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1.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 26(1): 832-842, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403426

RESUMO

Physical phenomena in science and engineering are frequently modeled using scalar fields. In scalar field topology, graph-based topological descriptors such as merge trees, contour trees, and Reeb graphs are commonly used to characterize topological changes in the (sub)level sets of scalar fields. One of the biggest challenges and opportunities to advance topology-based visualization is to understand and incorporate uncertainty into such topological descriptors to effectively reason about their underlying data. In this paper, we study a structural average of a set of labeled merge trees and use it to encode uncertainty in data. Specifically, we compute a 1-center tree that minimizes its maximum distance to any other tree in the set under a well-defined metric called the interleaving distance. We provide heuristic strategies that compute structural averages of merge trees whose labels do not fully agree. We further provide an interactive visualization system that resembles a numerical calculator that takes as input a set of merge trees and outputs a tree as their structural average. We also highlight structural similarities between the input and the average and incorporate uncertainty information for visual exploration. We develop a novel measure of uncertainty, referred to as consistency, via a metric-space view of the input trees. Finally, we demonstrate an application of our framework through merge trees that arise from ensembles of scalar fields. Our work is the first to employ interleaving distances and consistency to study a global, mathematically rigorous, structural average of merge trees in the context of uncertainty visualization.

2.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph ; 26(1): 697-707, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443023

RESUMO

Graphs are commonly used to encode relationships among entities, yet their abstractness makes them difficult to analyze. Node-link diagrams are popular for drawing graphs, and force-directed layouts provide a flexible method for node arrangements that use local relationships in an attempt to reveal the global shape of the graph. However, clutter and overlap of unrelated structures can lead to confusing graph visualizations. This paper leverages the persistent homology features of an undirected graph as derived information for interactive manipulation of force-directed layouts. We first discuss how to efficiently extract 0-dimensional persistent homology features from both weighted and unweighted undirected graphs. We then introduce the interactive persistence barcode used to manipulate the force-directed graph layout. In particular, the user adds and removes contracting and repulsing forces generated by the persistent homology features, eventually selecting the set of persistent homology features that most improve the layout. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of our approach across a variety of synthetic and real datasets.

3.
J Ultrasound Med ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of fetal intelligent navigation echocardiography (FINE) applied to spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) volumes in generating 3 specific abnormal cardiac views (left ventricular outflow tract, right ventricular outflow tract, and 3-vessel and trachea) used to screen for d-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA). METHODS: In this prospective study, 1 or more STIC volumes were obtained from the 4-chamber view in 34 second- and third-trimester fetuses with d-TGA. Each appropriate STIC volume was evaluated by STICLoop (Samsung Medison, Seoul, Korea) before applying the FINE method. One optimal volume per fetus was selected by observers. The visualization rates of the 3 specific abnormal cardiac views of d-TGA and their diagnostic elements were calculated, and the reliability between 2 observers was verified by the intraclass correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Fetal intelligent navigation echocardiography applied to STIC volume data sets of fetuses with d-TGA successfully generated the 3 specific abnormal cardiac views in the following manner for 2 observers: 75.0% (n = 21) for the left ventricular outflow tract, 89.2% (n = 25) for the right ventricular outflow tract, and 85.7% (n = 24) for the 3-vessel and trachea view. Twenty-four (85.7%) of the STIC volume data sets showed 2 or 3 of the abnormal cardiac views. The interobserver intraclass correlation coefficients between the 2 observers ranged from 0.842 to 1.000 (95% confidence interval), indicating almost perfect reliability for the 2 observers. CONCLUSIONS: In cases of d-TGA, the FINE method has a high success rate in generating 3 specific abnormal cardiac views and therefore can be performed to screen for this congenital defect.

4.
Waste Manag ; 102: 432-440, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734554

RESUMO

Hydrothermal conversion (HTC) of sewage sludge (SS) and its relevant model compounds such as cellulose, glucose, lignin and soybean protein (substitute for protein) was experimentally conducted at moderate reaction temperature of 260 °C for 60 min. The structural properties, carbon-containing groups, and microstructure of the char were characterised by several techniques. The results revealed that more benzene rings were formed by small clusters and the CO bond on Aryl-alkyl ether decomposed on the surface particles during the HTC process. In addition, the catalyst Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 (ZSM-5, Si/Al: 300) showed an excellent performance on the high graphite degree of the char under moderate reaction temperature of 260 °C. In particular, cellulose has the most dramatic influence on the depolymerisation of C(C,H). As evidenced with SEM, the size of the char derived from SS with ZSM-5 catalyst is 10-15 µm, which is smaller than the char without catalyst. A mechanism for derivation of char from individual model compounds is proposed. The end products of lignin are composed of polyaromatic char, while the composition of the char derived from protein suggests that polymerisation may occur during hydrothermal reaction leading to formation of structures with N-containing compounds.

5.
J Virol ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748388

RESUMO

The majority of antibodies induced by influenza neuraminidase (NA), like those against hemagglutinin (HA), are relatively specific to viruses isolated within a limited time-window as seen in serological studies and the analysis of many murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We report three broadly reactive human mAbs targeting N1 NA. Two were isolated from a young adult vaccinated with trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV), which inhibited N1 NA from viruses isolated from humans over a period of a hundred years. The third antibody isolated from a child with acute mild H7N9 infection inhibited both group 1 N1 and group 2 N9 NAs. In addition, the antibodies cross-inhibited the N1 NAs of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza viruses. These antibodies are protective in prophylaxis against seasonal H1N1 viruses in mice. This study demonstrates that human antibodies to N1 NA with exceptional cross-reactivity can be recalled by vaccination and highlights the importance of standardizing the NA antigen in seasonal vaccines to offer optimal protection.Importance Antibodies to the influenza NA can provide protection against influenza disease. Analysis of human antibodies to NA lags behind that for HA. We show that human monoclonal antibodies against NA induced by vaccination and infection can be very broadly reactive with the ability to inhibit a wide spectrum of N1 NAs on viruses isolated between 1918 and 2018. This suggests that antibodies to NA may be a useful therapy, and that efficacy of influenza vaccines could be enhanced by ensuring appropriate content of NA antigen.

6.
J Genet ; 982019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767819

RESUMO

Studies have shown that many complex diseases are sex-determined. When conducting genetic association studies on X-chromosome, there are two important epigenetic factors which should be considered simultaneously: X-chromosome inactivation and genomic imprinting. Currently, there have been several association tests accounting for the information on X-chromosome inactivation. However, these tests do not take the imprinting effects into account. In this paper, we propose a novel association test simultaneously incorporating X-chromosome inactivation and imprinting effects based on case-parent trios and control-parent trios for female offspring and case-control data for male offspring, denoted by MLRXCII. Extensive simulation studies are carried out to investigate the type I error rate and the test power of the proposed MLRXCII . Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed test controls the type I error rate well andis more powerful than the existing method when imprinting effects exist. The proposed MLRXCII test is valid and powerful in genetic association studies on X-chromosome for qualitative traits and thus is recommended in practice.

7.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-10, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760957

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to explore the influence of tea consumption on diabetes mellitus in Chinese population. This multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted in eight sites from south, east, north, west and middle regions in China by enrolling 12,017 subjects aged 20-70. Sociodemographic and general information were collected by standardized questionnaire. Standard procedure was used to measure anthropometric characteristics and obtain blood samples. The diagnosis of diabetes was determined using a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. In the final analysis, 10,825 participants were included, and multiple logistic models and interaction effect analysis were applied for assessing the association between tea-drinking with diabetes. Compared with non-tea drinkers, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratios for newly-diagnosed diabetes were 0.80(0.67, 0.97), 0.88(0.71, 1.09) and 0.86(0.67, 1.11) for daily tea-drinkers, occasional tea-drinkers and seldom tea-drinkers, respectively. Furthermore, drinking tea daily was related to decreased risk of diabetes in female by 32%, elderly (>45y) by 24% and obese (BMI>30kg/m2) by 34%. Moreover, drinking dark tea was associated with reduced risk of diabetes by 45% [OR: 0.55 (0.42, 0.72), P < 0.01]. The results imply that drinking tea daily was negatively related to risk of diabetes in female, elderly and obese people. In addition, drinking dark tea was associated with decreased risk of T2DM.

8.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225072, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697754

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the correlated risk factors among male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in a Chinese-Vietnamese border region in Yunnan Province, China. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between 2014 and 2015 in Hekou County, Yunnan Province, China. Convenience sampling and snowball sampling methods were used to recruit male clients for a questionnaire survey to collect information on demographics, sexual behavior, and drug use. Blood and urine samples were collected for testing of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and drug use. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine factors correlated with HIV infection. RESULTS: Of 776 respondents who participated in the study, 721 (92.91%) were Chinese and 55 (7.09%) were Vietnamese. Overall HIV prevalence in male clients of FSWs was 2.06%, 128 (16.49%) were infected with HSV-2, and five (0.64%) tested syphilis-positive. Two-thirds (68.81%) of respondents reported always using condoms with FSWs, and 89.05% reported condom use in the last episode of commercial sex. Male clients from Vietnam were significantly more likely to take morphine (9.09%) compared with Chinese male clients of FSWs. Age ≥50 years (OR: 8.11, 95%CI: 1.26-52.16) and morphine positivity (OR: 7.35, 95%CI: 1.42-38.06) were associated with HIV infection in the multivariate logistic regression model. CONCLUSION: The relatively high proportion of male clients of FSWs who have numerous sexual partners and use condoms less frequently make them serve as important bridges for HIV transmission from FSWs to the low-risk general population. The positive association between morphine positivity and HIV infection confirmed illegal drug use as another important route for acquiring HIV infection in addition to sexual transmission, indicating that innovative interventions addressing both drug use and risky sexual behaviors are greatly required for male clients. Respondents aged ≥50 years have a higher risk of HIV infection, which emphasizes that older male clients of FSWs should be focused in future HIV prevention interventions in the border regions of China.

9.
BMC Med Genet ; 20(1): 173, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), an autosomal dominant genetic disorder, is underdiagnosed and undertreated. The majority of FH cases are caused by low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene mutations. The C308Y mutation in LDL-R results in approximately 70% loss of LDL-R activity, leading to the elevation of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and an increased risk of premature coronary heart disease (CHD). The aim of this study was to identify FH cases by cascade screening in family members and relatives of a 37-year old male with premature CHD and hypercholesterolemia. METHODS: Clinical exam, blood lipid profiling and genomic DNA sequencing of all exons of LDL-R were performed for the proband and his 14 family members and relatives. FH diagnosis was carried out using the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network (DLCN) criteria. RESULTS: Lipid profiling showed that 9 individuals, including the proband, had hypercholesterolemia. All these 9 subjects had a G > A substitution at nucleotide 986 in exon 7 resulting in the C308Y mutation as determined by DNA sequencing, and all those carrying the mutation were diagnosed as having definite FH under the DLCN criteria. However, most (7/9) did not have suggestive clinical manifestations of CHD. CONCLUSIONS: The C308Y mutation was discovered in multiple family members and relatives for the first time in mainland China. Cascade screening is key for the confirmatory diagnosis of FH. Our hypothesis that the C308Y is a common variant in the population of Southern China origin warrants further validation by screening for the C308Y mutation in a large population.

10.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1900646, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689155

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of the prostate 1 (STEAP1) is highly expressed in prostate cancers. DSTP3086S is a humanized immunoglobulin G1 anti-STEAP1 monoclonal antibody linked to the potent antimitotic agent monomethyl auristatin E. This study evaluated the safety and activity of DSTP3086S in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. METHODS: Patients were enrolled in a 3 + 3 dose escalation study to evaluate DSTP3086S (0.3 to 2.8 mg/kg intravenously) given once every 3 weeks followed by cohort expansion at the recommended phase II dose or weekly (0.8 to 1.0 mg/kg). RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients were given DSTP3086S once every 3 weeks, and seven were treated weekly. Two patients in the once-every-3-weeks dose escalation had dose-limiting grade 3 transaminitis. Grade 3 hyperglycemia and grade 4 hypophosphatemia were dose-limiting toxicities in one patient treated at 1.0 mg/kg weekly. Initial cohort expansion evaluated dosing at 2.8 mg/kg once every 3 weeks (n = 10), but frequent dose reductions led to testing of 2.4 mg/kg (n = 39) in the expansion phase. Common related adverse events (> 20%) across doses (once every 3 weeks) were fatigue, peripheral neuropathy, nausea, constipation, anorexia, diarrhea, and vomiting. DSTP3086S pharmacokinetics were linear. Among 62 patients who received > 2 mg/kg DSTP3086S once every 3 weeks, 11 (18%) demonstrated a ≥ 50% decline in prostate-specific antigen; two (6%) of 36 with measurable disease at baseline achieved a radiographic partial response; and of 27 patients with informative unfavorable baseline circulating tumor cells ≥ 5/7.5 mL of blood, 16 (59%) showed conversions to favorable circulating tumor cells < 5. No prostate-specific antigen or RECIST responses were seen with weekly dosing. CONCLUSION: DSTP3086S has acceptable safety at the recommended phase II dose level of 2.4 mg/kg once every 3 weeks. Antitumor activity at doses between 2.25 and 2.8 mg/kg once every 3 weeks supports the potential benefit of treating STEAP1-expressing metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with an STEAP1-targeting antibody-drug conjugate.

11.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; : e21634, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587360

RESUMO

Pteromalus puparum is a gregarious pupal endoparasitoid with a wide host range. It deposits eggs into pierid and papilionid butterfly pupae. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of multifunctional detoxification enzymes that act in xenobiotic metabolism in insects. Insect genome projects have facilitated identification and characterization of GST family members. We identified 20 putative GSTs in the P. puparum genome, including 19 cytosolic and one microsomal. Phylogenetic analysis showed that P. puparum GSTs are clustered into Hymenoptera-specific branches. Transcriptomic data of embryos, larvae, female pupae, male pupae, female adults, male adults, venom glands, carcass, salivary glands, and ovaries revealed stage-, sex-, and tissue-specific expression patterns of GSTs in P. puparum. This is the most comprehensive study of genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression profiling of GST family in hymenopterans. Our results provide valuable information for understanding the metabolic adaptation of this wasp.

12.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-9, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599167

RESUMO

Background: Fetal heart evaluation has been proven to have the utility in the differential diagnosis of cardiomyopathies or prediction of perinatal mortality in congenital heart disease. The purpose of this study is to introduce a novel method that can measure the global and regional longitudinal strain of left ventricle in fetuses, described as automated cardiac motion quantitation (aCMQ). Furthermore, to evaluate the feasibility and value of aCMQ. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 138 fetuses with normal heart structure, then were divided into four groups by gestational age, standard four-chamber view clips were collected, the global and segmental longitudinal peak systolic strain of the left ventricle were measured by aCMQ, interobserver and intraobserver variability was analyzed. Results: The success rate of aCMQ analysis was 90.6% (125/138). aCMQ can obtain more comprehensive data to evaluate fetal cardiac function by on-line analysis, including the left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV, 0.64 ± 0.16 ml), the left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV, 0.85 ± 0.35 ml), strain and so on. There was no significant correlation between the gestational age and the global and segmental longitudinal peak strain of the left ventricle (all p > .05). The base and middle segmental strain values of left ventricular free wall were similar to those of the interventricular septum. No significant differences were found in base segments and middle segments for left ventricular free wall (LVLW) and the interventricular septum (IVS) (p > .05). The strain of the apex segment was higher than that of the base and middle segment (p < .05), and there were significant differences between the apex and the base and the middle (p < .05). Interobserver and intraobserver variability showed a small bias among the observers. Conclusions: The global and regional strain values of fetus have no correlation with gestational ages, and the strain values of apical segment are higher than those of basal and middle segments. The base and middle segmental strain values of left ventricular free wall were similar to those of the interventricular septum. aCMQ is a novel method of two dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography to assess the global and regional systolic function of fetuses. It's a feasible and reproducible approach to evaluate normal cardiac function of fetus quantitatively and may have potential in fetuses with congenital heart diseases.

14.
Neurochem Res ; 44(11): 2460-2469, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571096

RESUMO

Chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is a potential long-term side effect during cancer treatment. There are currently no effective treatments for CRCI. Reduction or inhibition of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) has been considered a possible therapeutic strategy for cognitive deficits. HDAC6 inhibition recently has been shown to reverse chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy effectively. In the present study, we examined the effect of HDAC6 inhibitor ACY-1215 (Ricolinostat) on cisplatin-induced brain damage and cognitive deficits in mice. Our results showed that ACY-1215 ameliorated behavioral deficits and dendritic spine loss and increased synaptic density in cisplatin-treated mice. Mechanistically, HDAC6 inhibitor ACY-1215 enhanced α-tubulin acetylation in the hippocampus of cisplatin-treated mice. Furthermore, ACY-1215 recovered cisplatin-induced impaired mitochondrial transport and mitochondrial dysfunction in the hippocampus. Our results suggest that inhibition of HDAC6 improves established cisplatin-induced cognitive deficits by the restoration of mitochondrial and synaptic impairments. These results offer prospective approaches for CRCI, especially because ACY1215 currently serves as an add-on cancer therapy during clinical trials.

15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 95: 268-276, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655269

RESUMO

Galectin-3 is a kind of ß-galactoside-binding lectin involved in host defense against pathogen infection. However, the immune functions of fish galectin-3 remain poorly understood. In this study, the roles of a fish galectin-3 (OnGal-3) from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) on the binding activity on bacterial pathogens or PAMPs, the agglutinating activity on bacterial pathogens and the regulatory effects on monocytes/macrophages activity were investigated. After in vitro challenge of Streptococcus agalactiae and Aeromonas hydrophila, OnGal-3 expressions were significantly up-regulated in monocytes/macrophages. In addition, recombinant OnGal-3(rOnGal-3) protein showed strong binding activity on bacterial pathogens or PAMPs. Also, rOnGal-3 agglutinated Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, rOnGal-3 could induce the inflammatory factors expressions in monocytes/macrophages and enhance phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of monocytes/macrophages. These results suggest that fish galectin-3 participates in anti-bacterial immune response through recognizing pathogens and modulating monocytes/macrophages activity.

16.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 90(9): 095103, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575227

RESUMO

Sliding electrical contact exists in various electrical equipment. However, its performance is significantly affected by the sliding condition such as the load, electricity, and the surface state of friction pairs. In this study, a novel instrument is designed and constructed for high-frequency microforce electrical sliding friction testing. The new instrument provides a unique experimental platform that enables high-frequency reciprocating friction and microforce loading, and it has an innovative data collection system that includes a cantilever beam structure to measure the microforce. In this instrument, parameters (positive force, friction, displacement, and voltage of frictional pair) are obtained and monitored in real time. The steel sheet and nickel-plated steel wire were used as materials to conduct an experiment, and the steel sheet morphology after the experiment was observed using a light microscope. Results show that the voltage and positive load significantly influence the friction coefficient and friction wear, which is crucial in understanding friction and wear behaviors.

17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14248, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582762

RESUMO

Modulation of energy metabolism to a highly glycolytic phenotype, i.e. Warburg effect, is a common phenotype of cancer and activated immune cells allowing increased biomass-production for proliferation and cell division. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized ADP-dependent glucokinase (ADPGK) has been shown to play a critical role in T cell receptor activation-induced remodeling of energy metabolism, however the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, we established and characterized in vitro and in vivo models for ADPGK-deficiency using Jurkat T cells and zebrafish. Upon activation, ADPGK knockout Jurkat T cells displayed increased cell death and ER stress. The increase in cell death resulted from a metabolic catastrophe and knockout cells displayed severely disturbed energy metabolism hindering induction of Warburg phenotype. ADPGK knockdown in zebrafish embryos led to short, dorsalized body axis induced by elevated apoptosis. ADPGK hypomorphic zebrafish further displayed dysfunctional glucose metabolism. In both model systems loss of ADPGK function led to defective N- and O-glycosylation. Overall, our data illustrate that ADPGK is part of a glucose sensing system in the ER modulating metabolism via regulation of N- and O-glycosylation.

18.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-5, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650846

RESUMO

To examine associations between social support and negative social interaction with past suicidal ideation (SI) at multiple time intervals. The study used cross-sectional data collected from 3157 US Chinese older adults in Chicago to assess past 2-week, 1-month, 1-year, and lifetime SI. Self-perceived social support and negative social interaction were measured. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations. People perceived more social support and less negative social interaction were 17-19% less likely to have SI. People perceived more social support were 14-20% less likely to have SI. Meanwhile, people perceived more negative social interaction were 28-37% more likely to have SI. The independent associations between different social interaction and SI are significant regardless of the time intervals. Research should pay attention not only to bolstering perceptions of social support, but also to strategies that help individuals cope with the influence of negative social interactions.

19.
Int Wound J ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646746

RESUMO

Superficial surgical site infections (SSIs) are one of the most common postoperative complications of hepatectomy for liver cancer. The objective of this study is to clarify the risk factors and determine a clinical prediction score for SSIs after partial hepatectomy for malignant tumour. A total of 812 consecutive patients were enrolled who underwent partial hepatectomy for liver malignant tumour from January 2017 to December 2017. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify the risk factors for SSIs. Clinical prediction score was then constructed using coefficients of identified significant predictors. Risk stratification was then carried out by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Of all the 812 patients, SSIs were observed in 31 (3.82%) patients. A multivariate analysis identified four predictors as independent risk factors for SSIs, which were splenomegaly, perioperative blood transfusion, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and low postoperative serum albumin concentration (<35 g/L). Clinical prediction score ranged from 0 to 4.6 with its discrimination concordance (C) statistic of 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59, 0.81). Risk stratification classified these patients into low, moderate, and high risk in SSIs. This risk score system may credibly stratify the risk of SSIs with relatively high sensitivity and specificity. Splenomegaly, history of blood transfusion, ICU admission, and postoperative serum albumin concentration less than 35 g/L could be used to predict SSIs with acceptable discrimination. This clinical risk score system may be useful in prediction of SSIs after hepatectomy for malignant tumours.

20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4284, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537810

RESUMO

Highly specific Cas9 nucleases derived from SpCas9 are valuable tools for genome editing, but their wide applications are hampered by a lack of knowledge governing guide RNA (gRNA) activity. Here, we perform a genome-scale screen to measure gRNA activity for two highly specific SpCas9 variants (eSpCas9(1.1) and SpCas9-HF1) and wild-type SpCas9 (WT-SpCas9) in human cells, and obtain indel rates of over 50,000 gRNAs for each nuclease, covering ~20,000 genes. We evaluate the contribution of 1,031 features to gRNA activity and develope models for activity prediction. Our data reveals that a combination of RNN with important biological features outperforms other models for activity prediction. We further demonstrate that our model outperforms other popular gRNA design tools. Finally, we develop an online design tool DeepHF for the three Cas9 nucleases. The database, as well as the designer tool, is freely accessible via a web server, http://www.DeepHF.com/ .

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