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1.
Light Sci Appl ; 11(1): 299, 2022 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36229447

RESUMO

Monolithic integration of quantum dot (QD) gain materials onto Si photonic platforms via direct epitaxial growth is a promising solution for on-chip light sources. Recent developments have demonstrated superior device reliability in blanket hetero-epitaxy of III-V devices on Si at elevated temperatures. Yet, thick, defect management epi designs prevent vertical light coupling from the gain region to the Si-on-Insulator waveguides. Here, we demonstrate the first electrically pumped QD lasers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a 300 mm patterned (001) Si wafer with a butt-coupled configuration. Unique growth and fabrication challenges imposed by the template architecture have been resolved, contributing to continuous wave lasing to 60 °C and a maximum double-side output power of 126.6 mW at 20 °C with a double-side wall-plug efficiency of 8.6%. The potential for robust on-chip laser operation and efficient low-loss light coupling to Si photonic circuits makes this heteroepitaxial integration platform on Si promising for scalable and low-cost mass production.

2.
Innovation (Camb) ; 3(5): 100304, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091491

RESUMO

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has shown promising results in animal models of obesity, while results in human studies are inconsistent. We aimed to determine factors associated with weight loss after FMT in nine obese subjects using serial multi-omics analysis of the fecal and mucosal microbiome. The mucosal microbiome, fecal microbiome, and fecal metabolome showed individual clustering in each subject after FMT. The colonic microbiome in patients showed more marked variance after FMT compared with the duodenal microbiome, characterized by an increased relative abundance of Bacteroides. Subjects who lost weight after FMT sustained enrichment of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Alistipes onderdonkii in the duodenal, colonic mucosal, and fecal microbiome and increased levels of phosphopantothenate biosynthesis and fecal metabolite eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), compared with those without weight loss. Fecal levels of amino acid metabolism-associated were positively correlated with the fecal abundance of B. bifidum, and fatty acid metabolism-associated metabolites showed positive correlations with A. onderdonkii. We report for the first time the individualized response of fecal and mucosa microbiome to FMT in obese subjects and highlight that FMT is less capable of shaping the small intestine microbiota. These findings contribute to personalized microbe-based therapies for obesity.

3.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35683709

RESUMO

It is well known that initial defects play an essential role in the dynamic failure of materials. In practice, dynamic tension is often realized by release of compression waves. In this work, we consider void-included single-crystal aluminum and investigate the damage characteristics under different shock compression and release based on direct atomistic simulations. Elastic deformation, limited growth and closure of voids, and the typical spall and new nucleation of voids were all observed. In the case of elastic deformation, we observed the oscillatory change of void volume under multiple compression and tension. With the increase of impact velocity, the void volume reduced oscillations to the point of disappearance with apparent strain localization and local plastic deformation. The incomplete or complete collapsed void became the priority of damage growth under tension. An increase in sample length promoted the continuous growth of preset void and the occurrence of fracture. Of course, on the release of strong shock, homogeneous nucleation of voids covered the initial void, leading to a wider range of damaged zones. Finally, the effect of the preset void on the spall strength was presented for different shock pressures and strain rates.

4.
Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf) ; 10: goac009, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35401987

RESUMO

The gut microbiota is considered a key 'metabolic organ'. Its metabolic activities play essential roles complementary to the host metabolic functions. The interplays between gut microbes and commonly used non-antibiotic drugs have garnered substantial attention over the years. Drugs can reshape the gut microorganism communities and, vice versa, the diverse gut microbes can affect drug efficacy by altering the bioavailability and bioactivity of drugs. The metabolism of drugs by gut microbial action or by microbiota-host cometabolism can transform the drugs into various metabolites. Secondary metabolites produced from the gut microbial metabolism of drugs contribute to both the therapeutic benefits and the side effects. In view of the significant effect of the gut microbiota on drug efficiency and clinical outcomes, it is pivotal to explore the interactions between drugs and gut microbiota underlying medical treatments. In this review, we describe and summarize the complex bidirectional interplays between gut microbes and drugs. We also illustrate the gut-microbiota profile altered by non-antibiotic drugs, the impacts and consequences of microbial alteration, and the biochemical mechanism of microbes impacting drug effectiveness. Understanding how the gut microbes interact with drugs and influence the therapeutic efficacy will help in discovering diverse novel avenues of regulating the gut microbes to improve the therapeutic effects and clinical outcomes of a drug in precision.

5.
RSC Adv ; 12(13): 8202-8210, 2022 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35424768

RESUMO

Cadmium ions (Cd2+) have caused relatively serious pollution, threatening human health and ecosystems. l-Cysteine (l-Cys) is an essential amino acid in living organisms and concentration of l-Cys is closely related to some human diseases. In this work, we first introduced 2-amino-3-hydroxypyridine and sodium borohydride as the nitrogen source and boron source to fabricate boron and nitrogen co-doped carbon quantum dots (N,B-CQDs) with high fluorescence quantum yield (21.2%), which were synthesized through a simple, low-consumption and pollution-free one-pot hydrothermal method. The obtained N,B-CQDs are able to detect Cd2+ rapidly and sensitively through fluorescence enhancement, which may be ascribed to chelation enhanced fluorescence that is induced by the formation of the N,B-CQDs/Cd2+ complex. Simultaneously, N,B-CQDs can be used to detect l-cysteine because significant fluorescence quenching was observed when l-Cys was added into the N,B-CQDs/Cd2+ system. In the two fluorescence "turn-on" and "turn-off" processes, this fluorescent probe obtained a good linear relationship over Cd2+ concentration ranging from 2.5 µM to 22.5 µM with a detection limit of 0.45 µM, while the concentration of l-cysteine showed a linear relationship in the range of 2.5-17.5 µM with a detection limit of 0.28 µM. The sensor has been successfully used to detect Cd2+ and l-cysteine in real samples with satisfying results.

6.
Dalton Trans ; 51(14): 5426-5433, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35311836

RESUMO

Temperature sensing plays essential roles in both fundamental research and high-tech applications. In this work, three isomorphic hexanuclear lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs), Ln(BPDC-xN) (Ln = Eu3+/Tb3+, x = 0, 1, 2) were prepared based on the cluster-based synthesis strategy with three structurally similar dicarboxylate ligands 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylic acid (H2BPDC-0N), 6-(4-carboxyphenyl)nicotinic acid (H2BPDC-1N), and [2,2'-bipyridine]-5,5'-dicarboxylic acid (H2BPDC-2N) as the organic linkers. The as-synthesized Ln-MOFs were fully characterized using single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), elemental analysis (EA), and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR). Using a Eu3+/Tb3+ co-doping approach, Eu0.001Tb0.999(BPDC-xN) (x = 0, 1, 2) were identified as potential ratiometric luminescence thermometers. Since there are two suitable distances between the energy donors and acceptors within the framework for efficient energy transfer, all Eu0.001Tb0.999(BPDC-xN) (x = 0, 1, 2) maintain high relative sensitivity over a wide temperature range from 50 K to 300 K.

7.
Gut ; 71(5): 910-918, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312160

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The gut microbiota has been suggested to play a role in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We postulate that children with ASD harbour an altered developmental profile of the gut microbiota distinct from that of typically developing (TD) children. Here, we aimed to characterise compositional and functional alterations in gut microbiome in association with age in children with ASD and to identify novel faecal bacterial markers for predicting ASD. DESIGN: We performed deep metagenomic sequencing in faecal samples of 146 Chinese children (72 ASD and 74 TD children). We compared gut microbial composition and functions between children with ASD and TD children. Candidate bacteria markers were identified and validated by metagenomic analysis. Gut microbiota development in relation to chronological age was assessed using random forest model. RESULTS: ASD and chronological age had the most significant and largest impacts on children's faecal microbiome while diet showed no correlation. Children with ASD had significant alterations in faecal microbiome composition compared with TD children characterised by increased bacterial richness (p=0.021) and altered microbiome composition (p<0.05). Five bacterial species were identified to distinguish gut microbes in ASD and TD children, with areas under the receiver operating curve (AUC) of 82.6% and 76.2% in the discovery cohort and validation cohort, respectively. Multiple neurotransmitter biosynthesis related pathways in the gut microbiome were depleted in children with ASD compared with TD children (p<0.05). Developing dynamics of growth-associated gut bacteria (age-discriminatory species) seen in TD children were lost in children with ASD across the early-life age spectrum. CONCLUSIONS: Gut microbiome in Chinese children with ASD was altered in composition, ecological network and functionality compared with TD children. We identified novel bacterial markers for prediction of ASD and demonstrated persistent underdevelopment of the gut microbiota in children with ASD which lagged behind their respective age-matched peers.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/complicações , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Biomarcadores , Criança , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos
8.
Gastroenterology ; 162(2): 548-561.e4, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with altered gut microbiota composition. Phylogenetic groups of gut bacteria involved in the metabolism of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were depleted in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. We aimed to characterize a functional profile of the gut microbiome in patients with COVID-19 before and after disease resolution. METHODS: We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing on fecal samples from 66 antibiotics-naïve patients with COVID-19 and 70 non-COVID-19 controls. Serial fecal samples were collected (at up to 6 times points) during hospitalization and beyond 1 month after discharge. We assessed gut microbial pathways in association with disease severity and blood inflammatory markers. We also determined changes of microbial functions in fecal samples before and after disease resolution and validated these functions using targeted analysis of fecal metabolites. RESULTS: Compared with non-COVID-19 controls, patients with COVID-19 with severe/critical illness showed significant alterations in gut microbiome functionality (P < .001), characterized by impaired capacity of gut microbiome for SCFA and L-isoleucine biosynthesis and enhanced capacity for urea production. Impaired SCFA and L-isoleucine biosynthesis in gut microbiome persisted beyond 30 days after recovery in patients with COVID-19. Targeted analysis of fecal metabolites showed significantly lower fecal concentrations of SCFAs and L-isoleucine in patients with COVID-19 before and after disease resolution. Lack of SCFA and L-isoleucine biosynthesis significantly correlated with disease severity and increased plasma concentrations of CXCL-10, NT- proB-type natriuretic peptide, and C-reactive protein (all P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Gut microbiome of patients with COVID-19 displayed impaired capacity for SCFA and L-isoleucine biosynthesis that persisted even after disease resolution. These 2 microbial functions correlated with host immune response underscoring the importance of gut microbial functions in SARS-CoV-2 infection pathogenesis and outcome.


Assuntos
COVID-19/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/biossíntese , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Imunidade/fisiologia , Isoleucina/biossíntese , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 91, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the enveloped RNA virus SARS-CoV-2 primarily affects the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. SARS-CoV-2 was isolated from fecal samples, and active viral replication was reported in human intestinal cells. The human gut also harbors an enormous amount of resident viruses (collectively known as the virome) that play a role in regulating host immunity and disease pathophysiology. Understanding gut virome perturbation that underlies SARS-CoV-2 infection and severity is an unmet need. METHODS: We enrolled 98 COVID-19 patients with varying disease severity (3 asymptomatic, 53 mild, 34 moderate, 5 severe, 3 critical) and 78 non-COVID-19 controls matched for gender and co-morbidities. All subjects had fecal specimens sampled at inclusion. Blood specimens were collected for COVID-19 patients at admission to test for inflammatory markers and white cell counts. Among COVID-19 cases, 37 (38%) patients had serial fecal samples collected 2 to 3 times per week from time of hospitalization until after discharge. Using shotgun metagenomics sequencing, we sequenced and profiled the fecal RNA and DNA virome. We investigated alterations and longitudinal dynamics of the gut virome in association with disease severity and blood parameters. RESULTS: Patients with COVID-19 showed underrepresentation of Pepper mild mottle virus (RNA virus) and multiple bacteriophage lineages (DNA viruses) and enrichment of environment-derived eukaryotic DNA viruses in fecal samples, compared to non-COVID-19 subjects. Such gut virome alterations persisted up to 30 days after disease resolution. Fecal virome in SARS-CoV-2 infection harbored more stress-, inflammation-, and virulence-associated gene encoding capacities including those pertaining to bacteriophage integration, DNA repair, and metabolism and virulence associated with their bacterial host. Baseline fecal abundance of 10 virus species (1 RNA virus, pepper chlorotic spot virus, and 9 DNA virus species) inversely correlated with disease COVID-19 severity. These viruses inversely correlated with blood levels of pro-inflammatory proteins, white cells, and neutrophils. Among the 10 COVID-19 severity-associated DNA virus species, 4 showed inverse correlation with age; 5 showed persistent lower abundance both during disease course and after disease resolution relative to non-COVID-19 subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Both enteric RNA and DNA virome in COVID-19 patients were different from non-COVID-19 subjects, which persisted after disease resolution of COVID-19. Gut virome may calibrate host immunity and regulate severity to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our observation that gut viruses inversely correlated with both severity of COVID-19 and host age may partly explain that older subjects are prone to severe and worse COVID-19 outcomes. Altogether, our data highlight the importance of human gut virome in severity and potentially therapeutics of COVID-19. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Pré-Escolar , DNA , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , RNA , SARS-CoV-2 , Viroma
10.
Inorg Chem ; 60(10): 7345-7350, 2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902276

RESUMO

Second-harmonic generation (SHG) is a kind of nonlinear optical phenomenon which has been widely used in optical devices, and factors influencing its signal are very complex. Here, taking advantage of excellent structural designability and overcoming the limitations of various coordinations of lanthanide metals, for the first time a series of lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs) with one particular ligand were synthesized and structurally characterized to study the interference of the SHG signal. The optical performance including single-photon fluorescence and SHG was collected and analyzed. It is found that all 13 kinds of Ln-MOFs can be divided into 2 crystal configurations by their individual space groups and Ln-MOFs with coordinated metal atoms from La to Tb possessing the noncentrosymmetric C2 space group exhibit the SHG property, the intensity of which depends on the type of metal atoms, the pumping wavelength, and the size of the single-crystal particles. This is the first time that the relationship between the nonlinear optical properties and the structure, metal atoms, pumping wavelength, crystal size of the whole series of Ln-MOFs is studied systematically, providing a lot of interesting results and enriching the research scope of nonlinear optics and materials science.

11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(25): 3143-3146, 2021 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634810

RESUMO

Three different thermo-responsive fluorescent thermometers were constructed by regulating the triplet energy level of organic ligands in isostructural Eu/Tb mixed MOFs. Among them, a quite unusual and rarely reported temperature-dependent fluorescence behavior was observed in LnBDC-NH2, and Eu0.01Tb0.99NDC is effective in the physiological range with the maximum relative sensitivity of 7.32% °C-1.


Assuntos
Európio/química , Limite de Detecção , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Temperatura , Térbio/química , Termometria/instrumentação
12.
Dalton Trans ; 50(8): 2792-2799, 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533347

RESUMO

Urgent demand for the prevention and diagnosis of physiological diseases is driving the development of biomarkers and physiological temperature fluorometric sensors. In this paper, a rare trinuclear lanthanide metal-organic framework (MOF), [(CH3)2NH2][Eu3(µ3-OH)(2,6-NDC)3(HCOO)3]·(solv)x (Eu(2,6-NDC), where 2,6-H2NDC = 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid) was synthesized using reticular chemistry via reducing the symmetry of the organic ligand from axisymmetric 1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid (1,4-H2NDC) to non-axisymmetric 2,6-H2NDC. Eu(2,6-NDC) shows exceptional chemical and thermal stability in acid-base solutions, PBS solution, and boiling water, and even under an air atmosphere up to 300 °C. As-synthesized Eu(2,6-NDC) exhibits ratiometric detection abilities for P1,P5-di(adenosine-5') pentaphosphate (Ap5A), for use as a biomarker of dry eye disease, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.031 µM, as well as excellent anti-interference properties. As far as is known, it is the first Ap5A sensor based on MOFs. In addition, the results show that the ratiometric parameters of co-doped Eu0.001Gd0.999(2,6-NDC) deliver a good linear luminescence response to physiological temperatures (20-60 °C) with high sensitivity.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Dinucleosídeos/análise , Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Elementos da Série dos Lantanídeos/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Temperatura , Biomarcadores/análise , Humanos , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
13.
Gastroenterology ; 160(1): 272-286.e11, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Beyond bacteria, the human gastrointestinal tract is host to a vast diversity of fungi, collectively known as the gut mycobiome. Little is known of the impact of geography, ethnicity, and urbanization on the gut mycobiome at a large population level. We aim to delineate the variation of human gut mycobiome and its association with host factors, environmental factors, and diets. METHODS: Using shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we profiled and compared the fecal mycobiome of 942 healthy individuals across different geographic regions in China (Hong Kong and Yunnan), spanning 6 ethnicities: Han, Zang, Bai, Hani, Dai, and Miao (including both urban and rural residents of each ethnicity). In parallel to fecal sampling, we collected participant metadata (environmental exposure, bowel habits, anthropometrics, and medication), diet, and clinical blood measurement results (a total of 118 variables) and investigated their impact on the gut mycobiome variation in humans. RESULTS: The human gut mycobiome was highly variable across populations. Urbanization-related factors had the strongest impact on gut mycobiome variation, followed by geography, dietary habit, and ethnicity. The Hong Kong population (highly urbanized) had a significantly lower fungal richness compared with Yunnan population. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was highly enriched in urban compared with rural populations and showed significant inverse correlations with liver pathology-associated blood parameters, including aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, and direct bilirubin. Candida dubliniensis, which was decreased in urban relative to rural populations, showed correlations with host metabolism-related parameters in blood, including a positive correlation with fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and a negative correlation with fasting glucose levels. The fungal-blood parameter correlations were highly geography- and ethnicity-specific. Food choices had differential influences on gut mycobiome and bacterial microbiome, where taxa from the same genus tended to be coregulated by food and thereby cobloom. Ethnicity-specific fungal signatures were associated with distinct habitual foods in each ethnic group. CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlight, for the first time to our knowledge, that geography, urbanization, ethnicity, and habitual diet play an important role in shaping the gut mycobiome composition. Gut fungal configurations in combination with population characteristics (such as residing region, ethnicity, diet, lifestyle) influence host metabolism and health.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , População Rural , População Urbana , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , China , Dieta , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Metagenômica
14.
Cell Host Microbe ; 28(5): 741-751.e4, 2020 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910902

RESUMO

The human-gut-DNA virome is highly diverse and individual specific, but little is known of its variation at a population level. Here, we report the fecal DNA virome of 930 healthy adult subjects from two regions in China (Hong Kong and Yunnan) spanning six ethnicities (Han, Zang, Miao, Bai, Dai, and Hani), and including urban and rural residents for each ethnicity. Twenty host factors were found to significantly correlate with the human-gut virome variation, with geography carrying the strongest impact and ethnicity-distinct diets associating with certain viral species. Urbanization enhances interindividual dissimilarities between gut viromes, with the duration of urban residence associating with multiple bacteriophages, including Lactobacillus phage and Lactococcus phage. Overall, the gut virome presents more heterogeneity relative to the bacterial microbiome across the examined Chinese populations. This study highlights population-based variations and the importance of host and environmental factors in shaping the DNA virome in the human gut.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/virologia , Urbanização , Viroma , Adulto , Bactérias , Bacteriófagos/genética , Biodiversidade , China , DNA Viral/genética , Dieta , Fezes/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Geografia , Humanos , Lactococcus , Viroma/genética
15.
Inorg Chem ; 59(13): 8809-8817, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501688

RESUMO

Glutamic acid (Glu) is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and an elevated level of Glu may indicate some neuropathological diseases. Herein, three isomorphic microporous lanthanide metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) [(CH3)2NH2]2[Ln6(µ3-OH)8(BDC-OH)6(H2O)6]·(solv)x (ZJU-168; ZJU = Zhejiang University, H2BDC-OH = 2-hydroxyterephthalic acid, Ln = Eu, Tb, Gd) were designed for the detection of Glu. ZJU-168(Eu) and ZJU-168(Tb) suspensions simultaneously produce the characteristic emission bands of both lanthanide ions and ligands. When ZJU-168(Eu) and ZJU-168(Tb) suspensions exposed to Glu, the fluorescence intensity of ligands increases while the emission of lanthanide ions is almost unchanged. By utilizing the emission of ligands as the detected signal and the emission of lanthanide ions as the internal reference, an internal calibrated fluorescence sensor for Glu was obtained. There is a good linear relationship between fluorescence intensity ratio and Glu concentration in a wide range with the detection limit of 3.6 µM for ZJU-168(Tb) and 4.3 µM for ZJU-168(Eu). Major compounds present in blood plasma have no interference for the detection of Glu. Furthermore, a convenient analytical device based on a one-to-two logic gate was constructed for monitoring Glu. These establish ZJU-168(Tb) as a potential turn-on, ratiometric, and colorimetric fluorescent sensor for practical detection of Glu.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Ácido Glutâmico/sangue , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Neurotransmissores/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colorimetria , Európio/química , Európio/toxicidade , Corantes Fluorescentes/toxicidade , Gadolínio/química , Gadolínio/toxicidade , Limite de Detecção , Lógica , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/toxicidade , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Térbio/química , Térbio/toxicidade
16.
Gastroenterology ; 159(3): 944-955.e8, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infects gastrointestinal tissues, little is known about the roles of gut commensal microbes in susceptibility to and severity of infection. We investigated changes in fecal microbiomes of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection during hospitalization and associations with severity and fecal shedding of virus. METHODS: We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing analyses of fecal samples from 15 patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Hong Kong, from February 5 through March 17, 2020. Fecal samples were collected 2 or 3 times per week from time of hospitalization until discharge; disease was categorized as mild (no radiographic evidence of pneumonia), moderate (pneumonia was present), severe (respiratory rate ≥30/min, or oxygen saturation ≤93% when breathing ambient air), or critical (respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, shock, or organ failure requiring intensive care). We compared microbiome data with those from 6 subjects with community-acquired pneumonia and 15 healthy individuals (controls). We assessed gut microbiome profiles in association with disease severity and changes in fecal shedding of SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Patients with COVID-19 had significant alterations in fecal microbiomes compared with controls, characterized by enrichment of opportunistic pathogens and depletion of beneficial commensals, at time of hospitalization and at all timepoints during hospitalization. Depleted symbionts and gut dysbiosis persisted even after clearance of SARS-CoV-2 (determined from throat swabs) and resolution of respiratory symptoms. The baseline abundance of Coprobacillus, Clostridium ramosum, and Clostridium hathewayi correlated with COVID-19 severity; there was an inverse correlation between abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (an anti-inflammatory bacterium) and disease severity. Over the course of hospitalization, Bacteroides dorei, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides massiliensis, and Bacteroides ovatus, which downregulate expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in murine gut, correlated inversely with SARS-CoV-2 load in fecal samples from patients. CONCLUSIONS: In a pilot study of 15 patients with COVID-19, we found persistent alterations in the fecal microbiome during the time of hospitalization, compared with controls. Fecal microbiota alterations were associated with fecal levels of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 severity. Strategies to alter the intestinal microbiota might reduce disease severity.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Disbiose/virologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19 , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Projetos Piloto , SARS-CoV-2
17.
ACS Nano ; 14(3): 3519-3527, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083840

RESUMO

Photodiodes and integrated optical receivers operating at 1.55 micrometer (µm) wavelength are crucial for long-haul communication and data transfer systems. In this paper, we report C-band InAs quantum dash (Qdash) waveguide photodiodes (PDs) with a record-low dark current of 5 pA, a responsivity of 0.26 A/W at 1.55 µm, and open eye diagrams up to 10 Gb/s. These Qdash-based PDs leverage the same epitaxial layers and processing steps as Qdash lasers and can thus be integrated with laser sources for power monitors or amplifiers for preamplified receivers, manifesting themselves as a promising alternative to their InGaAs and Ge counterparts in low-power optical communication links.

18.
Opt Express ; 26(6): 7022-7033, 2018 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29609387

RESUMO

We report the first demonstration of direct modulation of InAs/GaAs quantum dot (QD) lasers grown on on-axis (001) Si substrate. A low threading dislocation density GaAs buffer layer enables us to grow a high quality 5-layered QD active region on on-axis Si substrate. The active layer has p-modulation doped GaAs barrier layers with a hole concentration of 5 × 1017 cm-3to suppress gain saturation. Small-signal measurement on a 3 × 580 µm2 Fabry-Perot laser showed a 3dB bandwidth of 6.5 GHz at a bias current of 116 mA. A 12.5 Gbit/s non-return-to-zero signal modulation was achieved by directly probing the chip. Open eyes with an extinction ration of 3.3dB was observed at room temperature. The bit-error-rate (BER) curve showed no error-floor up to BER of 1 × 10-13. 12 km single-mode fiber transmission experiments using the QD laser on Si showed a low power penalty of 1 dB at 5Gbit/s. These results demonstrate the potential for QD lasers epitaxially grown on Si to be used as a low-cost light source for optical communication systems.

19.
Opt Express ; 25(25): 31281-31293, 2017 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29245805

RESUMO

In this paper, we present a parametric study of high performance microdisk lasers at 1.55 µm telecom wavelength, monolithically grown on on-axis (001) Si substrates incorporating quantum dots (QDs) as gain elements. In the optimized structure, seven layers of QDs were adopted to provide a high gain as well as a suppressed inhomogeneous broadening. The same laser structure employing quantum wells (QWs) on Si was concurrently evaluated, showing a higher threshold and more dispersive quantum efficiency than the QDs. Finally, a statistical comparison of these Si-based QD microdisk lasers with those grown on InP native substrates was conducted, revealing somewhat higher thresholds but of the same order. The monolithically grown QD microlasers on Si also demonstrated excellent temperature stability, with a record high characteristic temperature of 277 K. This work thus offers helpful insight towards the optimization of reliable Si-based QD lasers at 1550 nm.

20.
Opt Express ; 25(22): 27715-27723, 2017 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29092242

RESUMO

We report InAs/InGaAs quantum dot (QD) waveguide photodetectors (PD) monolithically grown on silicon substrates. A high-crystalline quality GaAs-on-Si template was achieved by aspect ratio trapping together with the combined effects of cyclic thermal annealing and strain-balancing layer stacks. An ultra-low dark current of 0.8 nA and an internal responsivity of 0.9 A/W were measured in the O band. We also report, to the best of our knowledge, the first characterization of high-speed performance and the first demonstration of the on-chip photodetection for this QD-on-silicon system. The monolithically integrated waveguide PD shares the same platform as the previously demonstrated micro-ring lasers and can thus be integrated with laser sources for power monitors or amplifiers for pre-amplified receivers.

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