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1.
Cancer Sci ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187423

RESUMO

Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common malignancy of the thyroid gland with a relatively high cure rate. Distant metastasis (DM) of PTC is uncommon, but when it occurs, it significantly decreases the survival of PTC patients. However, the molecular mechanisms of DM in PTCs have not been systematically studied. We performed whole exome sequencing and GeneseeqPrime (425 genes) panel sequencing of the primary tumor, plasma and matched white blood cell samples from 20 PTCs with DM and 46 PTCs without DM. We identified somatic mutations, gene fusions and copy number alterations and analyzed their relationships with DM of PTCs. BRAF-V600E was identified in 73% of PTCs, followed by RET fusions (14%) in a mutually exclusive manner (p<0.0001). We found gene fusions (RET, ALK or NTRK1) (p<0.01) and chromosome 22q loss (p<0.01) were independently associated with DM by both univariate and multivariate analysis. A nomogram model consisting of chromosome 22q loss, gene fusions and three clinical variables was built for predicting DM in PTC (C-index=0.89). The plasma circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) detection rate in PTCs was only 38.9%, however, it was significantly associated with the metastatic status (p= 0.04), tumor size (p= 0.001) and invasiveness (p= 0.01). In conclusion, gene fusions and chromosome 22q loss were independently associated with DM in PTCs and could serve as molecular biomarkers for predicting DM. The ctDNA detection rate was low in non-DM PTCs but significantly higher in PTCs with DM.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045988

RESUMO

The reaction between organic matter and disinfectants leads to the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water. With the improvement of detection technology and in-depth research, more than 1000 kinds of DBPs have been detected in drinking water. Nitrogenous DBPs (N-DBPs) are more genotoxic and cytotoxic than the regulated DBPs. The main methods are enhanced coagulation, pretreatment, and depth technologies which based are on conventional technology. Amino acids (AAs) are widely found in surface waters and play an important role by providing precursors from which toxic nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBPs) are generated in chlorinated drinking water. The formation of N-DBPs, including dichloroacetonitrile, trichloroacetonitrile, and trichloronitromethane (TCNM), was investigated by analyzing chlorinated water using ozone (OZ), permanganate (PM), and ferrate (Fe(VI)) pre-oxidation processes. This paper has considered the control of pre-oxidation over N-DBPs formation of AAs, OZ, PM, and Fe(VI) pre-oxidation reduced the haloacetonitrile formation in the downstream chlorination. PM pre-oxidation decreased the TCNM formation during the subsequent chlorination, while Fe(VI) pre-oxidation had no significant influence on the TCNM formation, and OZ pre-oxidation increased the formation. OZ pre-oxidation formed the lowest degree of bromine substitution during subsequent chlorination of aspartic acid in the presence of bromide. Among the three oxidants, PM pre-oxidation was expected to be the best choice for reducing the estimated genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the sum of the measured haloacetonitriles (HANs) and TCNM without bromide. Fe(VI) pre-oxidation had the best performance in the presence of bromide.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944535

RESUMO

The incidence of melanoma is rising globally including China. Comparing to Caucasians, the incidence of non-cutaneous melanomas is significantly higher in Chinese. Herein, we performed genomic profiling of 89 Chinese surgically resected primary melanomas, including acral (n = 54), cutaneous (n = 22), and mucosal (n = 13), by hybrid capture-based next-generation sequencing. We show that mucosal melanomas tended to harbor more pathogenic mutations than other types of melanoma, though the biological significance of this finding remains uncertain. Chromosomal arm-level alterations including 6q, 9p, and 10p/q loss were highly recurrent in all subtypes, but mucosal melanoma was significantly associated with increased genomic instability. Importantly, 7p gain significantly correlated with unfavorable clinical outcomes in non-cutaneous melanomas, representing an intriguing prognostic biomarker of those subtypes. Furthermore, focal amplification of 4q12 (KIT, KDR, and PDGFRα) and RAD51 deletion were more abundant in mucosal melanoma, while NOTCH2 amplification was enriched in acral melanoma. Additionally, cutaneous melanomas had higher mutation load than acral melanomas, while mucosal melanomas did not differ from other subtypes in mutation burden. Together, our data revealed important features of acral and mucosal melanomas in Chinese including distinctive driver mutation pattern and increased genomic instability. These findings highlight the possibilities of combination therapies in the clinical management of melanoma.

4.
J Dermatol ; 47(2): 104-113, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833093

RESUMO

Psoriasis is a chronic skin inflammatory disorder, the immune mechanism of which has been profoundly elucidated in the past few years. The dominance of the interleukin (IL)-23/IL-17 axis is a significant breakthrough in the understanding of the pathogenesis of psoriasis, and treatment targeting IL-23 and IL-17 has successfully benefited patients with the disease. The skin contains a complex network of dendritic cells (DC) mainly composed of epidermal Langerhans cells, bone marrow-derived dermal conventional DC, plasmacytoid DC and inflammatory DC. As the prominent cellular source of α-interferon, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-12 and IL-23, DC play a pivotal role in psoriasis. Thus, targeting pathogenic DC subsets is a valid strategy for alleviating and preventing psoriasis and other DC-derived diseases. In this review, we survey the known role of DC in this disease.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766756

RESUMO

Membrane fouling is still a critical issue for the application of ultrafiltration, which has been widely used in water treatment due to its efficiency and simplicity. In order to improve the antifouling property, a new 2D material MXene was used to fabricate composite ultrafiltration membrane with the approach of in situ embedment during the phase inversion process in this study. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), water contact angle, bovine serum albumin rejection and porosity measurements were utilized to characterize the prepared membranes. Due to the hydrophilicity of the MXene, the composite membranes obtained higher hydrophilicity, confirmed by the decreased water contact angle. All the modified membranes had a high bovine serum albumin rejection above 90% while that of the pristine polysulfone membrane was 77.48%. The flux recovery ratio and the reversible fouling ratio of the membranes were also improved along with the increasing content of the MXene. Furthermore, the highest flux recovery ratio could also reach 76.1%. These indicated the good antifouling properties of MXene composite membranes. The enhanced water permeability and protein rejection and excellent antifouling properties make MXene a promising material for antifouling membrane modification.

6.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-5, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621417

RESUMO

A novel structure of sinomenine isoxazole derivatives is synthesised from sinomenine hydrochloride and aromatic aldehydes and requires six steps. 19 target compounds have been obtained in good yields. The sinomenine hydrochloride transforms to 4-alkynyl sinomenine, which is a key intermediate product to synthesise the target sinomenine isoxazole compounds, after a neutralisation reaction with ammonia and substitution reaction with 3-chloropropyne. Another key intermediate product is 1,3-dipole, which can be obtained from aromatic aldehyde. After treatment with hydroxylamine hydrochloride and then sodium carbonate solution, aromatic aldehyde is converted to aldehyde oxime, which reacts with N-chlorosuccinimide (NCS) to afford aryl hydroximino chloride. 1,3-Dipole is eventually formed in situ while triethylamine (TEA) in DMF is added dropwise. Then 4-alkynyl sinomenine is added to provide the sinomenine isoxazole derivative via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction as the key step. All the target compounds are characterised by melting point, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HRMS and FT-IR spectroscopy.

7.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(88): 13291-13294, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626249

RESUMO

O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) glycosylates numerous proteins and is implicated in many diseases. To date, most OGT inhibitors lack either sufficient potency or characterized specificity in cells. We report the first targeted covalent inhibitor that predominantly reacts with OGT but does not affect other functionally similar enzymes. This study provides a new strategy to interrogate cellular OGT functions and to investigate other glycosyltransferases.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Modelos Moleculares , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/metabolismo
8.
Mol Med Rep ; 20(2): 1915-1924, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257527

RESUMO

Kidney­type glutaminase (GLS1) plays a significant role in tumor metabolism. Our recent studies demonstrated that GLS1 was aberrantly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and facilitated tumor progression. However, the roles of GLS1 in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) remain largely unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the expression and clinical significance of GLS1 in ICC. For this purpose, combined data from the Oncomine database with those of immunohistochemistry were used to determine the expression levels of GLS1 in cancerous and non­cancerous tissues. Second, a wound­healing assay and Transwell assay were used to observe the effects of the knockdown and overexpression of GLS1 on the invasion and migration of ICC cells. We examined the associations between the expression of GLS1 and epithelial­mesenchymal transition (EMT)­related markers by western blot analysis. Finally, we examined the associations between GLS1 levels and clinicopathological factors or patient prognosis. The results revealed that GLS1 was overexpressed in different digestive system tumors, including ICC, and that GLS1 expression in ICC tissue was higher than that in peritumoral tissue. The overexpression of GLS1 in RBE cells induced metastasis and invasion. Moreover, the EMT­related markers, E­cadherin and Vimentin, were regulated by GLS1 in ICC cells. By contrast, the knockdown of GLS1 expression in QBC939 cells yielded opposite results. Clinically, a high expression of GLS1 in ICC samples negatively correlated with E­cadherin expression and positively correlated with Vimentin expression. GLS1 protein expression was associated with tumor differentiation (P=0.001) and lymphatic metastasis (P=0.029). Importantly, patients with a high GLS1 expression had a poorer overall survival (OS) and a shorter time to recurrence than patients with a low GLS1 expression. Multivariate analysis indicated that GLS1 expression was an independent prognostic indicator. On the whole, the findings of this study demonstrated that GLS1 is an independent prognostic biomarker of ICC. GLS1 facilitates ICC progression and may thus prove to be a therapeutic target in ICC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Glutaminase/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Caderinas/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Prognóstico , Vimentina/genética
9.
World J Pediatr ; 15(5): 483-491, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Birth weight is a strong determinant of infant short- and long-term health outcomes. Family socioeconomic position (SEP) is usually positively associated with birth weight. Whether this association extends to abnormal birth weight or there exists potential mediator is unclear. METHODS: We analyzed data from 14,984 mother-infant dyads from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the associations of a composite family SEP score quartile with macrosomia and low birth weight (LBW), and examined the potential mediation effect of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) using causal mediation analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of macrosomia and LBW was 2.62% (n = 392) and 4.26% (n = 638). Higher family SEP was associated with a higher risk of macrosomia (OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.93-1.82; OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.11-2.11; and OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.15-2.20 for the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th SEP quartile respectively) and a lower risk of LBW (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.55-0.86; OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.61-0.94; and OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.48-0.77 for the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th SEP quartile respectively), compared to the 1st SEP quartile. We found that pre-pregnancy BMI did not mediate the associations of SEP with macrosomia and LBW. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic disparities in fetal macrosomia and LBW exist in Southern China. Whether the results can be applied to other populations should be further investigated.

10.
Neuropeptides ; 76: 101935, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146894

RESUMO

Childhood metabolic disorders are associated with insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 deficiency, which can adversely affect brain development and function. As a neuropeptide, cyclic glycine-proline (cGP) improves IGF-1 function in brain and regulates IGF-1 bioavailability in plasma. Whether such a regulatory process mediates the neurotrophic effects of cGP remains unknown. This study examined the effects cGP treatment on synaptic expression and their association with IGF-1, IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-2 and cGP concentrations in the brain of rats with high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Male rats received either a HFD or a standard chow diet (STD) from weaning and were then treated with either saline or cGP from 11 to 15 weeks of age. The concentrations of cGP, IGF-1 and IGFBP-2 were measured in the brain tissues using ELISA and HPLC-MS. The expressions of synaptic markers were evaluated in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and striatum using immunohistochemical staining. Compared to the STD group, IGF-1 and IGFBP-2, but not cGP concentrations, were lower in the HFD groups. The expression of hippocampal synaptophysin, glutamate receptor-1, GFAP and striatal tyrosine-hydroxylase were also reduced in the HFD groups. While treatment did not alter tissue IGF-1, cGP administration that increased the concentration of cGP in brain tissues, normalized the expression of synaptophysin, GFAP and tyrosine-hydroxylase, but not glutamate receptor-1. IGF-1 concentration in brain tissues correlated with the expression of all synaptic markers. HFD feeding reduced synaptic expression and tissue IGF-1 in brains which were closely associated, thus suggesting IGF-1 in the brain is largely bioavailable. Without increasing IGF-1 in the brain, administration of cGP normalized synaptic expression, possibly be mediated through increasing bioavailable IGF-1, but further studies are required to confirm this.


Assuntos
Obesidade/metabolismo , Peptídeos Cíclicos/administração & dosagem , Sinaptofisina/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
11.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(16): 5015-5026, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085721

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have revolutionized cancer management. However, molecular determinants of response to ICIs remain incompletely understood. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed genomic profiling of 78 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who underwent anti-PD-(L)1 therapies by both whole-exome and targeted next-generation sequencing (a 422-cancer-gene panel) to explore the predictive biomarkers of ICI response. Tumor mutation burden (TMB), and specific somatic mutations and copy-number alterations (CNA) were evaluated for their associations with immunotherapy response. RESULTS: We confirmed that high TMB was associated with improved clinical outcomes, and TMB quantified by gene panel strongly correlated with WES results (Spearman's ρ = 0.81). Compared with wild-type, patients with FAT1 mutations had higher durable clinical benefit (DCB, 71.4% vs. 22.7%, P = 0.01) and objective response rates (ORR, 57.1% vs. 15.2%, P = 0.02). On the other hand, patients with activating mutations in EGFR/ERBB2 had reduced median progression-free survival (mPFS) compared with others [51.0 vs. 70.5 days, P = 0.0037, HR, 2.47; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.32-4.62]. In addition, copy-number loss in specific chromosome 3p segments containing the tumor-suppressor ITGA9 and several chemokine receptor pathway genes, were highly predictive of poor clinical outcome (survival rates at 6 months, 0% vs. 31%, P = 0.012, HR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.09-4.00). Our findings were further validated in two independently published datasets comprising multiple cancer types. CONCLUSIONS: We identified novel genomic biomarkers that were predictive of response to anti-PD-(L)1 therapies. Our findings suggest that comprehensive profiling of TMB and the aforementioned molecular markers could result in greater predictive power of response to ICI therapies in NSCLC.

12.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 2488-2504, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Globally, gastric cancer (GC) is the third most common source of cancer-associated mortality. The aim of this study was to identify key genes and circular RNAs (circRNAs) in GC diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy and to further explore the potential molecular mechanisms of GC. MATERIAL AND METHODS Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and circRNAs (DE circRNAs) between GC tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues were identified from 3 mRNA and 3 circRNA expression profiles. Functional analyses were performed, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed. The significant modules and key genes in the PPI networks were identified. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to evaluate the prognostic value of these key genes. Potential miRNA-binding sites of the DE circRNAs and target genes of these miRNAs were predicted and used to construct DE circRNA-miRNA-mRNA networks. RESULTS A total of 196 upregulated and 311 downregulated genes were identified in GC. The results of functional analysis showed that these DEGs were significantly enriched in a variety of functions and pathways, including extracellular matrix-related pathways. Ten hub genes (COL1A1, COL3A1, COL1A2, COL5A2, FN1, THBS1, COL5A1, SPARC, COL18A1, and COL11A1) were identified via PPI network analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that 7 of these were associated with a poor overall survival in GC patients. Furthermore, we identified 2 DE circRNAs, hsa_circ_0000332 and hsa_circ_0021087. To reveal the potential molecular mechanisms of circRNAs in GC, DE circRNA-microRNA-mRNA networks were constructed. CONCLUSIONS Key candidate genes and circRNAs were identified, and novel PPI and circRNA-microRNA-mRNA networks in GC were constructed. These may provide useful information for the exploration of potential biomarkers and targets for the diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of GC.


Assuntos
RNA/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Biomarcadores , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , MicroRNAs/genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Prognóstico , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas/métodos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , RNA/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética
13.
Clin Case Rep ; 7(4): 849-850, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997103

RESUMO

We report a case of hyperparathyroidism with hypercalcemia caused by a giant parathyroid adenoma. We use a technetium sestamibi scan to locate parathyroid mass. Bone emission computed tomography revealed the classic signs of metabolic osteopathy. She was recovered after parathyroidectomy.

14.
Chemistry ; 25(31): 7561-7568, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969448

RESUMO

The development of high-efficiency electrocatalysts with low costs for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is essential, but remains challenging. Herein, a new synthetic process is proposed to prepare Ni3 S4 particles embedded in N,P-codoped honeycomb porous carbon aerogels (Ni3 S4 /N,P-HPC) through a hydrogel approach. The preparation of Ni3 S4 /N,P-HPC begins with the sol-gel polymerization of tripolyphosphate, chitosan, and guanidine polymer that contains metal-binding sites, allowing for the uniform incorporation of Ni ions into the gel matrix, freeze-drying, and subsequent carbonization under an inert atmosphere. This synthesis resolves difficulties in synthesizing the pure Ni3 S4 phase caused by the instability of Ni3 S4 at high temperature, while affording good control of the porous structure and N,P-doping of carbon aerogels. The synergy between the structural advantages of N,P-carbon aerogels (such as easily accessible active sites, high specific surface area, and excellent electron transport) and the intrinsic electrochemical properties of Ni3 S4 result in the outstanding OER performance of Ni3 S4 /N,P-HPC, with overpotentials as low as 0.37 V at 10 mA cm-2 . The work outlined herein offers a simple and effective method for the development of carbon-based electrocatalysts for renewable energy conversion.

15.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 31(6): e13574, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The results of the esophageal body motility differences between liquid and solid swallows from high-resolution manometry (HRM) studies are not consistent. The information of the frequency of ineffective liquid and solid bolus swallows in healthy individuals during HRM procedure is limited. The normative values of the HRM parameters of both liquid and solid swallows for Chinese population are lacking. METHODS: The esophageal HRM data of 101 healthy volunteers from multicenters in China were analyzed. The values of the HRM parameters were summarized and compared between liquid and solid swallows. The frequencies of ineffective liquid and solid swallows were summarized. RESULTS: Esophagus contracted stronger and slower in solid bolus swallows than water swallows with HREM. Ineffective water swallow (DCI < 450 mm Hg.s.cm) and ineffective bread swallow (DCI < 800 mm Hg.s.cm) were frequently seen in asymptomatic individuals. The adding of bread swallows to the HREM procedure might cause diagnostic change in about 15.8% (16/101) of the asymptomatic individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The vigor and velocity of the esophageal peristalsis between liquid and solid bolus swallows are different. Ineffective water and solid bolus swallows are not rare. Adding solid bolus swallows brings diagnostic change, and it may be needed routinely for the HRM procedure.

16.
Biol Res ; 52(1): 9, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30823938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fava beans (FBs) have long been used as food, and their principal disadvantage is derived from their haemotoxicity. We hypothesized that FB ingestion alters the intestinal gene expression pattern, thereby inducing an immune response. RESULTS: In-depth sequence analysis identified 769 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with the intestine in FB-treated DBA/1 mouse intestines. The identified genes were shown to be associated with biological processes (such as response to stimulus and immune system processes), human disease pathways (such as infectious diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, and immune diseases), and organismal system pathways (such as the digestive system, endocrine system, environmental adaptation, and immune system). Moreover, plasma total immunoglobulin E (IgE), histamine, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 levels were significantly increased when the mice were treated with FBs. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrated that FBs affect the intestinal immune response and IgE and cytokine secretion in DBA/1 mice.


Assuntos
Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Vicia faba/efeitos adversos , Animais , Favismo/etiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Transdução de Sinais , Vicia faba/imunologia
17.
Evolution ; 73(6): 1309-1317, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912125

RESUMO

Populations vary in their degree of ecological specialization. An intuitive, but often untested, hypothesis is that populations evolving under greater environmental heterogeneity will evolve to be less specialized. How important is environmental heterogeneity in explaining among-population variation in specialization? We assessed juvenile viability of 20 Drosophila melanogaster populations evolving under one of four regimes: (1) a salt-enriched environment, (2) a cadmium-enriched environment, (3) a temporally varying environment, and (4) a spatially varying environment. Juvenile viability was tested in both the original selective environments and a set of novel environments. In both the original and novel environments, populations from the constant cadmium regime had the lowest average viability and the highest variance in viability across environments but populations from the other three regimes were similar. Our results suggest that variation in specialization among these populations is most simply explained as a pleiotropic by-product of adaptation to specific environments rather than resulting from a history of exposure to environmental heterogeneity.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(3): 3482-3492, 2019 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30584766

RESUMO

Development of schemes to form complex three-dimensional (3D) mesostructures in functional materials is a topic of broad interest, thanks to the ubiquitous applications across a diversity of technologies. Recently established schemes in the mechanically guided 3D assembly allow deterministic transformation of two-dimensional structures into sophisticated 3D architectures by controlled compressive buckling resulted from strain release of prestretched elastomer substrates. Existing studies mostly exploited supporting substrates made of homogeneous elastomeric material with uniform thickness, which produces relatively uniform strain field to drive the 3D assembly, thus posing limitations to the geometric diversity of resultant 3D mesostructures. To offer nonuniform strains with desired spatial distributions in the 3D assembly, this paper introduces a versatile set of concepts in the design of engineered substrates with heterogeneous integration of materials of different moduli. Such heterogeneous, deformable substrates can achieve large strain gradients and efficient strain isolation/magnification, which are difficult to realize using the previously reported strategies. Theoretical and experimental studies on the underlying mechanics offer a viable route to the design of heterogeneous, deformable substrates to yield favorable strain fields. A broad collection of 3D mesostructures and associated heterogeneous substrates is fabricated and demonstrated, including examples that resemble windmills, scorpions, and manta rays and those that have application potentials in tunable inductors and vibrational microsystems.

19.
Biol. Res ; 52: 9, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011411

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Fava beans (FBs) have long been used as food, and their principal disadvantage is derived from their haemotoxicity. We hypothesized that FB ingestion alters the intestinal gene expression pattern, thereby inducing an immune response. Results: In-depth sequence analysis identified 769 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with the intestine in FB-treated DBA/1 mouse intestines. The identified genes were shown to be associated with biological processes (such as response to stimulus and immune system processes), human disease pathways (such as infectious diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, and immune diseases), and organismal system pathways (such as the digestive system, endocrine system, environmental adaptation, and immune system). Moreover, plasma total immunoglobulin E (IgE), histamine, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 levels were significantly increased when the mice were treated with FBs. Conclusions: These results demonstrated that FBs affect the intestinal immune response and IgE and cytokine secretion in DBA/1 mice.

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