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1.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111979, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506782

RESUMO

The response of the denitrification community to long-term antibiotic exposure requires further investigation. Here, the significantly altered denitrifying community structure and function were observed by continuous exposure to 1 mg/L sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) or chlortetracycline (CTC) for 180 d in the expanded granular sludge bed reactors. Thaurea, positively correlated with SMZ and NO3- removal efficiency (NrE), was highly enriched in the SMZ-added reactor, while, Comamons and Acinetobacter were largely inhibited. The acute inhibited and then gradual-recovered NrE (87.17-90.38 %) was observed with highly expressed narG, indicating the adaptability of Thaurea to SMZ. However, the abundance of Thaurea and Comamonas greatly decreased, while Melioribacter and Acinetobacter were largely enriched in the CTC-added reactor. CTC created more serious and continuous inhibition of NO3- reduction (NrE of 64.53-66.95 %), with lowly expressed narG. Improved NO2- reduction capacity was observed in both reactors (70.16-95.42 %) with highly expressed nirS and nosZ, revealing the adaptability of NO2- reduction populations to antibiotics.

2.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 112016, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509485

RESUMO

This study was carried out to determine the effect of influent nitrate loading on nitrite accumulation during elemental-sulfur based denitrification process, and proposed to enhance the nitrogen removal efficiency by mitigating nitrite accumulation with thiosulfate as external electron donor. Along with increasing the nitrate influent loading (from 0.09 kg N/m3/d to 1.73 kg N/m3/d) by shortening the empty bed contact time (EBCT) (from 5 h to 0.25 h), the nitrate removal loading increased from 0.08 to 0.83 kg N/m3/d. Meanwhile, the raise of the nitrate influent loading obviously aggravated the nitrite accumulation. Herein, nitrite began to accumulate since the nitrate influent loading was over 0.86 kg N/m3/d, and a maximum nitrite accumulation of 2.39 mg/L was observed under the 0.25 h of EBCT and 15 mg/L of nitrate influent concentration condition. Thiosulfate was used as the external electron donor to accelerate the nitrite reduction rate in order to mitigate the nitrite accumulation. As a result, the nitrite accumulation significantly decreased from 2.39 mg/L to 0.17 mg/L with the thiosulfate dosage of 13.36 mg/L. However, the nitrite accumulation bounced with the on-going increase of the thiosulfate dosage, indicating that the nitrate reduction rate and nitrite reduction rate were accelerated alternatively. After dosing thiosulfate, the relative abundances of sulfurimonas and ferritrophicum grew up significantly.

3.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; : AEM0153421, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586909

RESUMO

Biological foaming (or biofoaming) is a frequently occurring problem in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and is attributed to the overwhelming growth of filamentous bulking and foaming bacteria (BFB). Biological foaming has been intensively investigated, with BFB like Microthrix and Skermania having been identified from WWTPs and implicated in foaming. Nevertheless, studies are still needed to improve our understanding of the microbial diversity of WWTPs biofoams and how microbial activities contribute to foaming. In this study, sludge foaming at the Qinghe WWTP of China was monitored, and sludge foams were investigated using culture-dependent and culture-independent microbiological methods. The foam microbiomes exhibited high abundances of Skermania, Mycobacterium, Flavobacteriales, and Kaistella. A previously unknown bacterium, Candidatus Kaistella beijingensis, was cultivated from foams, its genome sequenced, and it was phenotypically characterized. Ca. K. beijingensis exhibits hydrophobic cell surfaces, produces extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and metabolizes lipids. Ca. K. beijingensis abundances were proportional to EPS levels in foams. Several proteins encoded by the Ca. K. beijingensis genome were identified from EPS that was extracted from sludge foams. Ca. K. beijingensis populations accounted for 4-6% of the total bacterial populations in sludge foam samples within the Qinghe WWTP, although their abundances were higher in spring than in other seasons. Co-occurrence analysis indicated that Ca. K. beijingensis was not a core node among the WWTP community network, but its abundances were negatively correlated with those of the well-studied BFB Skermania piniformis among cross-season Qinghe WWTP communities. Importance Biological foaming or scumming is a sludge separation problem that has become the subject of major concern for long-term stable activated sludge operation in decades. Biological foaming was considered induced by foaming bacteria. However, the occurrence and deterioration of foaming in many WWTPs are still not completely understood. Cultivation and characterization of the enriched bacteria in foaming are critical to understand their genetic, physiological, phylogenetic, and ecological traits, as well as to improve the understanding of their relationships with foaming and performance of WWTPs.

4.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt B): 112086, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562479

RESUMO

The green biogenic PdAu nanoparticles (bio-PdAu NPs) exhibits remarkable catalytic performance in hydrogenation, which is highly desired. However, the catalytic principles and effectiveness of bio-PdxAuy NPs in response to various catalytic systems (electrocatalysis and suspension-catalysis) are unclear. Herein, a facile synthetic strategy for bio-PdxAuy NPs synthesis with controlled size and the catalytic principles for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and azo dye degradation is reported. In the biosynthetic process, the size and composition of the bio-PdxAuy NPs could be precisely controlled by predesigning the precursor mass ratio of Pd/Au, and the Au proportion showed a linear relationship with the size of NPs (R2 = 0.92). The obtained bio-PdxAuy NPs exhibit variable activity in electrocatalysis (HER) and suspension-catalysis (azo dye degradation). For electrocatalysis, the formation of conductive networks that facilitates the extracellular electron transfer is crucial. It was revealed that the bio-Pd2Au8 exhibited superior electrocatalytic performance in HER/toward hydrogen evolution, with a maximum current density of 1.65 mA cm-2, which was 1.54 times higher than that commercial Pd/C (1.07 mA cm-2). The high electrocatalytic activity was attributed to its appropriate size (81.38 ± 6.14 nm) and uniform distribution on the cell surface, which promoted the extracellular electron transfer by constructing a conductive network between catalyst and electrode. However, for suspension-catalysis, the size effect and synergistic effect of bimetallic NPs have a more prominent effect on the degradation of azo dyes. As the increase of Au proportion the particle size decreases, and the catalytic activity of bio-PdxAuy improved significantly. The response principles of bio-PdxAuy proposed in this study provide a reliable reference for the rational design of bio-based bimetallic catalysts with enhanced catalytic performance.

5.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125824, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450443

RESUMO

To recover resource from waste activated sludge (WAS) is of great significance. This study proposed a promising way, i.e., stepwise alkaline treatment coupled with ammonia stripping, to remarkably enhance short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production from WAS anaerobic digestion. The maximal production of SCFAs, with the value of 323 mg COD/g volatile suspended solid, was obtained with first initial pH = 10 adjustment followed by second initial pH = 10 adjustment on third day coupled with ammonia stripping. Mechanistic studies showed that solubilization of both extracellular polymeric substances and cells could be accelerated by stepwise initial pH = 10 adjustment. However, without ammonia stripping, the activities of either acidogens or methanogens could be inhibited by free ammonia formed under alkaline conditions; positively, anaerobes related to SCFAs production were enriched with ammonia stripping. Moreover, the proposed strategy can simultaneously achieve nitrogen and carbon recovery, providing some solutions for the carbon-neutral operation of wastewater treatment plants.


Assuntos
Amônia , Esgotos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
6.
J Hazard Mater ; 417: 126104, 2021 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229393

RESUMO

Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) has aroused widespread pollution in industrial wastewater. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) was proved powerful in organics degradation and simultaneous resource recovery during wastewater treatment. However, the TBBPA biotransformation potential, pathway and the related molecular mechanism remain poorly understood. In this study, the enhanced degradation and detoxification performance of TBBPA in MFC anode was confirmed, evidenced by the shorter degradation period (2.3 times shorter) and less generation of bisphenol A. UPLC-QTOF-MS analysis verified TBBPA metabolism went through reductive debromination, hydrolytic debromination, oxidative ring cleavage and o-methylation. Accompanied with those biochemical processes, the metabolites underwent dynamic changes. The distinctly decreased abundance and fewer interactions with other functional genera for the potential reductive dehalogenators (Pseudomonas, etc.) possibly led to the suppressed reductive debromination (5.1%) in the closed bioanode. Otherwise, the more abundant potential function bacteria with more collaborated interrelations, including hydrolytic dehalogenators (Acinetobacter, etc.), aromatics degrading bacteria (Geobacter, Holophaga, etc.) and electroactive bacteria (Geobacter, Desulfovibrio, etc.) made great sense to the enhanced hydrolytic debromination and detoxification of TBBPA. This study revealed that MFC anode was beneficial to TBBPA degradation and provided theoretical support for the decomposition and transformation of micro-pollutants in the municipal sewage treatment coupled with MFC process.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Bifenil Polibromatos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Águas Residuárias
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 796: 148957, 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274658

RESUMO

Quaternary ammonium compounds have gained widespread attention due to their extensive enrichment in waste activated sludge (WAS) and potentially adverse effect to anaerobes. This study selected benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) as model to reveal the responses of anaerobic digestion of WAS to long-term stress of BACs. Results showed that the solubilization enhancement of WAS contributed by BACs was the acceleration of cell lysis, rather than the disruption of extracellular polymeric substances, and the accumulation improvement of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) attributed to hydrolysis improvement and methanogenesis inhibition at either medium -or high level of BACs. In addition, a low level had no significant effect on the production of methane compared to control, with averages of 0.059 and 0.055 m3/(m3·d), respectively, whereas a medium level reduced methane production to 20% of control, and a high level almost completely inhibited methanogenesis. Correspondingly, BACs could shift microbial communities related to SCFAs and methane productions. For the bacterial community, a high level of BACs led to abundance reductions of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi, but Synergistetes was increased to 10.5%, which was almost not detected either in control or at a low level of BACs. And for dominant archaeal community, they tended to be shifted from acetotrophic to hydrogenotrophic methanogens with BACs increasing from low to high level. These findings provided some new insights for the role of BACs in anaerobic digestion, as well as resource recovery from WAS.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Compostos de Benzalcônio , Reatores Biológicos , Cloretos , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Metano , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 331: 125035, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820702

RESUMO

The plastic products have large consumption over last decades, resulting in a serious microplastics (MPs) pollution. Specially, the main removal way of MPs from wastewater is to transfer MPs from liquid to solid phase, leading to its enrichment in waste activated sludge (WAS). Anaerobic digestion has been served as the most potential technique to achieve both resource recovery and sludge reduction, herein this review provides current information on occurrence, effect, and fate of MPs in anaerobic digestion of WAS. The effects of MPs on WAS anaerobic digestion are greatly related to forms, particles sizes, contents, compositions and leachates of MPs. Also, the presence of MPs not only can change the effects of other pollutants on anaerobic digestion of WAS, but also can affect the fates of them. Besides, the future perspectives focused on the fate, effect and final removal of MPs during WAS anaerobic digestion process are outlined.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Plásticos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
9.
Environ Res ; 197: 111029, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744267

RESUMO

Sulfur autotrophic denitrification (SAD) process, as an alternative to heterotrophic denitrification (HD) filter, receives growing interest in polishing the effluent from secondary sewage treatment. Although individual studies have indicated several advantages of SAD over HD, rare study has compared these two systems under identical condition and by using real secondary effluent. In this study, two small pilot scale filters (SAD and HD) were designed with identical configuration and operated parallelly by feeding the real secondary effluent from a WWTP. The results showed SAD filter can be started up without the addition of soluble electron donor, although the time (14 days) was about 3 times longer than that of HD filter. The nitrate removal rate of SAD filter at HRT of 1.4 h was measured as 0.268 ± 0.047 kg N/(m3∙d). Similar value was observed in HD filter with supplementing 90 mg/L COD. The COD concentration of effluent always kept lower than that of influent in SAD filter but not in HD filter. In addition, SAD filter could maintain a stable denitrification performance without backwash for 15 days, while decline of nitrate removal rate was observed in HD filter just 2 days after stopping the backwash. This different behavior was further confirmed as the SAD filter had a better hydraulic flow pattern. Analysis according to high-throughput 16S rRNA gene-based Illumina MiSeq sequencing clearly showed the microbial community evolution and differentiation among the samples of seed sludge, SAD and HD filters. Finally, the economic assessment was carried out, showing the operation cost of SAD filter was over 50% lower than that of HD filter.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Hidrodinâmica , Reatores Biológicos , Nitratos , Nitrogênio , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Enxofre
10.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(2): 853-867, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409607

RESUMO

The diversity and assembly of activated sludge microbiomes play a key role in the performances of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), which are the most widely applied biotechnological process systems. In this study, we investigated the microbiomes of municipal WWTPs in Bangkok, Wuhan, and Beijing that respectively represent tropical, subtropical, and temperate climate regions, and also explored how microbiomes assembled in these municipal WWTPs. Our results showed that the microbiomes from these municipal WWTPs were significantly different. The assembly of microbiomes in municipal WWTPs followed deterministic and stochastic processes governed by geographical location, temperature, and nutrients. We found that both taxonomic and phylogenetic α-diversities of tropical Bangkok municipal WWTPs were the highest and were rich in yet-to-be-identified microbial taxa. Nitrospirae and ß-Proteobacteria were more abundant in tropical municipal WWTPs, but did not result in better removal efficiencies of ammonium and total nitrogen. Overall, these results suggest that tropical and temperate municipal WWTPs harbored diverse and unique microbial resources, and the municipal WWTP microbiomes were assembled with different processes. Implications of these findings for designing and running tropical municipal WWTPs were discussed. KEY POINTS: • Six WWTPs of tropical Thailand and subtropical and temperate China were investigated. • Tropical Bangkok WWTPs had more diverse and yet-to-be-identified microbial taxa. • Microbiome assembly processes were associated with geographical location.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Purificação da Água , Pequim , China , Filogenia , Esgotos , Tailândia , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 408: 124416, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33158650

RESUMO

Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) have been known as a promising technology for accelerating aromatic contaminants degradation and energy recovery. However, most existing studies concentrate on aromatics metabolized through a benzoyl-CoA pathway while those metabolized through other pathways are limited. In this work, resorcinol, a typical aromatic contaminant as well as a key central intermediate (other than benzoyl-CoA) involved in aromatics anaerobic biodegradation, was studied in BESs. Unlike the general impression of the relatively poor organic-to-current performance in the aromatics driven BESs, high efficiencies for resorcinol-fed BESs were observed with a current density and coulombic efficiency of up to 0.26 ± 0.05 mAcm-2 and 74.3 ± 10.7%, respectively. The higher performance likely correlates to the readily fermentable property of resorcinol. Analysis of microbial communities in the biofilm suggests a syntrophic interaction between resorcinol-degrading bacteria (RDB) and anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) was involved in current generation. Additional tests involving the removal of accumulated acetate through fast resorcinol feeding indicates that a mechanism based on direct utilization of resorcinol for current generation may also exist. This study extends the knowledge for the fate of aromatics in BESs and indicates that aromatics entering into the resorcinol metabolic pathway can be treated efficiently with good energy recovery efficiency in BESs.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Biodegradação Ambiental , Eletrodos , Elétrons , Resorcinóis
13.
Environ Res ; 196: 110331, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068576

RESUMO

The excess organic carbon is often added to meet denitrification requirements during municipal wastewater treatment, resulting in the carbon waste and increased risk of secondary pollution. In this study, microbial fuel cell (MFC) was coupled with an up-flow denitrification biofilter (BF), and the long-term performances of denitrification and power output were investigated under the different carbon source concentration. With sodium acetate (NaAc) of 600 mg/L and 300 mg/L, the favorable denitrification efficiencies were obtained (98.60%) and the stable current output was maintained (0.44 mÃ0.48 mA). By supplying NaAc of 150 mg/L, the high denitrification efficiency remained in a high range (89.31%) and the current output maintained at 0.12 mA, while, the denitrification efficiency dropped to 71.34% without coupling MFC. Electron balance analysis indicated that both nitrate removal and electron recovery efficiencies were higher in MFC-BF than that in BF, verifying the improved denitrification and carbon utilization performance. Coupling MFC significantly altered the bacterial community structure and composition, and while, the diversified abundance and distribution of bacterial genera were observed at the different locations. Compared with BF, the more exoelectrogenic genera (Desulfobacterium, Trichococcus) and genera holding both denitrifying and electrogenic functions (Dechloromonas, Geobacter) were found dominated in MFC-BF. Instead, the dominating genera in BF were Dechloromonas, Desulfomicrobium, Acidovorax and etc. By coupling MFC, the more complex and diversified network and the closer interaction relationships between the dominant potential functional genera were found. The study provides a feasible approach to effectively improve the denitrification efficiency and organic carbon recovery for deep denitrification process.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Purificação da Água , Bactérias , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio/análise , Águas Residuárias
14.
J Hazard Mater ; 405: 124366, 2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301967

RESUMO

Antibiotics commonly exist in municipal, livestock and industrial wastewaters. However, the response of key microbiota performance in wastewater treatment plants to antibiotic exposure lacks systematic research. In this study, the short-term acute stress of four commonly used antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, chlortetracycline, ciprofloxacin, and amoxicillin) on microbial denitrification performance was systematically investigated. All tested antibiotics exhibited the inhibitory effects in varying degrees by repeated addition for six cycles. The nitrate removal efficiencies (NrE) decreased to 7.98-26.80%, accompanied by the significant decrease of the expressed narG gene, by exposure to sulfamethoxazole, chlortetracycline or amoxicillin. Nitrite reduction was inhibited more severely than nitrate reduction, which was further verified by the low- or non-expressed nirS and nosZ genes. Furthermore, a higher antibiotic concentration made stronger inhibitory effect. Except for chlortetracycline, 2.09-6.80 times decrease of k value was commonly observed as concentration increased from 10 to 50 or 100 mg L-1. Even in a short period (24 h), antibiotics largely decreased the abundance of the dominant denitrifying bacterial genera (Thauera, Comamonas, etc.), while, some unclassified populations (Labrenzia, Longilinea, etc.) were enriched. This study provides theoretical researches on the microbial denitrification behaviors influenced by exposure to different antibiotics.


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Microbiota , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Reatores Biológicos , Nitritos , Nitrogênio , Águas Residuárias
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 322: 124536, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341712

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of residual ferric ions (FI), released from iron or its oxides for wastewater or waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment, on anaerobic digestion of WAS. Herein it was found that the anaerobic digestion process was greatly affected by FI dosages as well as FI distributions. The responses of performance and microorganism suggested that a low FI (e.g., 0.125 mmol/g volatile suspended solid (VSS)) enhanced methane production by 29.3%, and a medium FI (e.g., 0.3 mmol/g VSS) promoted short chain fatty acids accumulation to reach the maximum of 247 mg chemical oxygen demand /g VSS, conversely, a high FI (e.g., 0.9 mmol/g VSS) led to severe inhibition on acidogenesis and methanogenesis. The findings may provide some new insights for mechanism understanding on anaerobic digestion process influenced by iron or its oxides, as well as the disposal of WAS contained FI.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Íons , Ferro , Metano , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 322: 124430, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383476

RESUMO

Biochar was utilized to intensify constructed wetland (CW) for further organic and nitrogen removal from secondary wastewater. Four sets of non-aerated biochar amended vertical flow CW (VFCW) were developed to investigate the synergistic effects of biochar and microbes on pollutant removal. Results showed that the average COD and nitrogen removal efficiencies of VFCW1 (with 1% w/w biochar with microbe and plants) achieved 89.1 ± 5.6% and 90.2 ± 3.1% respectively, and their corresponding removal rates of 10.2 ± 0.8 mg-COD/(m3.d) and 3.57 ± 0.3 mg-TN/(m3.d) which were 35 and 52.3% higher than control. The biochar's dissolved organic carbon release in VFCWs indicated that water and acidic media portray the optimum conditions for nitrogen removal. The 16S RNA gene sequencing analysis indicated that in the biochar-amended VFCWs, bacterial phylum Proteobacteria (24.13-51.95%) followed by Chloroflexi (5.64-25.01%), Planctomycetes (8.48-14.43%), Acidobacteria (2.29-11.65%) were abundantly enhanced. Conclusively, incorporating biochar in non-aerated VFCWs is an efficient technique for enhancing nitrogen removal from secondary effluent.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Áreas Alagadas , Carbono , Carvão Vegetal , Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
17.
Water Res ; 188: 116526, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125994

RESUMO

The denitrification desulfurization system can be used to remediate wastewater containing carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. However, the relationship between autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria remains poorly understood. To better understand the roles and relations of core bacteria, an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor was continuously operated under autotrophic (stage I), heterotrophic (stage II) and mixotrophic (stages III-VII) conditions with a 490-day period. Stage IV represented the excellent S0 recovery rate (69.5%). The different trophic conditions caused the obvious succession of dominant bacterial genera. Autotrophic environment (stage I) enriched mostly Thiobacillus, and heterotrophic environment (stage II) was dominated with Azoarcus and Pseudomonas. Thauera, Arcobacter and Azoarcus became the predominant genera under mixotrophic conditions (stage III-VII). Strains belonged to these core genera were further isolated, and all seven isolates were confirmed with denitrifying sulfur oxidation capacity. Heterotrophic strain HDD1 (genus of Thauera) possessed both the highest sulfide degradation and S0 recovery rates. Expression levels of cbbM and gltA genes were positively related with the autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions, respectively. NirK gene was highly expressed between log 3.7-log 4.3 during the entire run. Expression of both sqr and soxB genes were closely related with sulfur conversion. More than 57.5% of S0 recovery rate could be obtained as sqr gene expression was greater than log 3.2, and while, sulfate was the primary form as soxB gene expression higher than log 3.9. The correlation between core microbial genera was very low from network, indicating a complex and non-specific mutualistic network between bacterial functional groups under each nutrient condition, and a stable coexistence state was possibly formed through utilizing each the secondary or waste metabolites in the mixotrophic conditions. This relationship was beneficial to the stability of the microbial community structure in the denitrification desulfurization system.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Processos Autotróficos , Bactérias/genética , Nitratos , Nitrogênio
18.
J Hazard Mater ; 401: 123440, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33113717

RESUMO

The development of catalysts has seen tremendous growth recently but most strategies only report utilization of catalysts for a few initial cycles without taking into account the influence of oxygen poisoning. Here, the magnetic Fe3O4@EDTA-Fe (MEFe, having a core Fe3O4 particle with EDTA-Fe coating) was investigated as a model catalyst for long-term recycling for the removal of nitrogen oxide (NOx) from NO/O2 mixture, followed by N2O recovery. The concentration of oxygen in the flue gas was found to have a strong impact on NOx absorption and catalytic response. To circumvent the oxygen poisoning, the MEFe was subjected to electrochemical treatment in the presence of neutral red (N.R.) and NO removal efficiency was ∼95 % noted. Furthermore, the surface of the catalyst degraded significantly (p < 0.05) after 6-7 repetitive cycling due to surface catalytic reactions, surface poisoning, oxidation of metallic species as well as residual stresses. The MEFe surface was reconstructed after 7 cycles using EDTA solution and Fe source to achieve similar surface coating as the fresh MEFe catalyst. The reconstructed MEFe exhibited similar NOx absorption capability as the fresh MEFe and the reconstruction loop was repeated several times to achieve long term cycling, which make the catalyst cost-effective. Hence, it is proposed that a successful regeneration process can be employed for promising, sustainable and long-lasting catalytic treatment of air pollutants.

20.
Environ Res ; 191: 110196, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919957

RESUMO

Biologically synthesized palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd) have attracted considerable interest as promising green catalysts for environmental remediation. However, the mechanisms by which microorganisms produce bio-Pd remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the roles of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and its NADH dehydrogenases and hydrogenases (HydA and HyaB) in bio-Pd production using formate as the electron donor. The roles of NADH dehydrogenases and hydrogenases were studied by inhibiting NADH dehydrogenases and using hydrogenase mutants (ΔhydA, ΔhyaB, and ΔhydAΔhyaB), respectively. The results showed ~97% reduction of palladium by S. oneidensis MR-1 after 24 h using 250 µM palladium and 500 µM formate. Electron microscopy images showed the presence of bio-Pd on both the outer and cytoplasmic membranes of S. oneidensis MR-1. However, the inhibition of NADH dehydrogenases in S. oneidensis MR-1 resulted in only ~61% reduction of palladium after 24 h, and bio-Pd were not found on the outer membrane. The mutants lacking one or two hydrogenases removed 91-96% of palladium ions after 24 h and showed more cytoplasmic bio-Pd but less periplasmic bio-Pd. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the role of NADH dehydrogenases of S. oneidensis MR-1 in the formation of bio-Pd on the outer membrane. It also demonstrates that the hydrogenases (especially HyaB) of S. oneidensis MR-1 contribute to the formation of bio-Pd in the periplasmic space. This study provides mechanistic insights into the production of biogenic metal nanoparticles towards their possible use in industrial and environmental applications.


Assuntos
Hidrogenase , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Hidrogenase/genética , Hidrogenase/metabolismo , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , NAD , Oxirredução , Paládio , Shewanella
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