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1.
Geriatr Nurs ; 42(2): 358-365, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556902

RESUMO

The present study aimed to explore the modifiable factors of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) among patients residing at home in terms of patient, caregiver and environmental factors. A cross-sectional survey of 193 patients with dementia residing at home and their caregivers who visited the memory clinic of the Department of Neurology in a tertiary (the highest level) hospital in China from November 2018 to May 2019 was performed. Exacerbated BPSD were associated with patient (old age, high education level, increased dementia severity, and the use of psychotropic drugs), caregiver (low positive aspects and high expressed emotion) and environmental (poor home environment) factors. The use of psychotropic drugs by the patient, positive aspects and expressed emotions of the caregiver, and home environment were modifiable factors that provided evidence for the direction of intervention for BPSD among patients residing at home.

2.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168652

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The evidence regarding vitamin D status and mortality among diabetes is scarce. This study aimed to examine the association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with all-cause and cause-specific mortality among adults with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study included 6,329 adults with diabetes from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) and NHANES 2001-2014. Death outcomes were ascertained by linkage to National Death Index records through 31 December 2015. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CIs for mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. RESULTS: The weighted mean (95% CI) level of serum 25(OH)D was 57.7 (56.6, 58.8) nmol/L, and 46.6% had deficient vitamin D (<50 nmol/L [20 ng/mL]). Higher serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly associated with lower levels of glucose, insulin, HOMA of insulin resistance, HbA1c, blood lipids, and C-reactive protein at baseline (all P trend < 0.05). During 55,126 person-years of follow-up, 2,056 deaths were documented, including 605 CVD deaths and 309 cancer deaths. After multivariate adjustment, higher serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly and linearly associated with lower all-cause and CVD mortality: there was a 31% reduced risk of all-cause mortality and a 38% reduced risk of CVD mortality per one-unit increment in natural log-transformed 25(OH)D (both P < 0.001). Compared with participants with 25(OH)D <25 nmol/L, the multivariate-adjusted HRs and 95% CI for participants with 25(OH)D >75 nmol/L were 0.59 (0.43, 0.83) for all-cause mortality (P trend = 0.003), 0.50 (0.29, 0.86) for CVD mortality (P trend = 0.02), and 0.49 (0.23, 1.04) for cancer mortality (P trend = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS: Higher serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly associated with lower all-cause and CVD mortality. These findings suggest that maintaining adequate vitamin D status may lower mortality risk in individuals with diabetes.

3.
Histol Histopathol ; : 18266, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane is widely used as an inhalational anesthetic in clinical practice. However, sevoflurane can cause cytotoxicity and induce learning capacity decline in patients. A previous publication indicated that miR-204-5p might have a close relationship with sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity. When exposed to sevoflurane, the expression of miR-204-5p in neonatal hippocampus of rats was significantly increased. Hence, we aimed to investigate the role of miR-204-5p in sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity using a mouse hippocampal neuronal cell line (HT22). METHODS: The levels of miR-204-5p in HT22 cells were detected by RT-qPCR. In addition, the effects of miR-204-5p on cell viability, apoptosis and proliferation were evaluated by CCK-8, flow cytometric, and immunofluorescence assay, respectively. Western blotting was used to detect expressions of Bax, Bcl-2, active caspase 3, BDNF, TrkB, p-TrkB, Akt and p-Akt in HT22 cells. ELISA assay was used to examine the levels of total superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells. Meanwhile, the dual luciferase reporter system assay was employed to explore the interaction of miR-204-5p and BDNF in cells. RESULTS: The level of miR-204-5p was increased in sevoflurane-treated HT22 cells. Moreover, downregulation of miR-204-5p inhibited sevoflurane-induced apoptosis and promoted cell proliferation by upregulating the proteins of Bcl-2 and downregulating the expressions of Bax and active caspase-3 in HT22 cells. In addition, inhibition of miR-204-5p alleviated sevoflurane-induced oxidative injuries in HT22 cells via decline of ROS and MDA and upregulation of SOD and GSH. Furthermore, bioinformatics and dual luciferase assay demonstrated that miR-204-5p can inhibit the TrkB/Akt pathway by targeting BDNF. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated that downregulation of miR-204-5p can decrease oxidative status in HT22 cells and alleviate sevoflurane-induced cytotoxicity through stimulating the BDNF/TrkB/Akt pathway. Therefore, miR-204-5p might be a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for the treatment of sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity.

4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 163: 2306-2313, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941899

RESUMO

In this study soluble soybean polysaccharide­iron(III) (SSPS-Fe(III)) was synthesized to investigate the effects on the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus licheniformis. Two new detection methods of real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and microcalorimetry were used to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of SSPS-Fe(III) on the growth of three bacteria. The copy numbers of three bacteria showed that SSPS-Fe(III) had different impacts on the growth of E. coli, S. aureus and B. licheniformis. E. coli growth was inhibited by SSPS-Fe(III) in the higher concentration range and S. aureus growth was inhibited at any concentration, however B. licheniformis growth was promoted. The thermogenic curves for growth metabolism of E. coli and S. aureus presented peak shapes while those of B. licheniformis did platform shapes. As SSPS-Fe(III) concentration increased, the peak heights lowered for E. coli and S. aureus, and the time reaching stationary phase advanced for B. licheniformis. These findings demonstrate that SSPS-Fe(III) has an inhibitory effect on the foodborne pathogens of E. coli and S. aureus, and an enhancement on the probiotics of B. licheniformis.

6.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 105: 103554, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a shortage of nurses worldwide, and a large number of older nurses will be entering retirement in the near future. Older nurses have rich nursing experience, and their retirement is a major loss of resources for the nursing profession. Returning to work after retirement is becoming increasingly popular among retirees today, but there is limited knowledge of the perceptions of older nurses regarding continuing to work in a nursing career after retirement. OBJECTIVES: To explore older nurses' perceptions of continuing to work in a nursing career after retirement. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: We conducted a descriptive, qualitative study of older nurses from two public hospitals of different levels in China in 2018. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 27 older nurses aged 50-60 years were recruited, 15 from a tertiary hospital and 12 from a secondary hospital. METHODS: Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with older nurses. An interview guide was developed to explore nurses' perceptions of continuing to work in a nursing career after retirement. Thematic analysis was used for the data analysis. We developed an interview guide and analysed the data based on the three essential conditions of the framework for understanding behaviour. FINDINGS: Based on the definition of the three essential conditions of the framework for understanding behaviour, 14 subthemes emerged from the data were categorised under this framework. The three main themes were as follows: the nurses' perceptions of their capability, motivation, and opportunity related to engaging in a nursing career after retirement. A number of older nurses with rich clinical experience have the ability and motivation to engage in nursing a career after retirement. However, discrimination against nurses, burnout, and the effects on young people's employment are barriers to older nurses considering working in a nursing career after retirement. Regarding re-employment after retirement, older nurses also expressed concerns about their physical health, family responsibilities, and salary as well as lack of managerial and policy support. CONCLUSIONS: These themes confirmed previous findings and offered new perspectives on older Chinese nurses' perceptions of working in a nursing career after retirement. These findings will influence future policy development and research directions. Policies for facilitating a prolonged working life should be developed. Future research should focus on how to address the challenges confronted by older nurses.

7.
ACS Sens ; 5(2): 440-446, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910612

RESUMO

In this study, an interesting phenomenon was found where cells (including tumor and normal cells) managed to significantly enhance chemiluminescence (CL) signals. The possible reaction mechanism may be that cells can be severely damaged by CL substrates, and the released contents, possibly proteins (such as cytochrome c), can remarkably magnify CL owing to the increased production of singlet oxygen. More importantly, based on the above phenomena, a novel cell-assisted enhanced CL strategy was proposed for the rapid and label-free detection of tumor cells. The complexes of aptamer sgc8c and streptavidin-modified magnetic beads were employed to recognize and isolate target tumor cells from whole blood. The enhanced CL intensity, which was triggered directly by the captured cells, was measured. The proposed strategy exhibited a good detection performance with a linear range from 200 to 10,000 cells/mL. The analysis can be finished in ∼30 min, and the limit of detection was down to 100 cells/mL. The recoveries and relative standard deviations were 97.81-102.71% and 3.46-12.71%, respectively. Moreover, the established method can successfully distinguish the leukemia patients from healthy people. Therefore, it provides a novel, rapid, and simple method for the determination of tumor cells, which can be used in further practice.

8.
Biochem Cell Biol ; 98(2): 208-218, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533001

RESUMO

Several miRNAs have been recently suggested as potential therapeutic targets for anesthesia-related diseases. This study was carried out to explore the biological roles of miR-24 in isoflurane-treated rat hippocampal neurons. Isoflurane was used to induce neurotoxicity in a rat model. Gain- and loss-of-function of miR-24 was performed, and the size and Ca2+ permeability of mitochondria, as well as cell proliferation and apoptosis, and levels of oxidative-stress-related factors were measured both in vivo and in vitro. Dual luciferase reporter gene assays were used to identify the target relationship between miR-24 and p27kip1. In this study, isoflurane treatment decreased miR-24 expression, after which, levels of neuron apoptosis and oxidative-stress-related factors were elevated and neuron viability was reduced. Over-expression of miR-24 inhibited oxidative damage and neuronal apoptosis in hippocampal tissues, and suppressed the size and Ca2+ permeability of mitochondria of hippocampal neurons. miR-24 enhanced the viability of rat hippocampal neurons by targeting p27kip1. To conclude, this study demonstrated that miR-24 attenuates isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in rat hippocampus via its antioxidative properties and inhibiting p27kip1 expression.

9.
J Nurs Manag ; 28(8): 1841-1850, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680364

RESUMO

AIM: To systematically evaluate the effect of working environment on implicit rationing of nursing care. BACKGROUND: Research has established direct and indirect associations between work environment and adverse patient outcomes. However, the causal nature of this relationship is uncertain, and implicit rationing has been proposed as a mediating factor between the work environment and patient outcomes. METHOD: Eight databases were searched for articles published between May 2000 and May 2019. RESULTS: The reviewed articles provided evidence for the negative correlation between working environment and implicit rationing in 15 studies, and one of the studies showed that the correlation was not strong. There were differences in the levels of implicit rationing in different hospitals, units and shifts. CONCLUSION: The degree of influence of various factors in the working environment on implicit rationing is different. In addition, the working environment is only one of the factors that affects implicit rationing. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Nursing managers initiatives to improve nurses' work environments should include improve nurses' perception of the adequacy of staffing and resources and improving teamwork to decrease nursing care left undone, so as to improve nurse outcomes and quality of care.

10.
Geriatr Nurs ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This systematic review describes nurses' attitudes and views on the application of antipsychotics in patients with dementia. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: Data were collected from eight databases: CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, CNKI, Wanfang Data and CSTJ. Qualitative, peer-reviewed, original studies published in English or Chinese before April 2019 on nurses' attitudes and views on the application of antipsychotics in patients with dementia were included. The studies were selected by screening titles, abstracts and full texts, and the quality of each study was assessed by two researchers independently. Data were analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: Ten studies were chosen for the review. The results were divided into two parts: nurses' general attitude and views on factors related to antipsychotics. Factors related to antipsychotic use cited by nurses were divided into three main categories: the quality of nurses, the control of BPSD, and organizational factors. The findings establish that nurses have many misconceptions about the use of antipsychotics in patients with dementia. There are many barriers to reducing the use of antipsychotics in people with dementia. CONCLUSIONS: The nurses' attitudes toward the application of antipsychotics in patients with dementia are mainly divided into positive and negative attitudes. Changing the organizational climates and providing relevant education for employees are of great significance to change the current situation of antipsychotic use for patients with dementia. In addition, it is very important to further increase the amount of research conducted on nonpharmacological interventions.

11.
Res Theory Nurs Pract ; 33(4): 357-391, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dialysis involves a complex regimen including diet, fluid, medication, and treatment. Therapeutic regimen adherence determines the therapeutic success, quality of life, and survival of patients on dialysis. Complying with fluid management is the most difficult among the therapeutic regimen. Several theory-based interventions have been designed to promote fluid intake compliance in patients receiving dialysis. This review has two aims. One is to explore the effectiveness of theory-based interventions. The other is to examine the extent of the combination of theory and interventions in improving adherence to fluid intake among dialysis patients. METHODS: A literature review was performed using PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library to acquire associated studies. Data were extracted independently by two researchers. The degree of theory application was accessed using a theory coding scheme (TCS). RESULTS: Eight studies were identified as eligible for inclusion, and five theories were cited as basis (health belief model, social cognitive theory, self-regulation model, transtheoretical model). According to the TCS, adherence outcomes and the extent of theory use were not optimal. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Combining theory with patient health education might be beneficial in improving fluid intake adherence of dialysis patients. The framework and TCS could be considered to guide theory utilization and promote nursing education in improving the quality of renal nursing care.


Assuntos
Hidratação/métodos , Hidratação/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Diálise Renal/métodos , Autocuidado/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Diálise Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Autocuidado/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Environ Res ; 172: 665-674, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878738

RESUMO

Blood trihalomethanes (THMs) and urinary haloacetic acids (HAAs) are the leading candidate biomarkers for disinfection byproduct (DBP) exposure. However, no studies have assessed the exposure profiles, temporal variability, and potential predictors of these biomarkers during pregnancy. Here we collected blood (n = 4304) and urine samples (n = 4165) from 1760 Chinese pregnant women during early, mid-, and late pregnancy, which were separately analyzed for 4 THMs and 2 HAAs. We calculated the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to assess the variability of these biomarkers and estimated their correlations with sociodemographic, water-use behavioral, dietary and sample collection factors using mixed models. The median concentrations of TCM, BDCM, Br-THMs [sum of BDCM, dibromochloromethane (DBCM), bromoform (TBM)], total THMs (TTHMs, sum of TCM and Br-THMs), DCAA and TCAA in the water distribution system were 4.2 µg/L, 1.7 µg/L, 2.9 µg/L, 7.1 µg/L, 3.4 µg/L and 8.2 µg/L, respectively. Chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) were detected in > 75% of the biospecimens. Repeated measurements of blood TCM, BDCM, Br-THMs and TTHMs and urinary DCAA and TCAA uniformly exhibited high variability (ICCs = 0.01-0.13); the use of a single measurement to classify gestational average exposure resulted in a high degree of exposure misclassification. The sampling season was a strong predictor of all analyzed DBPs. Additionally, we detected a positive association of blood TCM and BDCM with household income, urinary DCAA with age, and urinary TCAA with tap water usage, education level and amount of tap water consumed. Inverse associations were found between blood BDCM and vegetable consumption, and between blood Br-THM and TTHM and time interval since the last bathing/showering. Afternoon samples had lower DCAA concentrations than did early morning samples. Our results indicate that blood THM and urinary HAA concentrations vary greatly over the course of pregnancy and are affected by sampling season, time of day of blood/urine collection, sociodemographic factors, recent water-use activities and dietary intake.


Assuntos
Trialometanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , China , Ácido Dicloroacético/urina , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Ácido Tricloroacético/urina , Trialometanos/sangue , Poluentes Químicos da Água/sangue , Poluentes Químicos da Água/urina
13.
Chemosphere ; 214: 791-800, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to high levels of metals/metalloids may impair semen quality. Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) can be used for kinematic analysis of spermatozoa, which provides additional insights into sperm motion characteristics. OBJECTIVE: To explore the associations of urinary and seminal plasma metal/metalloid concentrations with CASA motion parameters and assess the degree of correspondence between the two sample types. METHODS: Eighteen metals/metalloids in seminal plasma and repeated urine samples were determined among 746 men recruited from a reproductive center. We assessed their associations with 6 CASA motion parameters [i.e., straight-line velocity (VSL), curvilinear velocity (VCL), average path velocity (VAP), linearity (LIN), straightness (STR) and amplitude head displacement (ALH)] using multivariable linear regression models. RESULTS: We found significantly inverse dose-dependent relationships between seminal plasma arsenic (As) and VSL, VCL and VAP, between seminal plasma selenium (Se) and VSL and VAP, between seminal plasma zinc (Zn) and STR and LIN, and between seminal plasma manganese (Mn) and LIN in single-metal models [all false discovery rate (FDR) adjusted P for trend < 0.05]. These dose-response relationships remained statistically significant based on multiple-metal models and restricted cubic spline functions. Metal/metalloid concentrations in urine poorly predicted the same-day seminal plasma concentrations [coefficient of determination (R2) < 0.15]. We didn't find any significant associations between urinary metal/metalloid concentrations and the CASA motion parameters. CONCLUSION: Exposure to high levels of As, Se, Mn and Zn may impair sperm motion capacity. Concentrations of metals/metalloids in spot urine samples cannot accurately predict same-day seminal plasma exposure levels.


Assuntos
Dimenidrinato/química , Metaloides/urina , Análise do Sêmen/métodos , Sêmen/química , Humanos , Masculino , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 6535, 2017 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28747740

RESUMO

Changes in the stability, hydrogen diffusion, and mechanical properties of the NbH phases from Ni-doping was studied by using first-principles methods. The calculation results reveal that the single H atom adsorption is energetically favorable at the tetrahedral interstitial site (TIS) and octahedral interstitial site (OIS). The preferred path of H diffusion is TIS-to-TIS, followed by TIS-to-OIS in both Nb16H and Nb15NiH. Ni-doping in the Nb15NiH alloy lowers the energy barrier of H diffusion, enhances the H-diffusion coefficient (D) and mechanical properties of the Nb16H phase. The value of D increases with increasing temperature, and this trend due to Ni doping clearly becomes weaker at higher temperatures. At the typical operating temperature of 400 K, the D value of Nb15NiH (TIS) is about 1.90 × 10-8 m2/s, which is about 80 times higher than that of Nb16H (TIS) (2.15 × 10-10 m2/s). Our calculations indicated that Ni-doping can greatly improve the diffusion of H in Nb.

15.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol ; 8(10): 13323-30, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26722536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence, mortality, and disease burden of cancer in China to provide a reference for cancer prevention and control. METHODS: Cancer registry data (2006-2010) were collected from the Chinese Cancer Registry Annual Report by the National Center for Cancer Registries. Cancer incidence and mortality, potential years of life lost (PYLL), and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were calculated. RESULTS: The cancer incidence rate was 267.13/100,000 overall, 299.13/100,000 in men, and 234.06/100,000 in women (1.2 times higher in men than in women). The cancer mortality rate was 176.32/100,000 overall, 220.54/100,000 in men, and 130.60/100,000 in women (1.6 times higher in men than in women). The incidence rate was higher in urban areas (285.97/100,000) than in rural areas (250.91/100,000), whereas the mortality rate was higher in rural areas (179.25/100,000) than in urban areas (172.91/100,000). The rural: urban incidence ratio decreased from 0.89 in 2006 to 0.69 in 2010, and the rural: urban mortality ratio decreased from 1.10 to 0.91 in the same years. PYLL rates and DALY rates were higher in men (16.45 and 22.19, respectively) than in women (11.22 and 13.87, respectively) and in rural areas (17.6 and 22.17, respectively) than in urban areas (12.6 and 17.09, respectively). The male: female ratios for PYLL and DALY rates were 1.46 and 1.6, respectively. The rural: urban ratios for PYLL and DALY rates decreased from 1.63 in 2006 to 1.22 in 2010 and from 1.51 in 2006 to 1.08 in 2010, respectively. CONCLUSION: The disease burden of cancer in China in 2006-2010 was substantial, particularly for men and residents of rural districts.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Mortalidade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Fatores Sexuais , População Urbana
16.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 18(1): 85-9, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24269179

RESUMO

The activation of astrocytes contributes to inflammatory responses underlying brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases. Lipoxins have emerged as mediators of endogenous anti-inflammatory events. However, the involvement of aspirin-triggered-lipoxin A4 (ATL) in astrocyte-induced neuroinflammatory responses has not been investigated. Here, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of ATL in the central nervous system using rat astrocyte cultures stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that pretreatment with ATL exerted potent anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2. ATL also reduced the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA and protein. Furthermore, ATL suppressed the LPS-induced translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit to the nucleus and prevented LPS-induced IκBα phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that ATL attenuates neuroinflammation by inhibiting the NF-κB signal transducer pathway in cultured cortical astrocytes.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Astrócitos/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Lipoxinas/metabolismo , Neuroimunomodulação , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Aspirina/metabolismo , Astrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Mitochondrial DNA ; 25(6): 464-72, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23901916

RESUMO

A number of evolutionary mechanisms have been suggested for generating significant genetic structuring among marine fish populations in Northwestern Pacific. We used mtDNA control region to assess the factors in shaping the genetic structure of Japanese grenadier anchovy, Coilia nasus, an anadromous and estuarine coastal species, in Northwestern Pacific. Sixty seven individuals from four locations in Northwestern Pacific were sequenced for mitochondrial control region, detecting 61 haplotypes. The length of amplified control region varied from 677 to 754 bp. This length variability was due to the presence of varying numbers of a 38-bp tandemly repeated sequence. Two distinct lineages were detected, which might have diverged during Pleistocene low sea levels. There were strong differences in the geographical distribution of the two lineages. Analyses of molecular variance and the population statistic ΦST revealed significant genetic structure between China and Ariake Bay populations. Based on the frequency distribution of tandem repeat units, significant genetic differentiation was also detected between China and Ariake Bay populations. Isolation by distance seems to be the main factor driving present genetic structuring of C. nasus populations, indicating coastal dispersal pattern in this coastal species. Such an evolutionary process agrees well with some of the biological features characterizing this species.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Evolução Molecular , Peixes/genética , Especiação Genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Animais , Sequência de Bases , China , Primers do DNA/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Japão , Região de Controle de Locus Gênico/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Oceano Pacífico , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi ; 31(9): 2536-41, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22097866

RESUMO

This paper presents the traditional methods of GD depth analysis method and also its limitations, and the earlier studies of real-time depth measurement technology. A new method of real-time depth determination by laser technology for GD-OES depth analysis is proposed. The real-time depth measurement system is composed of laser displacement sensor and new designed Grimm-type GD source based on laser measurement method, and the system design and technical principles are described in detail. Sputtering depth measurement signal and element spectrum signal can be synchronously collected by this system. The displacement phenomenon of glow discharge source during real-time sputtering depth measurement process is analyzed. The real-time sputtering depth measurement curve of zinc alloy standard sample was tested by two laser displacement sensors measurement system. The actual value of sputtering depth was obtained by adding the depth measurement curve of sputtering surface and the reference plane curve, and the actual depth result is in line with Dektak8-type surface profilometer.

19.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi ; 31(4): 1142-6, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21714279

RESUMO

The crater depth value of sample surface during sputtering is important analysis information for the depth profile analysis of glow discharge spectrometry. Real-time sputtered depth measurement with Laser triangulation measurement method for glow discharge compositional analysis, effectively solves the issues of incorrect depth value calculation and complicated procedures in traditional depth analysis method. This paper presents a new Grimm-type glow discharge source for real-time sputtering depth measurement by laser displacement sensor. This GD source also ensures fine sputtering effects and ideal resolution for multi-layer structure and interface. Optical fiber is used to transmit glow spectrum signal from GD-source to multi-channel photoelectric detection system. The design for the first time accomplishes the real-time signal collection and time-based synchronization analysis for both spectrum signal and sputtering depth signal. The real-time sputtering depth measurement curve of standard samples is obtained. The design and operating principle of this new-type GD-source is described in detail. Under the sputtering conditions of 30 mA, 900 V and 20 minutes, the sputtering rates of iron-based and copper-based sample sputtered by this GD source with good depth resolution are about 10 and 55 nm x s(-1). Surface topography picture of sputtering crater and microphotograph of metal samples are provided in the paper. Low-alloy steel standard sample is tested with this new GD source, the relative standard deviation (RSD) of C, Cu, Al, Ni, Mo, Mn and V elements are less than 1.7%, while for Cr and Si elements RSDs are less than 2.6%. The result data of the testing is provided in this paper.

20.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi ; 31(3): 839-43, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21595252

RESUMO

There are three important parameters in the DC glow discharge process, the discharge current, discharge voltage and argon pressure in discharge source. These parameters influence each other during glow discharge process. This paper presents an automatic control system for DC glow discharge plasma source. This system collects and controls discharge voltage automatically by adjusting discharge source pressure while the discharge current is constant in the glow discharge process. The design concept, circuit principle and control program of this automatic control system are described. The accuracy is improved by this automatic control system with the method of reducing the complex operations and manual control errors. This system enhances the control accuracy of glow discharge voltage, and reduces the time to reach discharge voltage stability. The glow discharge voltage stability test results with automatic control system are provided as well, the accuracy with automatic control system is better than 1% FS which is improved from 4% FS by manual control. Time to reach discharge voltage stability has been shortened to within 30 s by automatic control from more than 90 s by manual control. Standard samples like middle-low alloy steel and tin bronze have been tested by this automatic control system. The concentration analysis precision has been significantly improved. The RSDs of all the test result are better than 3.5%. In middle-low alloy steel standard sample, the RSD range of concentration test result of Ti, Co and Mn elements is reduced from 3.0%-4.3% by manual control to 1.7%-2.4% by automatic control, and that for S and Mo is also reduced from 5.2%-5.9% to 3.3%-3.5%. In tin bronze standard sample, the RSD range of Sn, Zn and Al elements is reduced from 2.6%-4.4% to 1.0%-2.4%, and that for Si, Ni and Fe is reduced from 6.6%-13.9% to 2.6%-3.5%. The test data is also shown in this paper.

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