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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150042, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525709

RESUMO

Although four major natural estrogens (i.e., estrone (E1), 17ß-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3) and 17α-estradiol (αE2)) have been commonly found in livestock urine, this study reports the occurrence of eight other less-studied natural estrogens in urine of swine and cattle, i.e. 2-hydroxyestone (2OHE1), 4-hydroxyestrone (4OHE1), 2-hydroxyestradiol (2OHE2), 4-hydroxyestradiol (4OHE2), 16-epiestriol (16epiE3), 16α-hydroxyestrone (16αE1), 16-ketoestradiol (16ketoE2), and 17epiestriol (17epiE3). Results showed that each estrogen was found in at least one urine sample, and 6 of 8 the less-studied estrogens were present at frequencies of ≥90% in boars, ≥70% in sows, and ≥50% in dairy cattle. Five of eight the less-studied estrogens were present at frequencies of ≥33.3% in four beef cattle and one bull. On a concentration basis, the 8 less-studied natural estrogens represented 73.2%, 85.2%, 39.9%, 47.7%, 26.9%, 56.0% and 44.1% of total concentrations of the twelve natural estrogens when combining data from all animals. Similar results were observed based on estrogen equivalence, which indicated these newly detected eight less-studied natural estrogens were not negligible. This work is the first to figure out the importance of these less-studied natural estrogens in livestock urine, and their potential environmental risks associated with discharge of livestock wastewater should be urgently assessed in a holistic manner.


Assuntos
Estrogênios , Estrona , Animais , Bovinos , Estradiol , Feminino , Gado , Masculino , Suínos , Águas Residuárias
2.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 762669, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722547

RESUMO

Proper development of mammalian skeletal muscle relies on precise gene expression regulation. Our previous studies revealed that muscle development is regulated by both mRNA and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that N6-methyladenosine (m6A) plays important roles in various biological processes, making it essential to profile m6A modification on a transcriptome-wide scale in developing muscle. Patterns of m6A methylation in lncRNAs in developing muscle have not been uncovered. Here, we reveal differentially expressed lncRNAs and report temporal m6A methylation patterns in lncRNAs expressed in mouse myoblasts and myotubes by RNA-seq and methylated RNA immunoprecipitation (MeRIP) sequencing. Many lncRNAs exhibit temporal differential expression, and m6A-lncRNAs harbor the consensus m6A motif "DRACH" along lncRNA transcripts. Interestingly, we found that m6A methylation levels of lncRNAs are positively correlated with the transcript abundance of lncRNAs. Overexpression or knockdown of m6A methyltransferase METTL3 alters the expression levels of these lncRNAs. Furthermore, we highlight that the function of m6A genic lncRNAs might correlate to their nearby mRNAs. Our work reveals a fundamental expression reference of m6A-mediated epitranscriptomic modifications in lncRNAs that are temporally expressed in developing muscle.

3.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 280, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Garcinia subelliptica Merr. is a multipurpose coastal tree, the potential medicinal effects of which have been studied, including cancer suppression. Here, we present evidence that the ethanol extract of G. subelliptica Merr. (eGSM) induces autophagy in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. METHODS: Two different human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, A549 and SNU2292, were treated with varying amounts of eGSM. Cytotoxicity elicited by eGSM was assessed by MTT assay and PARP degradation. Autophagy in A549 and SNU2292 was determined by western blotting for AMPK, mTOR, ULK1, and LC3. Genetic deletion of AMPKα in HEK293 cells was carried out by CRISPR. RESULTS: eGSM elicited cytotoxicity, but not apoptosis, in A549 and SNU2292 cells. eGSM increased LC3-II production in both A549 and, more extensively, SNU2292, suggesting that eGSM induces autophagy. In A549, eGSM activated AMPK, an essential autophagy activator, but not suppressed mTOR, an autophagy blocker, suggesting that eGSM induces autophagy by primarily activating the AMPK pathway in A549. By contrast, eGSM suppressed mTOR activity without activating AMPK in SNU2292, suggesting that eGSM induces autophagy by mainly suppressing mTOR in SNU2292. In HEK293 cells lacking AMPKα expression, eGSM increased LC3-II production, confirming that the autophagy induced by eGSM can occur without the AMPK pathway. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that eGSM induces autophagy by activating AMPK or suppressing mTOR pathways, depending on cell types.

4.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(20): 1567, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34790773

RESUMO

Background: Exploring the relationship between adult iodine intake level and thyroid disease in Shaanxi area is of great significance for adult scientific iodine supplement and individual iodine supplement strategy. At present, the relationship between iodine and incidence of thyroid disease has not been determined. Methods: This study was based on the clinical data of 1,159 patients from the Shaanxi Province aged over 18 years and diagnosed with thyroid-related diseases who were admitted to the Xijing Hospital from 2016 to 2020, and 182 provincial healthy volunteers aged over 18 years who agreed and signed informed consent for physical examination in 2020. The chi-square test and nonparametric test were used to investigate the relationship between iodine intake level and thyroid disease. Results: (I) A total of 1,341 patients were enrolled and observed in this study. The median urinary iodine (MUI) was 233.20 µg/L. Compared with the control, group participants the urine iodine (UI) of those with hyperthyroidism, Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), and benign nodules was significantly different (P<0.05). (II) The incidence of PTC was higher in women with excessive iodine intake and people aged ≥45 years (P<0.05). (III) There was no significant difference in urinary iodine (UI), age, gender, and other factors between benign nodules and PTC (P>0.05). Conclusions: The iodine intake level of adults in Shaanxi is high, which is related to hyperthyroidism, HT, benign nodules, thyroid cancer, and other diseases. There were 3 factors, including excessive iodine intake, age ≥45 years, and female gender, found to be associated with the development of PTC.

5.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 34(11): 1020-4, 2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812018

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the progress of disease activity and sacroiliac joint imaging in patients with ankylosing spondylitis treated by extracorporeal shockwave combined with conventional oral medicine, and find a new safe and effective therapeutic method. METHODS: The clinical data of 30 patients with ankylosing spondylitis treated from January 2018 to December 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Including 20 males and 10 females, aged from 18 to 50 years with an average of (34.50±9.60) years. All 30 patients had different degrees of sacroiliac joint bone marrow edema on MRI before treatment. Thirty patients were divided into treatment group and control group according to different treatment methods. Among them, 15 cases in control group were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and sulfasalazine enteric-coated tablets, for the 15 cases in treatment group, in addition to oral medicine in line with control group, electronic focusing high-energy extracorporeal shockwave therapy was added. The course of disease, age, pre- and post-treatment erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein in the two groups were analyzed; and visual analogue scale (VAS) and spondyloarthritis research consortium Canada (SPARCC) scoring system were used to evaluate the pain of the sacroiliac joint and the structural damage of the sacroiliac joint;Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI) was calculated. RESULTS: All patients were followed up for at least 3 months. One month after treatment, VAS, and SPARCC scores in treatment group were significantly better than in control group (P<0.05). After 1 month of treatment, there was no significant difference in BASDAI, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein between two groups(P>0.05). VAS, BASDAI, SPARCC, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein of all patients after treatment were significantly improved compared with those before treatment (P< 0.01). CONCLUSION: Electronic focusing high-energy extracorporeal shockwave combined with conventional oral medicine in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis has a good clinical effect in rapidly relieving pain, improving disease activity, and preventing imaging progress. In addition, it is safe and non-invasive, which is worthy of clinical application.

6.
Singapore Med J ; 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628800

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU) delirium affects 5%-45% of patients after surgery and is associated with postoperative delirium and increased mortality. Up to 40% of PACU delirium is preventable but it remains under-recognised due to a lack of awareness for its diagnosis. Nursing Delirium Screening Scale (Nu-DESC) has been validated in diagnosing PACU delirium but is not routine locally. This study aim was to use the Nu-DESC to establish the incidence and risk factors of PACU delirium in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery in the surgical population. METHODS: With IRB approval and informed consent, we conducted an audit of eligible patients undergoing major surgery in three major public hospitals in Singapore over one week. Patients were assessed for delirium 30-60 minutes following their arrival in the PACU using the Nu-DESC with a score of ≥ 2 as indicative of delirium. RESULTS: A total of 478 patients were assessed. The overall incidence rate of PACU delirium was 18/478 (3.8%) and 9/146 (6.2%) in patients over 65 years old. PACU delirium was more common in females, patients with malignancy and those who underwent longer operations. Logistic Regression analysis showed that the use of BIS (p < 0.001) and the presence of malignancy (p<0.001) were significantly associated with a higher incidence of PACU delirium. CONCLUSION: In this first local study, the incidence of PACU delirium was 3.8%, with the incidence increasing to 6.2% in those older than 65 years old. Understanding these risk factors will form the basis for which protocols can be established to optimise resource management and prevent long term morbidities and mortality of PACU delirium.

7.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 794-798, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622595

RESUMO

Objective: To preparethe poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microspheres and PLGA-chitosan microspheres containing Helicobacter pylori recombinant protein, namely the BIB protein, and to explore their optimal preparation parameters and in vitro release performance in gastric and intestinal fluids. Methods: Double emulsions (water-in-oil-in-water, or W1/O/W2) solvent evaporation method was used to prepare the BIB-PLGA microspheres and the BIB-PLGA-chitosan microspheres. Univariate analysis was done to study the impact of the water-to-oil ratio (W1/O), PLGA mass fraction and PVA concentration on the morphology, particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), encapsulation efficiency (EE), and drug loading (DL) so as to identify the optimal parameters. Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay was used to determine the protein concentration and the release efficiency of BIB. Results: The optimal preparation parameters identified in the study were as follows: W1/O at 1∶2, PLGA mass fraction at 5%, and PVA mass fraction at 0.2%. The BIB-PLGA microspheres were found to be (2.11±0.08) µm in particle size, 0.35±0.18 in PDI, (78.20±1.73)% in EE and (10.58±0.23)% in DL. The BIB-PLGA-chitosan microspheres were (2.28±0.52) µm in particle size, 0.39±0.54 in PDI, and (78.87±1.30)% and (15.50±0.25)% in EE and DL, respectively. Both BIB-PLGA microspheres and BIB-PLGA-chitosan microspheres showed slow-release property in gastric and intestinal fluids in vitro, with BIB-PLGA-chitosan microspheres showing better slow-release performance. Conclusion: The BIB-PLGA microspheres and BIB-PLGA-chitosan microspheres prepared with the double emulsions solvent evaporation method showed high DL and EE, controllable particle sizes, dispersive appearance, and slow-release property in gastric and intestinal fluids in vitro.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Helicobacter pylori , Glicóis , Ácido Láctico , Microesferas , Ácido Poliglicólico , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico , Proteínas Recombinantes
8.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 728538, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34692808

RESUMO

Housing systems are among the most important non-genetic factors affecting hen production performance and intestinal microbes. With increased interest in animal welfare, cage-free laying hen housing systems have become common, providing behavioral freedom and health benefits. The present study aimed to compare the effects of plastic net housing system (NRS) and floor litter housing system (LRS) on the composition and function of the duodenal and cecal microbiota in Shendan chicken, one of the most popular laying hen strains in China. The associations between the differential microbiota abundance and production traits and intestinal morphological parameters were determined. Compared with the LRS, the NRS improved the laying rate (p < 0.05) and increased the villus height (VH) of the duodenum (p < 0.05) and the VH-to-crypt depth ratio (VCR) of the cecum (p < 0.05). Alpha diversity analysis showed that LRS chickens had a significantly higher diversity and richness than NRS chickens. Beta diversity analysis demonstrated differences in the microbiota composition based on housing systems. Within the cecum, Proteobacteria and Kiritimatiellaeota were significantly more abundant in the LRS than in the NRS (p < 0.05), while Bacteroidetes were significantly less abundant in the LRS (p < 0.05). Phascolarctobacterium and Ruminococcaceae_UCG-005 were significantly less abundant in the LRS (p < 0.05) compare to the NRS. Within the duodenum, Lactobacillus was significantly less abundant in the LRS (p < 0.05) than in the NRS, while Pseudomonas was significantly more abundant in the LRS (p < 0.05). Cecal Phascolarctobacterium and Ruminococcaceae_UCG-005 were significantly positively correlated with eggshell strength (R = 0.608, p < 0.01) and egg weight (R = 0.526, p < 0.05), respectively. Duodenal Lactobacillus was significantly positively correlated with VH and VCR (R = 0.548 and 0.565, p < 0.05), while Pseudomonas was significantly negatively correlated with the Haugh unit (R = -0.550, p < 0.05). In conclusion, there are differences in the cecal and duodenal microbiota compositions of Shendan laying hens reared in different non-cage housing systems, and the NRS was superior to the LRS in improving the laying performance and intestinal morphology and microecological environment.

9.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(9): 3257-3266, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658212

RESUMO

In order to understand the composition and stability of soil aggregate in paddy filed, as well as the changes of soil aggregate-associated nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) after straw addition combined with chemical fertilization, soil samples were collected from a 34-year positioning experiment with three treatments, including no chemical fertilizer (CK), chemical fertilizer only (NPK), and straw addition plus chemical fertilizer (NPKS). The composition of water-stable aggregates at the soil layers of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm were analyzed with the wet sieving method, as well as the distribution characteristics, contribution rate and activation rate of soil aggregate-associated N, P, and K. Results showed that the fractions of >2 mm and 0.25-1 mm aggregates dominated the soil water-stable aggregates in paddy field, while the contribution of <0.053 mm aggregates was lowest. Compared with CK, NPKS treatment increased the contents of >2 mm and 1-2 mm aggregates at the layers of 0-20 and 20-40 cm, and reduced the contents of 0.053-0.25 mm and <0.053 mm. Similar result in NPK treatment was observed at the layer of 0-20 cm. Compared with tat under the NPK treatment, mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometric mean diameter (GMD) increased by 3.9%-15.5% and 6.3%-41.7% in NPKS treatment, respectively. However, the unstable aggregate index (ELT) reduced by 5.7%-28.7% in the NPKS treatment. NPKS significantly increased the contents of total N (TN), available P (AP), and available K (AK) in soil aggregates, especially in the >0.25 mm aggregates. There were no significant diffe-rences about alkali-hydrolysable N (AN) and total K (TK) between NPK and NPKS treatments. The nutrient contribution of soil aggregates in paddy field was affected by aggregate composition. NPKS significantly increased the contribution of AN, AP, and AK within >1 mm aggregates. In all, straw addition combined with chemical fertilizer could increase the stability of soil aggregates at the layers of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm, and increase the contents of soil aggregate-associated N, P and K, especially for the >1 mm aggregates. Our results provided insights into ensuring soil quality and sustainable development of resources in paddy field by adjusting the ratio of soil C to N.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Agricultura , Fertilizantes , Potássio
10.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 27: 273-278, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687926

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the incidence and resistance of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) in children in Qingdao, China, in 2019. METHODS: We detected MP infection in 78 pharyngeal swabs from children with pneumonia by qPCR. The RepMP4 element in the P1 adhesin gene, domain V of the 23S rRNA gene, and the L4/L22 ribosomal proteins were amplified by nested PCR. Evolutionary analysis was conducted based on the P1 gene sequence. Resistance mutations in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene and L4/L22 ribosomal proteins were analysed. RESULTS: The incidence of MP infection in children with pneumonia was 59.0% (46/78). The mean duration of MP infection was longer than that of non-MP infection. According to P1 gene sequencing of 21 samples, 12 (57.1%) were type 1 and 9 (42.9%) were type 2. Drug resistance mutations A2063G in domain V of 23S rRNA gene and T508C in L22 were identified from all sequenced MP. However, mutations at positions 2064 and 2617 were not found in this study. C162A mutation appeared in most type 2 samples. A430G mutation appeared in one type 1 sample and in several type 2 samples. T279C mutation in L22 was mostly found in type 2 samples. CONCLUSION: The incidence of MP infection was 59.0% in children with pneumonia in Qingdao in 2019. Type 1 MP infection was slightly more common than type 2, indicating that the genotype of MP is gradually shifting from type 1 to type 2. Macrolide resistance mutation A2063G could be detected in all sequenced MP.

11.
Orthop Surg ; 13(6): 1843-1852, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664417

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of core decompression (CD) with local administration of zoledronate and enriched bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCS) for the treatment of non-traumatic osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH). METHODS: A total of 17 patients (30 hips) diagnosed with stage II and III ONFH according to the 2019 revised Association for Research on Osseous Circulation (ARCO) staging criteria from 2012 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients received the following therapy: the BMMCs and zoledronate were injected into the necrotic zone, respectively, along with CD. The mean age of the patients was 36.8 years; 14 were men and three were women. All patients included had non-traumatic ONFH and a minimum follow-up of 5 years, which ended when total hip arthroplasty (THA) was performed. Imaging modalities, including plain radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were taken pre- and postoperatively. Harris hip score (HHS) was used to evaluate the functional outcomes of femoral head necrosis. Kaplan-Meier analysis was adopted to determine the probability of survivorship with THA as the end point in this series of patients. The correlation between radiological progression or THA and related risk factors were further analyzed. All complications were recorded. RESULTS: With THA as the follow-up endpoint, All patients were followed up for an average of 69.1 ± 20.5 months (range, 18-95 months). Preoperative imaging found six hips (20%) at ARCO stage II, 14 hips (46.7%) at stage IIIA, 10 hips (33.3%) at stage IIIB. Fourteen hips (46.7%) shown progression radiologically, while six hips (20%) underwent TKA among these patients with hip preservation. The cumulative survival was 80% (95% CI, 0.608-905) at 5 years with THA as the end point. HHS improved from 63.3 ± 8.7 preoperatively to 74.6 ± 20.6 postoperatively (P = 0.000). Radiological progression was found to be associated with ARCO stage, Japanese Investigation Committee (JIC) type, and corticosteroid exposure (P = 0.047; P = 0.012; P = 0.031). However, no correlation was found between conversion to THA and the known risk factors. No major complication was reported, with only four patients complaining about general weakness and muscle soreness, and all disappeared within 2-3 days. CONCLUSIONS: The novel treatment modality could relieve pain, delay the progression of collapse, which might be an effective and safe method for hip preservation of early and mid-term ONFH. However, the effect of this method may be related to ARCO stage, JIC type, and corticosteroid exposure.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Descompressão Cirúrgica/métodos , Necrose da Cabeça do Fêmur/terapia , Ácido Zoledrônico/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intralesionais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(21): 14567-14575, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34672562

RESUMO

Rural residential energy switching from solid fuels to electricity and natural gas has resulted in substantial health benefits in China. Here, we quantitatively estimated the environmental and health benefits of stove upgrading, energy switching, and the interaction of stove upgrading and energy switching in rural mainland China during the period of 1980-2014. Driven by government intervention, technical progress, and socioeconomic development, domestic stoves have been upgraded from a domination of open-fire and traditional stoves to energy-saving, clean stoves, and gas range/electric stoves. Furthermore, stove upgrading significantly contributed to the overall reductions in PM2.5 emissions (25%), ambient and indoor PM2.5 concentrations (49 and 28%), population exposure (31%), and premature deaths (37%) attributable to residential emissions. The interaction between stove upgrading and energy switching resulted in an additional 15% reduction in premature deaths. The influences of the residential sector and the beneficial effects of stove upgrading and energy switching are magnified along the causal path from emissions to health impacts. The overall benefit of the transition in residential energy would be substantially underestimated without considering stove upgrading.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Utensílios Domésticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , China , Culinária , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , População Rural
13.
Microsyst Nanoeng ; 7: 38, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567752

RESUMO

Multicellular spheroids have served as a promising preclinical model for drug efficacy testing and disease modeling. Many microfluidic technologies, including those based on water-oil-water double emulsions, have been introduced for the production of spheroids. However, sustained culture and the in situ characterization of the generated spheroids are currently unavailable for the double emulsion-based spheroid model. This study presents a streamlined workflow, termed the double emulsion-pretreated microwell culture (DEPMiC), incorporating the features of (1) effective initiation of uniform-sized multicellular spheroids by the pretreatment of double emulsions produced by microfluidics without the requirement of biomaterial scaffolds; (2) sustained maintenance and culture of the produced spheroids with facile removal of the oil confinement; and (3) in situ characterization of individual spheroids localized in microwells by a built-in analytical station. Characterized by microscopic observations and Raman spectroscopy, the DEPMiC cultivated spheroids accumulated elevated lipid ordering on the apical membrane, similar to that observed in their Matrigel counterparts. Made possible by the proposed technological advancement, this study subsequently examined the drug responses of these in vitro-generated multicellular spheroids. The developed DEPMiC platform is expected to generate health benefits in personalized cancer treatment by offering a pre-animal tool to dissect heterogeneity from individual tumor spheroids.

14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19169, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580331

RESUMO

Water quality is critical for egg production and animal health in commercial layer housing systems. To investigate microbial contamination in nipple drinking system in layer houses, the bacterial abundance and communities in water pipes and V-troughs on different tiers (e.g., 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th tiers) of a layer house with 8 overlapping cage tiers were determined using qRT-PCR and 16S rRNA sequencing. The water bacterial abundance (i.e., genome 16S rDNA copy number, WBCN) in water pipes and V-troughs did not significantly differ among tiers, but they were 46.77 to 1905.46 times higher in V-troughs than that in water pipes (P < 0.05) for each tier. Illumina sequencing obtained 1,746,303 effective reads from 24 water samples in V-troughs of 4 tiers (six samples from each tier). Taxonomic analysis indicated that the 1st and 5th tiers were predominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, while the 3rd and 7th tiers were predominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. The top four genera were Acinetobacter, Streptococcus, Rothia and Comamonas among measured tiers. The high bacterial abundance and bacterial OTUs of water in the V-troughs reflect poor water quality, which may adversely affect growth and health of laying hens. Therefore, it is suggested that water quality in the V-tough should be checked more frequently in commercial layer houses.

15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(17): 4471-4479, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581052

RESUMO

This study explored the in vivo effects and mechanisms of the modern classical prescription Supplemented Gegen Qinlian Decoction Formula(SGDF) against diabetic kidney disease(DKD). Sixty rats were randomly divided into the normal group, model group, SGDF group, and rosiglitazone(ROS) group. The modified DKD rat model was established by employing the following three methods: exposure to high-fat diet, unilateral nephrectomy, and intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin(STZ). After modeling, rats in the four groups were treated with double distilled water, SGDF suspension, and ROS suspension, respectively, by gavage every day. At the end of the 6 th week of drug administration, all the rats were sacrificed for collecting urine, blood, and kidney tissue, followed by the examination of rat general conditions, urine and blood biochemical indicators, glomerulosclerosis-related indicators, podocyte pyroptosis markers, insulin resistance(IR)-related indicators, and key molecules in the insulin receptor substrate(IRS) 1/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase(PI3 K)/serine threonine kinase(Akt) signaling pathway. The results showed that SGDF and ROS improved the general conditions, some renal function indicators and glomerulosclerosis of DKD model rats without affecting the blood glucose(BG). Besides, they ameliorated the expression characteristics and levels of podocyte pyroptosis markers, alleviated IR, and up-regulated the protein expression levels of the key molecules in IRS1/PI3 K/Akt pathway to varying degrees. In conclusion, similar to ROS, SGDF relieves DKD by targeting multiple targets in vivo. Specifically, it exerts the therapeutic effects by alleviating podocyte pyroptosis and IR. This study has preliminarily provided the pharmacological evidence for the research and development of new drugs for the treatment of DKD based on SGDF.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Resistência à Insulina , Podócitos , Animais , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Piroptose , Ratos
16.
Chromosome Res ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480269

RESUMO

In addition to causing the nondisjunction of maize B and normal A chromosomes at the second megaspore division during embryo sac development, the r-X1 deletion results in terminal deficiencies (TDs) in various A chromosomal arms, but whether the r-X1 deletion also induces TDs of the maize B chromosome remains unknown. To answer this question, the chromosomal composition in the r-X1-containing progeny of r-X1/R-r female parents carrying two standard B chromosomes was determined. Nine of 104 (8.7%) examined kernels contained a smaller telocentric B chromosome, and one of these (designated Bdef-1) was further identified as a TD with a breakpoint in the third distal heterochromatic region of the B chromosome. Thus, the results indicated that the r-X1 deletion could also induce TDs of the maize B chromosome during megaspore divisions. The Bdef-1 chromosome lacked nondisjunctional behavior, and this behavior was restored by the presence of the B chromosome in the cell. A transmission analysis of the Bdef-1 chromosome revealed that loss of the distal portion of the B chromosome reduced female but not male transmission of the B chromosome. Furthermore, the Bdef-1 chromosome was used to more finely map B-derived miRNA genes on the B chromosome. Our results indicate that the r-X1 deletion results in TDs of the B chromosome in maize, and the r-X1 deletion system can thus be used to generate a series of terminally truncated B chromosomes that may be used to map features of the B chromosome, including genes and properties related to B chromosome functions.

17.
Neurochem Res ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498160

RESUMO

The effects of general anesthetics on the developing brain have aroused much attention in recent years. Sevoflurane, a commonly used inhalation anesthetic especially in pediatric anesthesia, can induce developmental neurotoxicity. In this study, the differentially expressed mRNAs in the hippocampus of newborn rats exposed to 3% sevoflurane for 6 h were detected by RNA-Sequencing. Those data indicated that the mRNA of Klotho was increased after exposure to sevoflurane. Moreover, the protein expression of Klotho was assayed by Western Blot. Besides over-expression and under-expression of Klotho protein, we also detected changes of cell proliferation, ROS, JC-1, and Bcl-2/Bax ratio in PC12 cells exposed to sevoflurane. After exposure to 3% sevoflurane, the expression of Klotho protein increased in the hippocampus of neonatal rats. In PC12 cells, exposure to sevoflurane could increase cellular ROS level, reduce mitochondrial membrane potential and Bcl-2/Bax ratio. While overexpression of Klotho alleviated the above changes, knockdown of Klotho aggravated the injury of sevoflurane. Klotho protein could reduce oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury induced by sevoflurane in the neuron.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574458

RESUMO

In the fight against sports doping, the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) system aims to indirectly unveil the doping incidents by monitoring selected biomarkers; however, several unexplored extrinsic factors may dampen a fair interpretation of ABP profiles. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) plays a pivotal role in the health care system, and some remedies have a long history of being used to treat anaemia. In this study, we addressed the concerns of whether the CHM administration could yield a measurable effect on altering the ABP haematological variables. Forty-eight healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive two-week oral administration of one of the six selected CHM products that are commonly prescribed in Taiwan (eight subjects per group). Their blood variables were determined longitudinally in the phases of baseline, intervention, and recovery over 5 weeks. Blood collection and analyses were carried out in strict compliance with relevant operating guidelines. In the groups receiving Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Astragali Radix, and Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, a significant increased reticulocyte percentage and decreased OFF-hr Score were manifested during the intervention, and such effects even sustained for a period of time after withdrawal. All other variables, including haemoglobin and Abnormal Blood Profile Score, did not generate statistical significance. Our results show that the use of CHM may impact the ABP haematological variables. As a consequence, we recommend athletes, particularly those who have been registered in the testing pool, should be aware of taking specific Chinese herbal-based treatment or supplementation, and document any of its usage on the anti-doping forms.


Assuntos
Doping nos Esportes , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Esportes , Atletas , Humanos , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias
19.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(45): 24241-24247, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553468

RESUMO

As a CRISPR-Cas system (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR associated proteins), Cas14a1 can cis/trans cleave single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Here, we describe an unreported capacity of Cas14a1: RNA can trigger the trans ssDNA cleavage. This Cas14a1-based RNA-activated detection platform (Amplification, Transcription, Cas14a1-based RNA-activated trans ssDNA cleavage, ATCas-RNA) has an outstanding specificity for the detection of target RNAs with point mutation resolution, which is better than that of the Cas14a1-based ssDNA-activation. Using ATCas-RNA via a fluorophore quencher-labeled ssDNA reporter (FQ), we were able to detect 1 aM pathogenic nucleic acid within 1 h, and achieve 100 % accuracy with 25 milk samples. This platform can serve as a new tool for high-efficiency nucleic acid diagnostics. Importantly, this work can expand our understanding of Cas14a1 and inspire further mechanisms and applications of Class-2 Cas systems.

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