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1.
J Hypertens ; 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that patients with higher blood pressure variability (BPV) have a higher risk for stroke but the relationship between BPV and stroke outcomes is unknown in those who underwent intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The objective of this study is to investigate the association among BPV, BP values and stroke outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of about 510 consecutive thrombolysis cases for AIS from January 2015 to March 2019 in a single-center database were done. Then, these patients were followed-up for 3 months. We used univariate and multivariable models to evaluate the relationship between mean BP values, BPV and the risk of stroke outcomes from prior IVT to 72 h after IVT. Meanwhile, we also used COX regression to assess the hazard ratios of stroke outcomes with BPV within 3 months. Furthermore, we tested the effect of BP level at various time-points (prior to IVT and at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after IVT) on development of postthrombolytic stroke outcomes. RESULTS: Higher BPV from prior IVT to 72 h after IVT was associated with higher risk of stroke outcomes within 3 months [SBPV of recurrent stroke: odds ratios (OR) = 5.298, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.339-10.968, P = 0.018; DBPV of recurrent stroke: OR = 6.397, 95% CI 1.576-25.958, P = 0.009, respectively]. In addition, patients with recurrent stroke had significantly higher mean SBP (OR=1.037, 95% CI 1.006-1.069, P = 0.019). Furthermore, higher BP at different time points were associated with greater risk of recurrent stroke from prior IVT to 72 h after IVT. CONCLUSION: Higher BPV and SBP from prior IVT to 72 h after IVT was associated with higher risk of stroke outcomes within 3 months.

3.
Chin Med ; 17(1): 12, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033122

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese medicine polysaccharides (TCMPs) are plentiful and renewable resources with properties such as biocompatibility, hydrophilicity, biodegradability, and low cytotoxicity. Because the polysaccharide molecular chain contains a variety of active groups, different polysaccharide derivatives can be easily produced through chemical modification. They have been increasingly used in drug delivery systems (DDS). However, the potential of polysaccharides is usually ignored due to their structural complexity, poor stability or ambiguity of mechanisms of actions. This review summarized the applications of TCMPs in DDS around four main aspects. The general characteristics of TCMPs as drug delivery carriers, as well as the relationships between structure and function of them were summarized. Meanwhile, the direction of preparing multifunctional drug delivery materials with synergistic effect by using TCMPs was discussed. This review aims to become a reference for further research of TCMPs and their derivatives, especially applications of them as carriers in pharmaceutical preparation industry.

4.
EMBO Mol Med ; : e15227, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34994081

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 Delta (B.1.617.2) variant is capable of infecting vaccinated persons. An open question remains as to whether deficiencies in specific vaccine-elicited immune responses result in susceptibility to vaccine breakthrough infection. We investigated 55 vaccine breakthrough infection cases (mostly Delta) in Singapore, comparing them against 86 vaccinated close contacts who did not contract infection. Vaccine breakthrough cases showed lower memory B cell frequencies against SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD). Compared to plasma antibodies, antibodies secreted by memory B cells retained a higher fraction of neutralizing properties against the Delta variant. Inflammatory cytokines including IL-1ß and TNF were lower in vaccine breakthrough infections than primary infection of similar disease severity, underscoring the usefulness of vaccination in preventing inflammation. This report highlights the importance of memory B cells against vaccine breakthrough, and suggests that lower memory B cell levels may be a correlate of risk for Delta vaccine breakthrough infection.

5.
Food Chem ; 374: 131776, 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34896957

RESUMO

Reducing salt intake, as one of the most cost-effective approaches, is congruent with improved population health. Grass carp skin collagen was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration, followed by glucosamine-induced Maillard reaction to prepare Maillard-reacted peptides. Their color, free amino acid and peptide size distribution were analyzed, while UV and fluorescence spectroscopy were utilized to characterize the progress of Maillard reaction. The salt taste-enhancing effect of Maillard-reacted peptides was investigated via sensory analysis and electronic tongue. LC-MS/MS was employed to analyze the glycation sites of Maillard-reacted peptides. The results indicated that the degree of Maillard reaction was relatively low, and thermal degradation and crosslinking simultaneously occurred. Maillard-reacted peptides exhibited a significant salt taste-enhancing effect, which may be attributed to the glucosamine-induced glycation confirmed by LC-MS/MS analysis. The current study provides a theoretical basis for preparation of salt taste-enhancing peptides and their future application to reduce salt content of formulated foods.


Assuntos
Glucosamina , Paladar , Cromatografia Líquida , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada , Reação de Maillard , Peptídeos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
6.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 126: 104256, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517013

RESUMO

Rhamnose-binding lectins (RBLs), a Ca2+-independent lectin family, are widely present in vertebrates and invertebrates, which involve in the innate immune response. However, the functional characterization and related regulation mechanisms of RBLs remain unclear in teleost fish. In this study, an l-rhamnose-binding lectin-like (OnRBL-L) was identified and functionally characterized from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The open reading frame of OnRBL-L is 678 bp encoding 225 aa. The sequence of OnRBL-L has relatively conservative characteristic peptide motifs, including YGR, DPC, and KYL-motif. Expression analysis showed that OnRBL-L was abundantly distributed in intestine tissue, and widely existed in all detected tissues. Meanwhile, the expression of OnRBL-L increased significantly in vivo (liver, spleen, head kidney, intestine, gills and peripheral blood) and in vitro (monocytes/macrophages) following challenges with two important tilapia pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae and Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition, the recombinant OnRBL-L was found to bind and agglutinate S. agalactiae and A. hydrophila. Furthermore, OnRBL-L could participate in non-specific cellular immune defense, including reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-6、IL-8 and TNF-α), and enhancement of the phagocytosis and respiratory burst of MO/MФ. Overall, our results provide new insights into the understanding of RBL as an important pattern recognition molecule and regulator in non-specific cell immunity in an early vertebrate.

7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(1): 301-308, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34958210

RESUMO

To evaluate the perceptual interactions among important lactone compounds in cheddar cheese, a molecular-level flavoromic approach, in combination with perceptual interaction analysis, was applied. Six aroma-active lactones with flavor dilution factors ranging from 4 to 128 were identified in three cheddar samples by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry. Odor thresholds of these six aroma-active lactones were determined with values from 7.16 to 30.03 µg/kg using a deodorized cheddar matrix. The odor activity value approach demonstrated complicated interactions among the 15 binary mixtures of six important lactones, including additive, synergistic, or masking effects. Based on partial differential odor intensities, each lactone with similar degrees of perceptual interactions in binary mixtures tends to present synergistic or masking effects. Owing to the difference in the chemical structure and mixture composition, δ-dodecalactone and γ-dodecalactone caused promotive and inhibitory effects on the expression of lactone fruity aroma, respectively.


Assuntos
Queijo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Queijo/análise , Lactonas , Odorantes , Olfatometria , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
8.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e930053, 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34876548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Chondrocytes play a vital role in the later stages of osteoarthritis (OA). The roles of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) and its receptor, chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), are as yet poorly elucidated in chondrocyte hypertrophy (CH). Here, we aimed to regulate the CCL2/CCR2 axis and explore its effect on progression of CH. MATERIAL AND METHODS Chondrocytes isolated from patients with OA were used in the present study. In vitro experiments were conducted to test hypertrophic gene and CCL2/CCR2 expression in chondrocyte degeneration caused by interleukin (IL)-17A or CCL2 protein stimulation. In addition, inhibition of CCL2 and CCR2 was used to assess the role of CCL2 and CCR2 blockade in CH. Relative gene expression was determined with real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot, or immunofluorescence. Hypertrophic changes were assessed with cell area measurement. Moreover, the viability of chondrocytes was analyzed using an MTT assay and flow cytometry was used to assess cell apoptosis. RESULTS CCL2 and CCR2 were upregulated in IL-17A-treated chondrocytes. The exogenic CCL2 stimulation also promoted CH and increased the expression of Type 10 collagen, RUNX2, and IHH, which could be reversed via suppression of CCR2. Inhibition of CCL2 and CCR2 expression was sufficient to: 1) protect Type 2 collagen synthesis; 2) alleviate IL-17A-induced overexpression of Type 10 collagen, RUNX2, and IHH; and 3) improve chondrocyte proliferation and apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS Blockading the CCL2/CCR2 axis plays a role in delaying the development of CH.

9.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 743044, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34869646

RESUMO

Introduction: Septal mass reduction is beneficial for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) patients with severe left ventricular outflow (LVOT) gradient and symptoms, with surgical myectomy or alcohol septal ablation (ASA) currently recommended in selected patients. Radiofrequency (RF) ablation of hypertrophied septum has been published as a novel method to alleviate LVOT obstruction in small populations. This study aims to investigate factors influencing clinical outcomes of radiofrequency septum ablation. Methods and Results: In this study, 20 patients with HOCM who underwent endocardial ablation were included. Echocardiography and cardiac MRI (CMR) data was collected and analyzed pre- and (or) post- procedure. Nineteen patients underwent ablation successfully, while ablation was aborted in one patient with prior RBBB due to transient complete atrioventricular block (AVB). After 6 months of follow-up, NYHA heart functional class improved from III (2 - 3) to II (1 - 2) (p < 0.001), and resting LVOT gradient was significantly reduced (87.6 ± 29.5 mmHg vs. 48.1 ± 29.7, p < 0.001). LVOT gradient reduction was significantly higher in patients with limited basal septal hypertrophy (60.9 ± 8.3 vs. 27.9 ± 7.1, p = 0.01), shorter anterior mitral leaflet (56.1 ± 6.4 vs. 20.4 ± 5.0, p < 0.01), and normally positioned papillary muscle (36.9 ± 7.1 vs. 75.0 ± 6.3, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Endocardial septal ablation appears to be a safe and effective procedure for alleviating LVOT gradient in patients with HOCM, especially in those with limited basal septal hypertrophy, shorter anterior mitral leaflet, and normal positioned papillary muscle.

10.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 758635, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34869672

RESUMO

Background: Ventricular arrhythmias are associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD) in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Previous studies have found the late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) was independently associated with ventricular arrhythmia (VA) in HCM. The risk stratification of VA remains complex and LGE is present in the majority of HCM patients. This study was conducted to determine whether the scar heterogeneity from LGE-derived entropy is associated with the VAs in HCM patients. Materials and Methods: Sixty-eight HCM patients with scarring were retrospectively enrolled and divided into VA (31 patients) and non-VA (37 patients) groups. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and percentage of the LGE (% LGE) were evaluated. The scar heterogeneity was quantified by the entropy within the scar and left ventricular (LV) myocardium. Results: Multivariate analyses showed that a higher scar [hazard ratio (HR) 2.682; 95% CI: 1.022-7.037; p = 0.039] was independently associated with VA, after the adjustment for the LVEF, %LGE, LV maximal wall thickness (MWT), and left atrium (LA) diameter. Conclusion: Scar entropy and %LGE are both independent risk indicators of VA. A high scar entropy may indicate an arrhythmogenic scar, an identification of which may have value for the clinical status assessment of VAs in HCM patients.

11.
Future Oncol ; 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34870444

RESUMO

Aims: To investigate the prognostic value of hemoglobin combined with geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) scores in patients undergoing postoperative radiotherapy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Patients & methods: Patients who underwent esophagectomy and postoperative radiotherapy were included in this retrospective study. Their preoperative hemoglobin and GNRI were collected to establish hemoglobin-GNRI (H-GNRI) scores, and their association with OS was evaluated. Results: Patients with high H-GNRI scores had better prognosis than those with low scores (p < 0.001). Differentiation (p = 0.001), T classification (p = 0.010), N classification (p = 0.001) and H-GNRI score (p = 0.018) were independent prognostic factors for all patients. Conclusion: H-GNRI score is an independent prognostic factor for the survival of patients with ESCC managed by surgery and postoperative radiotherapy.

12.
Chemosphere ; : 133053, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861255

RESUMO

Phosphorus is a nutrient that is essential to nature and human life and has attracted attention because of its very limited reserves. Dwindling phosphorus reserves and soaring prices have made the recovery of phosphorus from waste biosolids even more urgent. Waste activated sludge, as the final destination of most of the phosphorus in human domestic and industrial water, has been considered as a reliable source of phosphorus recovery. The thermal treatment method of sewage sludge is currently a relatively environmentally friendly disposal method, which mainly includes incineration, pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization. This paper reviews the methods for the recovery of different forms of phosphorus (wet chemical, thermochemical and electrodialysis) from solid products obtained from different sludge thermal treatment methods (incinerated sewage sludge ash, pyrolysis of sewage sludge char and hydrochar) and the bioavailability of the recovered phosphorus products. Incineration of sewage sludge is currently the most established and effective method for recovering phosphorus from the thermal treatment products of sewage sludge. One of the wet chemical methods has been applied on a commercial scale and is expected to be further developed for future industrial applications. Pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonation still have many research gaps in this field. Based on their principles and laboratory performance, both of them have the potential to recover phosphorus and should be further explored.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34863538

RESUMO

Multifunctional nanotheranostic platforms are emerging for the treatment of bacterial infections. Uncontrollable drug release and poor response in target location leads to inefficient therapy and failure to offer timely antibacterial monitoring. Here, we report a multifunctional nanoplatform that can be triggered by the bacterial microenvironment for effective bacterial killing and high-sensitive persistent luminescence (PL) "turn-on" imaging. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is grafted on the surface of mesoporous silica-coated persistent luminescence nanoparticles (PLNPs@MSN) loaded with cinnamaldehyde (CA). Further in situ growth of MnO2 shells gives PLNPs@MSN@CA-HA-MnO2 (PMC-HA-MnO2). MnO2 shell of PMC-HA-MnO2 can be reduced to Mn2+ by the H2O2 in the bacterial microenvironment to trigger persistent luminescence (PL) "turn-on" imaging along with chemodynamic therapy (CDT). Meanwhile, HA can response to bacterially secreted hyaluronidase to make the packaged CA release controllable and "on-demand". Consequently, PMC-HA-MnO2 enables effective response to bacterial-infected region, ensuring high-sensitive "turn-on" imaging, synergistic CDT, accurate targeting and "on-demand" CA release to give great antibacterial effect. This nanoplatform has great potential for the diagnosis and treatment of multidrug-resistant bacterial infection with high specificity and efficiency.

14.
Cell Death Dis ; 13(1): 1, 2021 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34911928

RESUMO

Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is a potentially fatal liver disease that is associated with intrahepatic infiltration of inflammatory cells. As the receptor of polyunsaturated long chain fatty acids, GPR120 can regulate cell differentiation, proliferation, metabolism, and immune response. However, whether GPR120 is involved in FHF remains unknown. Using Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes)-primed, LPS-induced FHF in mice, we found that interference with GPR120 activity using pharmacological agonist attenuated the severity of the liver injury and mortality of FHF in mice, while a lack of GPR120 exacerbated the disease. GPR120 activation potently alleviated FHF and led to decreased T helper (Th) 1 cell response and expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Interestingly, GPR120 agonist didn't directly target T cells, but dramatically induced a distinct population of CD11c+MHC IIlowCD80lowCD86low regulatory DCs in the livers of FHF mice. GPR120 was found to restrict HIF-1α-dependent glycolysis. The augmented HIF-1α stabilization caused by GPR120 antagonism or deletion could be attenuated by the inhibition of ERK or by the activation of AMPK. Through the analysis of the clinical FHF, we further confirmed the activation of GPR120 was negatively associated with the severity in patients. Our findings indicated that GPR120 activation has therapeutic potential in FHF. Strategies to target GPR120 using agonists or free fatty acids (FFAs) may represent a novel approach to FHF treatment.

15.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 213: 107103, 2021 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959107

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to investigate the clinical and radiologic factors represented by the increasing of spinal cord area associated with the prognosis of the patients at long-term follow-up by multivariate analysis after single-door cervical laminoplasty (SDCL). METHODS: A total of 115 patients who underwent cervical laminoplasty with miniplate fixation were included from November 2008 to June 2018. The average postoperative follow-up period was 17.3 months (range, 12-105 months). The prognosis of the patients following cervical laminoplasty was evaluated by the recovery rate of Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) at the final follow-up. The recovery rate of JOA ≤ 50% were classified as poor prognosis group (PP group) whose prognosis is relatively poor, and those> 50% were classified as good prognosis group (GP group) whose have a better prognosis. The clinical factors including gender, age, duration of symptoms, diagnosis type, blood loss, operative time, pre- and post-JOA score, etc. were recorded. The radiologic factors including sagittal canal diameter (SCD), the cervical curvature index (CCI), the range of motion (ROM), the spinal canal area and the increasing of cervical spinal cord area, etc. were collected before and after operation and measured by X-ray plain and computed tomography (CT) scan images. The univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed. RESULTS: There were 62 patients in PP group and 53 patients in GP group. The multivariate analysis showed that the preoperative (OR=6.875, P = 0.001) and postoperative JOA scores (OR=24.000, P = 0.001), preoperative spinal canal area (OR=2.464, P = 0.023) and the increasing of cervical spinal cord area (OR=5.438, P = 0.001) maybe related factors to the recovery rate of JOA at the final follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The preoperative spinal canal area, the increasing of cervical spinal cord area, preoperative and postoperative JOA scores play important roles in long-term prognosis after SDCL.

16.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 2021 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34930688

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the short-term effect of lifestyle intervention in people with prediabetes. METHODS: A stratified multistage sampling method was used in the recruitment of residents of the Jiangsu Province, China in 2017, who had no previous diagnosis of diabetes. Physical examination and laboratory tests were performed, and questionnaires were completed. Those with a prediabetes diagnosis at baseline were included in the cohort and participants were randomized to the intervention group or the control group. The intervention group received a lifestyle intervention strategy, which included exercise, diet and peer educations. The control group received general health education. Participants were followed up in 2018. RESULTS: A total of 2005 individuals were included in the analysis. At follow-up, there were 516 (36.7%) individuals in the intervention group and 207 (34.5%) individuals in the control group with normal blood glucose levels. The decline in waist circumference and fasting plasma glucose levels was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group. This was still observed after adjusting for variables (odds ratio 1.32, P = 0.02). Females or younger individuals who had lower body mass index and plasma glucose levels at baseline were more likely to reverse to normoglycemia at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with a strategy of general health education, a lifestyle intervention strategy could reverse glucose levels to normoglycemia in individuals with prediabetes.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(51): 60955-60965, 2021 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34904434

RESUMO

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is implicated in the etiology of many diseases. H. pylori eradication by antibiotic therapy is limited by the extreme acidic environment in the stomach, the undesired side effect of intestinal commensal bacteria, and the development of drug resistance. Here, we report a pH-responsive persistent luminescence (PL) nanozyme (MSPLNP-Au-CB) for in vivo imaging and inactivation of H. pylori. This PL nanozyme is composed of mesoporous silica (MS)-coated persistent luminescence nanoparticles (MSPLNP), Au nanoparticles (AuNP), and chitosan-benzeneboronic acid (CB), taking advantage of the long PL of PLNP to realize autofluorescence-free imaging, the pH-activated oxidase- and peroxidase-like nanozyme activity of AuNP, and the bacterial binding capacity of CB. The MSPLNP-Au-CB nanozyme can resist the corrosion of gastric acid and exhibit pH-activated dual nanozyme activity to catalyze bactericidal reactive oxygen species generation. This multifunctional nanozyme enables targeted imaging and activated deactivation of H. pylori under extreme gastric acid conditions as well as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in common slightly acidic environments, while it has no side effects on the commensal bacteria and normal cells in normal physiological environments. This work provides a promising PL nanozyme platform for bioimaging and therapy of bacterial infection under harsh conditions.

18.
J Atr Fibrillation ; 13(5): 2509, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34950343

RESUMO

Objectives: Intracardiac echocardiography(ICE) has excellent imaging resolution and border recognition which increase strain measurement accuracy. We hypothesized that left atrial(LA) substrate and functional impairment can be detected by measuring LA strain deformation in patients with persistent and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation(AF), as compared to those with no AF. Strain deformation changes in LA and left ventricle(LV) can also be assessed post-ablation to determine its effect. Methods: ICE-derived speckle tracking strain(STS) was prospectively performed in 96 patients, including 62 patients with AF(31 persistent and 31 paroxysmal AF) pre-/post-ablation, and 34 patients with no AF. We measured major strain parameters including longitudinal segmental(endo/myocardial) "average peak overall strain of all segments"(PkAll), peak strain rate(SR),and different time-to-peak strain in LA and LV images. Results: At baseline, persistent AF patients had significantly lower(p<0.01) LA endocardial(4.3±2.5 vs. 20.3±8.9 and 25.5±12.9 %) and myocardial PkAll(4.4±2.6 vs. 15.7±7.2 and 20.9±9.2 %), endocardial(0.9±0.4 vs. 1.8±0.7 and 2.2±0.6 1/s) and myocardial peak SR(0.7±0.4 vs. 1.5±0.6 and 1.9±0.5 1/s), as compared to paroxysmal AF and no AF patients. After successful ablation, endo-/myocardial LA PkAll and peak SR were significantly improved, most dramatically in patients with persistent AF. LV endocardial/myocardial strain and SR also improved in AF patients post-ablation. Conclusion: LA longitudinal strain(%)/SR(1/s) parameters in AF patients are more abnormal than those with no AF, suggesting LA substrate/functional damage. AF ablation improved LA strains/SR but with values in paroxysmal > persistent AF suggesting background LA damage in persistent AF.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843944

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Aegle marmelos fruit (AMF) extract on the growth performance, biochemical parameters, immune response, antioxidative capacity, and digestive enzyme activity of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish were fed a diet supplemented with AMF at concentrations of 0 (AMF0; control), 5 (AMF5), 10 (AMF10), 15 (AMF15), or 20 (AMF20) g/kg for 8 weeks. The results show that the final body weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, average daily gain, and feed conversion ratio were significantly higher in fish fed AMF15 and AMF20 compared to those fed the control diet (P < 0.05). Moreover, significant increases in antioxidant enzyme activities and non-specific immune responses were observed in groups fed AMF15 and AMF20. Interestingly, the level of cholesterol decreased with increasing AMF concentrations in the diet. As dietary AMF levels increased, digestive enzyme activities significantly improved. After the feeding trial, fish were injected intraperitoneally with Streptococcus agalactiae, and the 14-day cumulative mortality was calculated. A high survival rate after challenge with S. agalactiae was observed in all groups that received AMF-supplemented feed. Therefore, the present study suggests that supplementing the diet of Nile tilapia with AMF at a concentration of 20 g/kg could encourage their growth, improve their immunity and antioxidant status, and provide strong protection against S. agalactiae.

20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6862, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34824197

RESUMO

Aseismic slip loading has recently been proposed as a complementary mechanism to induce moderate-sized earthquakes located within a few kilometers of the wellbore over the timescales of hydraulic stimulation. However, aseismic slip signals linked to injection-induced earthquakes remain largely undocumented to date. Here we report a new type of earthquake characterized by hybrid-frequency waveforms (EHWs). Distinguishing features from typical induced earthquakes include broader P and S-pulses and relatively lower-frequency coda content. Both features may be causally related to lower corner frequencies, implying longer source durations, thus, either slower rupture speeds, lower stress drop values, or a combination of both. The source characteristics of EHWs are identical to those of low-frequency earthquakes widely documented in plate boundary fault transition zones. The distribution of EHWs further suggests a possible role of aseismic slip in fault loading. EHWs could thus represent the manifestation of slow rupture transitioning from aseismic to seismic slip.

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