategies to increase crop yields. In the present review, we focus on recent research to analyze the genetic factors of plants/crops involved in the regulation of seed size and drought tolerance and their corresponding signal transduction pathways. Several signaling pathways that determine plant drought tolerance through influencing the initial seed size are identified. Such pathways include those that are involved in mitogen-activated protein kinase, abscisic acid, brassinosteroids, and several transcription factors and sugar signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/química , Produtos Agrícolas/classificação , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Água/análise , Água/metabolismo
3.
Org Lett ; 22(3): 991-996, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967845

RESUMO

α-Deuterated alcohols have important applications in pharmaceuticals and mechanism studies. Here, we report a new and practical strategy for the reductive deuteration of ketones using a Mg/BrCH2CH2Br/D2O system, which affords α-deuterated alcohols in good yields and with almost quantitative incorporation of deuterium. The synthetic value of this method has been demonstrated by the easy access to deuterated drugs or drug derivatives. This method may inspire the discovery of other deuterium-containing drugs.

4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(1): e1918205, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899529

RESUMO

Importance: Many patients who are hospitalized cannot use inhalers correctly, yet education for their use is often not provided. To address the need for an effective intervention feasible for wide-scale implementation, a virtual teach-to-goal intervention was developed to provide tailored patient-directed education using adaptive learning technology. Objective: To assess whether the virtual teach-to-goal intervention is noninferior to an in-person teach-to-goal intervention for improving inhaler technique. Design, Setting, and Participants: An equivalence and noninferiority randomized clinical trial took place from January 13, 2016, through September 20, 2017, with analyses conducted between October 25, 2017, and September 23, 2019. Adult inpatients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) admitted to general inpatient wards were eligible. Enrolled participants were randomized to virtual (n = 61) or in-person (n = 60) educational interventions. Investigators and research assistants were masked to interventions. Initial enrollment, study assessments, and delivery of the educational intervention occurred in the hospital; participants returned at 30 days for a follow-up research visit. Interventions: Virtual education was a module delivered via handheld tablet with self-assessment questions before demonstration, narrated video demonstration of the correct technique, and self-assessment questions after demonstration; up to 3 rounds were repeated as needed. In-person education participants received iterative rounds of inhaler technique assessment and education by trained staff. Main Outcomes and Measures: Noninferiority testing of whether virtual vs in-person education achieved an equal percentage with correct inhaler technique after education (>9 of 12 steps correct) against an a priori noninferiority limit of -10%; logistic regression models were used to adjust for differences in baseline technique and health literacy. Results: Among 118 participants (59 in each group), most were black (114 [97%]) and female (76 [64%]), with a mean (SD) age of 54.5 (13.0) years. Correct technique increased similarly before vs after education in virtual (67%; range, 2%-69%) and in-person (66%; range, 17% to 83%) groups, although the difference after intervention exceeded the noninferiority limit (-14%; 95% CI lower bound, -26%). When adjusting for baseline inhaler technique, the difference was equivalent to the noninferiority limit (-10%; 95% CI lower bound, -22%). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that patient-directed virtual education similarly improved the percentage of participants with correct technique compared with in-person education. Future work should confirm whether virtual teach-to-goal education is noninferior to in-person education and whether it is associated with long-term skills retention, medication adherence, and improved health outcomes. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02611531.

5.
Neurosci Bull ; 36(2): 165-173, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482520

RESUMO

In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the mediation of iron transport by L-type Ca2+ channels (LTCCs) in primary cultured ventral mesencephalon (VM) neurons from rats. We found that co-treatment with 100 µmol/L FeSO4 and MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium) significantly increased the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, decreased the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and increased the caspase-3 activation compared to MPP+ treatment alone. Co-treatment with 500 µmol/L CaCl2 further aggravated the FeSO4-induced neurotoxicity in MPP+-treated VM neurons. Co-treatment with 10 µmol/L isradipine, an LTCC blocker, alleviated the neurotoxicity induced by co-application of FeSO4 and FeSO4/CaCl2. Further studies indicated that MPP+ treatment accelerated the iron influx into VM neurons. In addition, FeSO4 treatment significantly increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. These effects were blocked by isradipine. These results suggest that elevated extracellular Ca2+ aggravates iron-induced neurotoxicity. LTCCs mediate iron transport in dopaminergic neurons and this, in turn, results in elevated intracellular Ca2+ and further aggravates iron-induced neurotoxicity.

6.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 84(1): 85-94, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794329

RESUMO

Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) regulates collagen-mediated platelet activation through its cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIMs). However, the function of CEACAM1's extracellular cleavage fragments is currently unknown. In the present study, we used mass spectrometry (MS) to identify 9 cleavage fragments shed by matrix metallopeptidase 12 (MMP-12), and then we synthesized peptides with sequences corresponding to the fragments. QLSNGNRTLT (QLSN), a peptide from the A1-domain of CEACAM1, significantly attenuated collagen-induced platelet aggregation. QLSN also attenuated platelet static adhesion to collagen. Additionally, QLSN reduced human platelet secretion and integrin αIIbß3 activation in response to glycoprotein VI (GPVI)-selective agonist, convulxin. Correspondingly, QLSN treatment significantly decreased convulxin-mediated phosphorylation of Src, protein kinase B (Akt), spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2) in human platelets. These data indicate that the CEACAM1-derived peptide QLSN inhibits GPVI-mediated human platelet activation. QLSN could potentially be developed as a novel antiplatelet agent.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/farmacologia , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoproteínas da Membrana de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Venenos de Crotalídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Motivo de Inibição do Imunorreceptor Baseado em Tirosina/fisiologia , Lectinas Tipo C , Metaloproteinase 12 da Matriz/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/síntese química , Fosfolipase C gama/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoproteínas da Membrana de Plaquetas/agonistas , Domínios Proteicos/fisiologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Quinase Syk/metabolismo
7.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 27(6): 1761-1766, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839035

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the apoptosis of CD34+CD38--KG1a leukemia stem cells induced by Qinba selenium-mushroom extract(FA-2-b-ß), and its related mechanism. METHODS: CD34+CD38---KG1a cells were isolated from KG1a cell line by magnetic activated cell sorting. The proliferation ability of KG1a stem cells treatd by various concentration of FA-2-b-ß(1.2-2.4 mg/ml) in vitro for 24 and 48 hours were tested by cell counting Kit-8(CCK8). Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis rate of KG1a stem cells in each group after treated by FA-2-b-ß in vitro. Expression of BAX,BCL-2,Casepase-3 and Cyclin D1 protein were detected by Western blot. RESULTS: The proportion of CD34+CD38---KG1a stem cells was (95.35±2.63)% after immunomagnetic isolation. The proliferation of KG1a stem cells was inhibited significantly by FA-2-b-ß, which shows a time- and dose-dependent manner (24 h,r=0.943; 48 h,r=0.976). Flow cytometry shows that with the increasing of drug concentration, the apoptosis was also increased, when KG1a stem cells was treated by FA-2-b-ß for 24 h. Western blot indicated that the expression of apoptosis-related protein BAX and Casepase-3 were up-regulated, the expression of BCL-2 and Cyclin D1 were down-regulated. CONCLUSION: FA-2-b-ß can regulate proliferation and apoptosis KG1a stem cells, the involved mechanism may be related with the activation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Neoplásicas , ADP-Ribosil Ciclase 1 , Antígenos CD34 , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana , Selênio
8.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 27(6): 1831-1837, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839046

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression and clinical significance of chemokine receptor CXCR3 in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). METHODS: Flow cytometry was used to detect CXCR3 in lymph nodes and extranodal tissues in 25 newly diagnosed MCL patients. The correlation of the expression of CXCR3 level with clinical features and prognostic factors was analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty-five tumor submitted specimens all expressed CXCR3 at varied degrees. The expression levels of CXCR3 in lymph nodes (LN) and bone marrow (BM) were higher than those in peripheral blood (PB), and the expression intensity in BM positively correlated with the involved tumor numbers. The absolute values of lymphocytes and hemoglobins level in PB of CXCR3high group were significantly lower than those in CXCR3low group (all P<005). The CXCR3 expression in tumor cells significantly correlated with LDH level, ß2-MG level, Ki-67 index, MIPI score and the BM involvement (all P<0.05). But, there was no correlation between the CXCR3 expression and clinical stage, histomorphology (all P>0.05). The overall response rate (ORR) in CXCR3low group was significantly higher than that in CXCR3high group (P=0.001). The expression level of CXCR3 in MCL cells of the effective group was significantly lower than that before treatment (P=0.038), and the CXCR3 expression in the ineffective group was significantly higher than that before treatment (P=0.002). After following up, it was found that the 3-year overall survival (OS) time and progression-free survival (PFS) time in CXCR3high group were significantly shorter than those in CXCR3low group (all P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The expression level of CXCR3 in MCL closely relates with early metastasis and prognosis. CXCR3 can be used as one of the indicators for clinical efficacy and prognosis evaluation.


Assuntos
Linfoma de Célula do Manto , Receptores CXCR3/metabolismo , Medula Óssea , Humanos , Linfócitos , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 9864-9874, 2019 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) occurs approximately every 40 seconds, and was an underlying cause of death in 1 out of every 7 deaths. More accurate indicators are needed to distinguish patients with ACS from patients manifesting negative changes in electrocardiogram (ECG) and myocardial enzymes. This study aimed to investigate whether the expression of platelet carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule-5 (CEACAM5/CEA/CD66e) could help predict ACS. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 82 participants (mean age 60 years, 33 females and 49 males). The expression of CEA on washed human platelets was assessed using two-color flow cytometry. The CEA levels on platelets and in serum of these 82 consecutive patients were detected using two-color whole-blood flow cytometry analysis and a custom-made Luminex multiplex assay, respectively. RESULTS CEA was expressed on the surface of human platelets. The expression of platelet CEA (P<0.01), but not serum CEA (P=0.30), was significantly higher in patients with ACS compared to patients with normal coronary artery. Increased platelet CEA levels could serve as a new independent indicator for ACS (P=0.0003). Platelet CEA testing (P=0.000002), as well as cardiac troponin I (cTnI) (P=0.0005), can diagnose ACS with high sensitivity and specificity, and, combined with cTnI (P<0.0001), can improve the diagnostic value. CONCLUSIONS Platelet CEA expression was higher in individuals presenting with ACS. Hence, platelet CEA might be a novel and reliable biomarker for ACS. Large-scale studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

10.
BMC Nephrol ; 20(1): 405, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent hyperparathyroidism after kidney transplantation has been associated with adverse outcomes. Parathyroidectomy is the definitive treatment approach, but the success of parathyroidectomy relies on the accurate preoperative localization of the culprit parathyroid lesions. Simultaneous intrathyroidal parathyroid adenomas and multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma present important diagnostic challenges. Here, we describe a patient with kidney transplantation who underwent successful surgery after being evaluated with functional and structural imaging. CASE PRESENTATION: A 53-year-old man presented with potentially malignant multifocal thyroid nodules by ultrasonography 2 years after kidney transplantation. The patient had hypercalcaemia and persistent hyperparathyroidism. Thyroid papillary carcinoma was confirmed in the left thyroid nodules by fine-needle aspiration biopsy. The right superior thyroid hypoechoic nodule was 1.2 cm in size and showed marked uptake of the tracer 99mTcO4-sestamibi during single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT); additionally, a cystic parathyroid lesion without tracer uptake was present behind the left superior pole of the thyroid. The histological examination demonstrated the coexistence of right intrathyroidal parathyroid adenomas, left cystic parathyroid nodular hyperplasia and multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma. At the 6-month follow-up, the serum calcium levels were within the normal range, and the patient's kidney function remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: Simultaneous intrathyroidal parathyroid adenomas and multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma in a patient with kidney transplantation is a rare clinical scenario. Physicians must be aware that the combination of functional (SPECT/CT) and structural (ultrasonography) imaging is highly successful in diagnosing patients with coexistent intrathyroidal parathyroid adenomas and papillary thyroid carcinoma.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746127

RESUMO

Cancer cells have been reported to exhibit high resistance against immune system recognition through various cell intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Considerable challenges have been encountered in monotherapy with chemotherapeutics to attain the desired antitumor efficacy. In this study, a nanodelivery system was designed to incorporate doxorubicin (DOX) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) small interfering RNA (siRNA), that is, siPD-L1. DOX and siPD-L1 were formed from a stimuli-responsive polymer with a poly-L-lysine-lipoic acid reduction-sensitive core and a tumor extracellular pH-stimulated shedding polyethylene glycol layer. The codelivery system was stable under physiological pH conditions and demonstrated enhanced cellular uptake at the tumor site. Moreover, the combined treatment of DOX and siPD-L1 exhibited improved antitumor effect in vitro and in vivo compared with either modality alone. The combination of chemotherapy and immunotherapy presented in this work through the codelivery of a chemotherapeutic agent and a gene-silencing agent (siRNA) may provide a new strategy for cancer treatment.

12.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(42): 16839-16848, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577139

RESUMO

Luminescent polymers are generally constructed through polymerization of luminescent moieties. Polymerization itself, however, is mainly used for constructing polymer main chain, and the importance of polymerization on luminescence has yet to be explored. Here, we demonstrate a polymerization-induced emission strategy producing luminescent polymers by introducing Barbier reaction to hyperbranching polymerization, which allows luminescent properties to be easily tuned from the traditional type to an aggregation-induced emission type by simply adjusting the monomer structure and the polymerization time. When rotation about the phenyl groups in hyperbranched polytriphenylmethanols (HPTPMs) is hindered, HPTPMs exhibit traditional emission property. When all phenyl groups of HPTPM are rotatable, i.e., p,p',p″-HPTPM, it exhibits interesting aggregation-induced emission property with tunable emission colors from blue to yellow, by just adjusting polymerization time. Further applications of aggregation-induced emission type luminescent polymers are illustrated by the facile fabrication of white light-emitting diode (LED) and light-harvesting film with an antenna effect >14. This Barbier hyperbranching polymerization-induced emission provides a new strategy for the design of luminescent polymers and expands the methodology and functionality library of both hyperbranching polymerization and luminescent polymers.

13.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 923, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507419

RESUMO

Background: Xinmailong (XML), a bioactive composite extracted from Periplaneta americana, has been widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure. However, it is unclear whether XML has antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects. Methods: The effects of XML on agonist-induced platelet aggregation, adhesion and spreading, granule secretion, integrin α II bß3 activation, and thrombus formation were evaluated. Phosphorylation of Syk, PLCγ2, Akt, GSK3ß, and MAPK signaling molecules was also studied on agonist-induced platelets. In addition, the antithrombotic effects of XML were observed in vivo using an acute pulmonary thrombosis mouse model. Results: XML dose-dependently inhibited in vitro platelet aggregation and granule secretion induced by thrombin, collagen, and arachidonic acid (AA). XML also greatly reduced platelet adhesion and spreading on both collagen- and fibrinogen-coated surfaces. Biochemical analysis revealed that XML inhibited thrombin-, collagen-, and AA-induced phosphorylation of Syk, PLCγ2, Akt, GSK3ß, and MAPK. Additionally, XML significantly inhibited in vivo thrombus formation in a collagen-epinephrine-induced acute pulmonary thrombosis mouse model. Conclusions and General Significance: Here, we provide the first report showing that XML inhibits platelet function and that it possesses antithrombotic activity. This suggests that XML could be a potential therapeutic candidate to prevent or treat platelet-related cardiovascular diseases.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563552

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the predictors of minimal clinically important changes in actual and perceived functional arm use of the affected upper limb after rehabilitative therapy. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: Outpatient rehabilitation settings. PARTICIPANTS: A cohort of 94 patients with chronic stroke. INTERVENTIONS: Patients received robot-assisted therapy, mirror therapy, or combined therapy for 4 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measures, assessed pre- and post intervention, included actual functional arm use measured by an accelerometer and perceived functional arm use measured by the Motor Activity Log (MAL). Candidate predictors included age, sex, time after stroke, side of stroke, and scores on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Modified Ashworth Scale, Medical Research Council scale, Wolf Motor Function Test, MAL (quality of movement), and Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living. RESULTS: Being male (odds ratio [OR], 3.17; 95% CI, 1.13-8.87) and having a higher than median Medical Research Council score (OR, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.12-6.41) significantly predicted minimal clinically important changes assessed by an accelerometer. Fugl-Meyer Assessment scores (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.11) were a significant predictor of achieving clinically important changes in MAL amount of use. Wolf Motor Function Test (quality) scores (OR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1.38-6.77) could predict clinically important improvements in MAL quality of movement. CONCLUSIONS: Predictors of clinically important changes in the use of the affected upper limb after robot-assisted therapy, mirror therapy, or combined therapy in patients with chronic stroke for 4 weeks differ for actual vs perceived use. Further studies are recommended to validate these findings in a larger sample.

15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9697-9704, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403787

RESUMO

In higher plants, seed size is an important parameter and agricultural trait in many aspects of evolutionary fitness. The loss of water-deficiency-induced crop yield is the largest among all natural hazards. Under water-deficient stress, the most prevalent response to terminal stress is to accelerate the early arrest of floral development and, thereby, to accelerate fruit/seed production, which consequently reduces seed size. This phenomenon is well-known, but its molecular mechanism is not well-reviewed and characterized. However, increasing evidence have indicated that water-deficient stress is always coordinated with three genetic signals (i.e., seed size regulators, initial seed size, and fruit number) that decide the final seed size. Here, our review presents new insights into the mechanism underlying cross-talk water-deficient stress signaling with three genetic signals controlling final seed size. These new insights may aid in preliminary screening, identifying novel genetic factors and future design strategies, or breeding to increase crop yield.


Assuntos
Sementes/citologia , Água/metabolismo , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Água/análise
16.
Nanoscale ; 11(28): 13469-13476, 2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287485

RESUMO

The realization of p-n homojunctions, which can be achieved via spatially controlled carrier-type modulation, remains a challenge for two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides. Here, we report an effective method to tune intrinsic n-type few-layer MoSe2 to p-type through controlling precisely the ultraviolet-ozone treatment time, which can be attributed to the surface charge transfer from the underlying MoSe2 to MoOx (x < 3). The resulting hole mobility and concentration are ∼20.1 cm2 V-1 s-1 and ∼1.9 × 1012 cm-2, respectively, and the on-off ratio is ∼105, which are comparable to the values of pristine n-type MoSe2. Moreover, the lateral p-n homojunction prepared by partially treating MoSe2 displays a high rectification ratio of 2.4 × 104, an ideality factor of 1.1, and a high photoresponsivity of 0.23 A W-1 to the 633 nm laser at Vd = 0 V and Vg = 0 V due to the built-in potential in the p-n homojunction area. Our findings ensure the MoSe2 p-n diode as a promising candidate for future low-power operating photodevices.

17.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(66): 9821-9824, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360953

RESUMO

A new type of organic proton donor for the strong-acid/base-free hydrogen evolution reaction is reported, by taking advantage of the electron deficiency of the boron center of borinic acid and the strong affinity and hydrolysis reaction between borinic acid and water with hydrogen ion formation. The borinic acid proton donor exhibits even higher current density than H2SO4 to promote hydrogen evolution performance in DMF.

18.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 130(8): 1218-1230, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163366

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The now standard cortical stimulation approach of inhibiting contralesional primary motor cortex (cM1) disrupts bimanual coordination while facilitating ipsilesional M1 (iM1) fails to enhance paretic arm function, in severely impaired individuals. We propose an alternative target, enhancing contralesional dorsal premotor cortex (cPMd) to improve bimanual coordination and compare its effects to iM1. METHODS: Fourteen participants with stroke received 5-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on cPMd or iM1 in a repeated cross-over design. Bimanual force/neuromuscular coordination and cortical excitability were assessed. We also examined the relationship of baseline motor function/interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) to participant's responses to each stimulation target. RESULTS: We identified two patterns of responses. Participants with more severe impairment and weaker IHI improved bimanual force/neuromuscular coordination, ipsilesional activations and reduced IHI after cPMd-rTMS; whereas, those with milder impairment and stronger IHI improved only after iM1-rTMS. CONCLUSIONS: Cortical stimulation protocols could be tailored to the types of tasks and to individuals' severity of impairment. Facilitation of cPMd may improve bimanual coordination especially for individuals with limited arm/hand function. SIGNIFICANCE: Our study is the first to identify cortical stimulation strategies for improving bimanual coordination for individuals with different level of severity of stroke.

19.
Diabetes Care ; 42(8): 1589-1592, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) often struggle to achieve glycemic control and maintain routine clinic visits. We aimed to evaluate the societal cost-effectiveness of the Colorado young adults with T1D (CoYoT1) Clinic, an innovative care model of shared medical appointments through home telehealth. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients self-selected into the CoYoT1 (N = 42) or usual care (N = 39) groups. RESULTS: Within the trial, we found no significant differences in 9-month quality-adjusted life; however, the control group had a larger decline from baseline in utility than the CoYoT1 group, indicating a quality of life (QoL) benefit of the intervention (difference in difference mean ± SD: 0.04 ± 0.09; P = 0.03). There was no significant difference in total costs. The CoYoT1 group had more study-related visits but fewer nonstudy office visits and hospitalizations. CONCLUSIONS: The CoYoT1 care model may help young adults with T1D maintain a higher QoL with no increase in costs.

20.
Exp Mol Pathol ; 110: 104278, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247211

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This present study is performed to figure out the role of microRNA-136 (miR-136) in radiosensitivity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells through the regulation of MUC1. METHODS: Seventy-four ESCC patients were divided into radiotherapy sensitive group and radiotherapy resistance group. Colony formation assay and flow cytometry were used to test the radiosensitivity of radiotherapy resistant strain and parent strain. The expression of miR-136 between radiotherapy resistant strain and parent strain was detected by RT-qPCR, and the expression of miR-136 in Eca109 and TE-1 cells as well as Eca109-R and TE-1-R cells was detected after different doses of X-ray irradiation. Eca109 and TE-1 cells as well as Eca109-R and TE-1-R cells with overexpression of miR-136 or co-overexpression of miR-136 and MUC1 were constructed. Cell proliferation, colony formation and apoptosis was detected by CCK-8 assay, colony formation assay, and flow cytometry, respectively. RESULTS: The expression of miR-136 in ESCC tissues was lower and MUC1 mRNA and protein expression was higher than that in adjacent normal tissues. The expression of miR-136 was negatively correlated with the expression of MUC1 mRNA in ESCC. Low expression of miR-136 and high expression of MUC1 were associated with tumor size, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. The expression of miR-136 increased while the expression of MUC1 decreased in the radiotherapy sensitive group of ESCC patients relative to the radiotherapy resistant group. The colony formation ability of radiation resistant cell line was stronger than that of parent cell line, and the apoptosis rate showed an opposite trend. Up-regulation of miR-136 reduced the survival rate, suppressed colony formation ability and induced apoptosis of ESCC cells under irradiation, which was reversed by upregulated MUC1. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that up-regulation of miR-136 induces apoptosis and radiosensitivity of ESCC cells by inhibiting the expression of MUC1.

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