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1.
Bioorg Chem ; 116: 105395, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628224

RESUMO

Seven new triterpenoids including two cycloartanes (1-2), a lanostane (3), a tirucallane (4), a dammarane (5), an ursane (6), and an oleanane (7), along with nineteen known triterpenoids (8-26), have been obtained from the roots of Euphorbia fischeriana. Their structures were established by NMR, HRESIMS, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, Mosher's method, NMR calculations, ECD analysis, and comparison with structurally related known analogues. Among them, compounds 1 and 8 were a pair of cycloartane-type triterpenoids epimers. Our bioassays have established that compounds 1-5 and 10 displayed moderate cytotoxic effects, and the structure-activity relationships of cycloartane-type triterpenoids (CTTs) were further examined. Notably, some triterpenoids displayed moderate inhibitory effects against AChE by an in vitro screened experiment. Triterpenoid 7 (Euphorfistrine G, ETG) displayed the potent inhibitory effect with IC50 = 2.45 and Ki = 2.30 µM (inhibition kinetic). And, in silico docking analyses have been performed to investigate the inhibitory mechanism of compound 7.

2.
Tob Control ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599084

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mentholated tobacco cigarettes are believed to be more addictive than non-menthol ones. Packaging of most menthol cigarette brands includes distinctive green hues, which may act as conditioned stimuli (ie, cues) and promote menthol smoking. To examine the cue properties of menthol cigarette packaging, we used a priming paradigm to assess the effect of packaging on the neural substrates of smoking cue reactivity. We hypothesised that menthol packaging will exert a specific priming effect potentiating smoking cue reactivity in menthol compared with non-menthol smokers. METHODS: Forty-two menthol and 33 non-menthol smokers underwent functional MRI while viewing smoking and neutral cues. The cues were preceded (ie, primed) by briefly presented images of menthol or non-menthol cigarette packages. Participants reported craving for cigarettes in response to each cue. RESULTS: Menthol packaging induced greater frontostriatal and occipital smoking cue reactivity in menthol smokers than in non-menthol smokers. Menthol packaging also enhanced the mediation by neural activity of the relationship between cue exposure and cigarette craving in menthol but not non-menthol smokers. Dynamic causal modelling showed stronger frontostriatal-occipital connectivity in response to menthol packaging in menthol compared with non-menthol smokers. The effects of non-menthol packaging did not differ between categories of smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate heightened motivational and perceptual salience of the green-hued menthol cigarette packaging that may exacerbate menthol smokers' susceptibility to smoking cues. These effects could contribute to the greater addiction severity among menthol smokers and could be considered in the development of science-based regulation and legal review of tobacco product marketing practices.

3.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 431: 115739, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619160

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest cancers with high mortality and poor prognosis, and the investigation on new approaches and effective drugs for HCC therapy is of great significance. In our study, we demonstrate that treatment with cinobufagin, a natural compound isolated from traditional chinese medicine Chansu, reduces proliferation and the colony formation capacity of the human hepatoma cells in vitro, in addition, cinobufagin induces mitotic arrest in human hepatoma cells. The results of a network pharmacology-based analysis show that EGFR, MAPK1, PTK2, CDK2, MAPK3, ESR1, CDK1, PRKCA, AR, and CSNK2A1 are the key targets involved in the anti-tumor activities of cinobufagin, additionally, several signaling pathways such as proteoglycans in cancer, pathways in cancer, HIF-1 signaling pathway, VEGF signaling pathway, ErbB signaling pathway, and PI3K-AKT signaling pathway are identified as the potential pathways involved in the inhibitory effects of cinobufagin against HCC. Furthermore, at the molecular level, we find that cinobufagin decreases EGFR expression and CDK2 activity in human hepatoma cells. Inhibition of EGFR or CDK2 expression could not only suppress the growth of tumor cells but also enhance the inhibitory effects of cinobufagin on the proliferative potential of human hepatoma cells. We also demonstrate that EGFR positively regulates CDK2 expression. Furthermore, EGFR inhibitor gefitinib or CDK2 inhibitor CVT-313 synergistically enhances anticancer effects of cinobufagin in human hepatoma cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that cinobufagin may exert antitumor effects by suppressing EGFR-CDK2 signaling, and our study suggests that cinobufagin may be a novel, promising anticancer agent for the treatment of HCC.

4.
Immunogenetics ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477936

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease whose principal pathological change is aggressive chronic synovial inflammation; however, the specific etiology and pathogenesis have not been fully elucidated. We downloaded the synovial tissue gene expression profiles of four human knees from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, analyzed the differentially expressed genes in the normal and RA groups, and assessed their enrichment in functions and pathways using bioinformatics methods and the STRING online database to establish protein-protein interaction networks. Cytoscape software was used to obtain 10 hub genes; receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated for each hub gene and differential expression analysis of the two groups of hub genes. The CIBERSORT algorithm was used to impute immune infiltration. We identified the signaling pathways that play important roles in RA and 10 hub genes: Ccr1, Ccr2, Ccr5, Ccr7, Cxcl5, Cxcl6, Cxcl13, Ccl13, Adcy2, and Pnoc. The diagnostic value of these 10 hub genes for RA was confirmed using ROC curves and expression analysis. Adcy2, Cxcl13, and Ccr5 are strongly associated with RA development. The study also revealed that the differential infiltration profile of different inflammatory immune cells in the synovial tissue of RA is an extremely critical factor in RA progression. This study may contribute to the understanding of signaling pathways and biological processes associated with RA and the role of inflammatory immune infiltration in the pathogenesis of RA. In addition, this study shows that Adcy2, Cxcl13, and Ccr5 have the potential to be biomarkers for RA treatment.

5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 706252, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513728

RESUMO

The pandemic of COVID-19 by SARS-CoV-2 has become a global disaster. However, we still don't know how specific SARS-CoV-2-encoded proteins contribute to viral pathogenicity. We found that SARS-CoV-2-encoded membrane glycoprotein M could induce caspase-dependent apoptosis via interacting with PDK1 and inhibiting the activation of PDK1-PKB/Akt signaling. Our investigation further revealed that SARS-CoV-2-encoded nucleocapsid protein N could specifically enhance the M-induced apoptosis via interacting with both M and PDK1, therefore strengthening M-mediated attenuation of PDK1-PKB/Akt interaction. Furthermore, when the M-N interaction was disrupted via certain rationally designed peptides, the PDK1-PKB/Akt signaling was restored, and the boosting activity of N on the M-triggered apoptosis was abolished. Overall, our findings uncovered a novel mechanism by which SARS-CoV-2-encoded M triggers apoptosis with the assistance of N, which expands our understanding of the two key proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and sheds light on the pathogenicity of this life-threatening virus.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Apoptose , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana , Proteínas do Nucleocapsídeo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 226: 112831, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592525

RESUMO

Cigarette smoke is a harmful air pollutant and nicotine dependence is the essential cause of the tobacco epidemic. Since mitochondrial abnormalities are associated with substance addiction, in this work we used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number as an indicator of mitochondrial function to investigate whether nicotine addicts also exhibit mitochondrial abnormalities. We found significantly lower mtDNA copy number in the peripheral blood of healthy nicotine addicts than in non-smokers, indicating that long-term nicotine exposure through smoking has detrimental effects on mitochondria. We also examined the effects of nicotine on mtDNA levels in a rat conditioned place preference (CPP) model of addiction and in cultured neuron cells, which revealed that the mtDNA copy number was significantly reduced in the hippocampus of CPP rats, in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, and in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, suggesting that significantly reduced mtDNA copy number is a potential biomarker of nicotine addiction. In SH-SY5Y cells, nicotine treatment induced several mitochondrial defects, such as increased mtDNA damage, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (△Ψm), and stimulation of autophagic flux via transcriptional up-regulation of several autophagy-related genes and elevated marker protein accumulation, although genes controlling mtDNA replication were unaffected. In addition, pretreatment with the autophagy inhibitor Bafilomycin A1 led to accumulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3b-II (LC3B-II) and counteracted the nicotine-induced decrease in mtDNA copy number. These results were recapitulated in PC12 cells, which also showed significant down-regulation of the marker SQSTM1/P62, suggesting that the decrease in mtDNA copy number is mediated by autophagy. This study shows that prolonged nicotine exposure, such as that in nicotine addicts, leads to a decrease of mtDNA copy number in neurons due to enhanced induction of autophagy. CAPSULE: It was found that smoking or nicotine exposure decreased mtDNA copy number based on population, animal, and cell models, and these effects appear to be mediated by autophagy.

7.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 118: 303-312, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481088

RESUMO

Zinc (Zn) plays a role in the antioxidant capacity and immunity of aquatic animals. A twelve-week feeding experiment was performed to estimate the impact of dietary zinc on antioxidant enzyme-related gene expression, antioxidant enzyme activity and non-specific immune functions of soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis. Six fishmeal-based experimental diets with 32.45% protein were formulated, which contained 35.43, 46.23, 55.38, 66.74, 75.06 and 85.24 mg/kg Zn, respectively. Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels improved with an elevation in dietary Zn from 35.43 to 55.38 mg/kg and then reduced when dietary Zn was further elevated. The expression levels of Nrf2 and antioxidant-related genes CuZnSOD, MnSOD, CAT, GPX1, GPX2, GPX3 and GPX4 escalated with elevating Zn concentration up to 55.38 mg/kg in diets and then reduced as dietary Zn elevated. The expression levels of Kelch-like ECH-associating protein 1 (keap1) showed a reverse trend with that of Nrf2. The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the 55.38 and 66.74 mg/kg Zn diet-fed groups were the lowest. Alkaline phosphatase activity (AKP), superoxide anion (O2-), lysozyme activity and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) improved with an escalation in dietary Zn concentration up to 66.74 mg/kg. Optimal dietary Zn improved antioxidant capability, immunity, and antioxidant enzyme-related gene expression. The dietary Zn demand for soft-shelled turtles were 60.93 and 61.63 mg/kg, based on second regression analysis of SOD and T-AOC activity, respectively.

8.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584229

RESUMO

Mental disorders are highly comorbid and occur together with physical diseases, which are often considered to arise from separate pathogenic pathways. We observed in alcohol-dependent patients increased serum activity of neutral sphingomyelinase. A genetic association analysis in 456,693 volunteers found associations of haplotypes of SMPD3 coding for NSM-2 (NSM) with alcohol consumption, but also with affective state, and bone mineralisation. Functional analysis in mice showed that NSM controls alcohol consumption, affective behaviour, and their interaction by regulating hippocampal volume, cortical connectivity, and monoaminergic responses. Furthermore, NSM controlled bone-brain communication by enhancing osteocalcin signalling, which can independently supress alcohol consumption and reduce depressive behaviour. Altogether, we identified a single gene source for multiple pathways originating in the brain and bone, which interlink disorders of a mental-physical co-morbidity trias of alcohol abuse-depression/anxiety-bone disorder. Targeting NSM and osteocalcin signalling may, thus, provide a new systems approach in the treatment of a mental-physical co-morbidity trias.

9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(31): 8634-8648, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339211

RESUMO

The monocot lineage-specific miR528 was previously established as a multistress regulator. However, it remains largely unclear how miR528 participates in response to salinity stress in rice. Here, we show that miR528 positively regulates rice salt tolerance by down-regulating a gene encoding l-ascorbate oxidase (AO), thereby bolstering up the AO-mediated abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis and ROS scavenging. Overexpression of miR528 caused a substantial increase in ascorbic acid (AsA) and ABA contents but a significant reduction in ROS accumulation, resulting in the enhanced salt tolerance of rice plants. Conversely, knockdown of miR528 or overexpression of AO stimulated the expression of the AO gene, hence lowering the level of AsA, a critical antioxidant that promotes the ABA content but reduces the ROS level, and then compromising rice tolerance to salinity. Together, the findings reveal a novel mechanism of the miR528-AO module-mediated salt tolerance by modulating the processes of AsA and ABA metabolism as well as ROS detoxification, which adds a new regulatory role to the miR528-AO stress defense pathway in rice.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Oryza , Tolerância ao Sal , Ascorbato Oxidase , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Estresse Fisiológico
10.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(9): e23931, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abnormal spindle-like microcephaly (ASPM) has been proved to participate in tumor progression. However, the underlying mechanism of ASPM in liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC) remains elusive. METHODS: The mRNA and protein expression were determined using Western blot and qRT-PCR, and the capacities of cells proliferation, migration, and invasion were evaluated by CCK-8, colony formation, wound healing, and transwell. MeRIP was performed to validate the interaction between ASPM and methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3). RESULTS: Herein, we found that ASPM was significantly upregulated in LIHC, and the high expression of ASPM was associated with poor LIHC prognosis. Furthermore, ASPM knockdown could suppress LIHC cells proliferation, migration, and invasion, while ASPM overexpression exerted reverse effect. Mechanistically, we revealed that the N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification of ASPM mRNA mediated by METTL3 promoted its expression in LIHC. More importantly, silencing METTL3 suppressed LIHC cells proliferation, migration, and invasion, which could be retained by ASPM overexpression. CONCLUSION: Collectively, our findings suggested that METTL3/ASPM axis could serve as a novel promising therapeutic candidate for LIHC.

11.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417934

RESUMO

The "bivalent domain" is a unique histone modification region consisting of two histone tri-methylation modifications. Over the years, it has been revealed that the maintenance and dynamic changes of the bivalent domains play a vital regulatory role in the differentiation of various stem cell systems, as well as in other cells, such as immunomodulation. Tri-methylation modifications involved in the formation of the bivalent domains are interrelated and mutually regulated, thus regulating many life processes of cells. Tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me3), tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me3) and tri-methylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) are the main tri-methylation modifications involved in the formation of bivalent domains. The three form different bivalent domains in pairs. Furthermore, it is equally clear that H3K4me3 is a positive regulator of transcription and that H3K9me3/H3K27me3 are negative regulators. Enzymes related to the regulation of histone methylation play a significant role in the "homeostasis" and "breaking homeostasis" of the bivalent domains. Bivalent domains regulate target genes, upstream transcription, downstream targeting regulation and related cytokines during the establishment and breakdown of homeostasis, and exert the specific regulation of stem cells. Indeed, a unified mechanism to explain the bivalent modification in all stem cells has been difficult to define, and whether the bivalent modification is antagonistic in inducing the differentiation of homologous stem cells is controversial. In this review, we focus on the different bivalent modifications in several key stem cells and explore the main mechanisms and effects of these modifications involved. Finally, we discussed the close relationship between bivalent domains and immune cells, and put forward the prospect of the application of bivalent domains in the field of stem cells.

13.
Brain Inj ; 35(10): 1201-1209, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383626

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Nerve damage can cause severe limb dysfunction and even leave a lifelong disability. The apoptosis of astrocytes may contribute to the nerve damage. In this research, we sought to investigate the effect of ß-HB on nerve damage in vitro. DESIGN: Astrocytes were treated with high glucose (HG) to mimic in vitro model of nerve damage. RT-qPCR and western blot were used to detect expressions of CREB, BDNF, Ki-67, PCNA, Bax, Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase 3 in astrocytes, respectively. MTT was used to measure the cell viability. In addition, flow cytometry was used to detect the cell apoptosis. RESULTS: ß-HB significantly promoted the proliferation and inhibited apoptosis in HG-treated astrocytes. Results showed that of PCNA and Bcl-2 were upregulated, and Bax and cleaved caspase 3 were downregulated after ß-HB stimulated in HG-treated astrocytes. In addition, HG-induced inhibition on BDNF expression in astrocytes was notably reversed by ß-HB. Furthermore, ß-HB promoted the growth and inhibited apoptosis of high glucose-treated astrocytes via activation of CREB/BDNF axis. CONCLUSION: ß-HB promotes the growth and inhibits the apoptosis of high glucose-treated astrocytes via activation of CREB/BDNF axis, which may serve as a new target for treatment of nerve damage.


Assuntos
Astrócitos , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo , Apoptose , Glucose , Transdução de Sinais
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(14): 3504-3513, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402272

RESUMO

Coptidis Rhizoma is a common Chinese medicinal in clinical practice,with the effects of clearing heat,drying dampness,purging fire,and removing toxin. All the medicinal plants of Coptis can be used for clinical treatment,but some species are endangered due to resource destruction and difficulty in planting. The dominant medicinal components in Coptidis Rhizoma are isoquinoline alkaloids. There are various methods for the analysis and detection of alkaloids,such as LC-MS,HPLC,and TLC,among which LC-MS is the most widely applied. Different plants of Coptis vary in the kind and content of alkaloids. C. chinensis,C. deltoidea,C. teeta,C. chinensis var. brevisepala,C. omeiensis,C. quinquefolia,and C. quinquesecta mainly contain berberine,palmatine,coptisine,jatrorrhizine,and columbamine,five effective alkaloid components. Plant isoquinoline alkaloids( PIAs) have strong pharmacological activity but are difficult to prepare. The application of synthetic biology of PIAs will be helpful for the clinical application of PIAs. This paper reviews the research progress on biological resources of Coptis species and structures of alkaloids as well as analysis methods and synthetic biology for isoquinoline alkaloids in the medicinal plants of Coptis in recent years,which will facilitate the protection of Coptis medicinal resources and the application and development of alkaloids.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Alcaloides de Berberina , Berberina , Coptis , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Isoquinolinas , Rizoma
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(14): 3514-3521, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402273

RESUMO

According to the records of Chinese materia medica,Coptis chinensis var. brevisepala is an authentic Chinese medicinal plant highly recommended by ancient physicians since its rhizome is like a string of beads and has a good medicinal value. However,its medicinal components and values remain to be studied as it is endangered because of overexploitation. Therefore,this study aims to quantitatively determine its effective components based on UPLC-QTOF-MS,and to compare the contents of isoquinoline alkaloids in C.chinensis var. brevisepala with those in other Coptis species. Meanwhile,molecular methods accurately identified 12 batches of C. chinensis var. brevisepala,9 batches of C. chinensis,4 batches of C. deltoidea,and 1 batch of C. teeta. Gradient elution was performed with Waters CORTECS C18 column( 4. 6 mm× 150 mm,2. 7 µm) and the mobile phase acetonitrile-water with 0. 4% formic acid. Mass spectrometry was conducted in ESI positive mode. The quantitative results showed that 8 main alkaloids had a good linear relationship within the concentration range( R~2>0. 996),with the recovery rate of 95. 18%-105. 0% and the RSD of 0. 28%-3. 7%. Compared with that of other Coptis species,the rhizome of C. chinensis var. brevisepala had the highest contents of berberine and columbamine. The total content of the 8 alkaloids in C. chinensis var. brevisepala was similar to that in C. chinensis but higher than that of the other two species. PCA was performed to compare the alkaloids among the 4 species. Besides,the 8 alkaloids were evaluated in different parts of C. chinensis var. brevisepala. The results indicate that this method is reliable and efficient and can provide a reference for the quality research.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Alcaloides de Berberina , Coptis , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Plantas Medicinais , China , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise
16.
Phytochemistry ; 190: 112867, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304117

RESUMO

Eight undescribed diterpenoids, euphorfinoids E-L, together with twelve known analogues, were isolated from the roots of wild Euphorbia fischeriana. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by a combination of NMR, MS, ECD, and X-ray diffraction analyses. The plausible biosynthetic pathway of 1 was also proposed. The isolated compounds displayed moderate inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) with 50% inhibiting concentration (IC50) values of 6.23-192.38 µM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Inibidores da Colinesterase , Diterpenos , Euphorbia , Acetilcolinesterase , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Raízes de Plantas
17.
MAbs ; 13(1): 1953683, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313527

RESUMO

The global pandemic of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in widespread social and economic disruption. Effective interventions are urgently needed for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have demonstrated their prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy against SARS-CoV-2, and several have been granted authorization for emergency use. Here, we discover and characterize a fully human cross-reactive mAb, MW06, which binds to both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) and disrupts their interaction with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. Potential neutralization activity of MW06 was observed against both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV in different assays. The complex structure determination and epitope alignment of SARS-CoV-2 RBD/MW06 revealed that the epitope recognized by MW06 is highly conserved among SARS-related coronavirus strains, indicating the potential broad neutralization activity of MW06. In in vitro assays, no antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of SARS-CoV-2 infection was observed for MW06. In addition, MW06 recognizes a different epitope from MW05, which shows high neutralization activity and has been in a Phase 2 clinical trial, supporting the development of the cocktail of MW05 and MW06 to prevent against future escaping variants. MW06 alone and the cocktail show good effects in preventing escape mutations, including a series of variants of concern, B.1.1.7, P.1, B.1.351, and B.1.617.1. These findings suggest that MW06 recognizes a conserved epitope on SARS-CoV-2, which provides insights for the development of a universal antibody-based therapy against SARS-related coronavirus and emerging variant strains, and may be an effective anti-SARS-CoV-2 agent.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Vírus da SARS/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Facilitadores , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/terapia , Sequência Conservada , Reações Cruzadas , Epitopos/química , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Testes de Neutralização , Pandemias , Domínios Proteicos , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Vírus da SARS/química , Vírus da SARS/genética , SARS-CoV-2/química , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia
18.
J Craniofac Surg ; 32(4): 1297-1301, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION: Nail injuries are important causes of penetrating craniocerebral injuries. Theirs incidence is very low, but the injuries can be fatal. Since the nail gun was gradually popularized in 1959, the incidence of nail injuries has been increasing. Here we report a case of nail gun injury to superior sagittal sinus and review the literature of the past 60 years to find out what are the possible factors of nail gun injury and what are their respective ratios? CLINICAL REPORT: An 18-year-old male patient was accidentally injured in the head by the worker's nail gun, accompanied by scalp pain, no physical sensation disorder, and consciousness disorder. A computed tomography scan of his skull showed the penetrating site at the right frontal area, near the superior sagittal sinus. Seven days later, the patient underwent a successful surgery without neurological sequelae. DISCUSSION: Nail injuries are rare, but can be potentially fatal. We found that nail guns were the main cause of nail injuries, and other causes include occupational injury, violence, lack of supervision of young children (potential for domestic violence, and child abuse), mental illness, and suicide attempts. While paying attention to the anatomical location of trauma, clinicians should also think more about the possibility of injury so as to provide better help to patients in time.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Craniocerebrais , Armas de Fogo , Corpos Estranhos , Ferimentos Penetrantes , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpos Estranhos/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Lobo Parietal , Seio Sagital Superior
19.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 126: 112187, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082986

RESUMO

A composite coating of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) consisting of collagen, a chitosan barrier, and poly-γ-glutamic acid was fabricated using a spin coating technique to investigate and overcome the limited osseointegration capacity of 316 L stainless steel (316 L SS). To further enhance the biocompatibility, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and basic fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) were loaded separately as dual growth factors, allowing for progressive drug release following the natural process of bone regeneration. The first burst release of FGF-2 triggered the proliferation of surrounding cells, and the subsequent release of BMP-2 stimulated their differentiation. The microstructure, surface potential, hardness, reduced Young's modulus, and wettability were assessed using scanning electron microscopy, nanoindentation, and water contact angle. The formation of apatite layers after immersion in simulated body fluid confirmed the bioactivity of this PEM. PEMs loaded with BMP-2 and FGF-2 showed a long sustained release of growth factors for up to 48 days. The biological properties were studied in vitro with rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs) and in vivo using a rat critical-sized calvarial defect model. PEMs loaded with growth factors further stimulated the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs and the histology results indicated that new bone tissues could directly grow onto the PEMs. These findings suggest that PEM composite coating possesses significant potential for surface modification and long-term drug release of metallic implants to assist with bone restoration.


Assuntos
Osteogênese , Aço Inoxidável , Animais , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2 , Regeneração Óssea , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacologia , Polieletrólitos , Ratos
20.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 130: 108489, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking prevalence in individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) is over 80%. Research suggests that opioid use significantly increases smoking, which could account for the strikingly low smoking-cessation rates observed in both methadone- and buprenorphine-maintained patients, even with the use of first-line smoking-cessation interventions. If opioids present a barrier to smoking-cessation, then better smoking outcomes should be observed in OUD patients treated with extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX, an opioid antagonist) compared to those receiving buprenorphine (BUP-NX, a partial opioid agonist). METHODS: The current study is a secondary analysis of a 24-week, multi-site, open-label, randomized clinical trial conducted within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network comparing the effectiveness of XR-NTX vs. BUP-NX for adults with OUD. Longitudinal mixed effects models were used to determine if there was a significant reduction in cigarette use among daily smokers successfully inducted to treatment (n = 373) and a subset of those who completed treatment (n = 169). RESULTS: Among daily smokers inducted onto OUD medication, those in the XR-NTX group smoked fewer cigarettes per day (M = 11.36, SE = 0.62) relative to smokers in the BUP-NX group (M = 13.33, SE = 0.58) across all study visits, (b (SE) = -1.97 (0.55), p < .01). Results were similar for the treatment completers. CONCLUSIONS: OUD patients treated with XR-NTX reduced cigarette use more than those treated with BUP-NX, suggesting that XR-NTX in combination with other smoking cessation interventions might be a better choice for OUD smokers interested in reducing their tobacco use.

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