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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 147: 453-462, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923519

RESUMO

Due to the favorable stability, water solubility and good biocompatibility, carbon dots have attracted much attention. Herein, a novel nitrogen-doping bifunctional carbon dots (N-BCDs) with ultra-highly quantum yield (QYabs = 70.4%) is prepared through microwave-assisted method. 50 µg/mL of N-BCDs emit intense fluorescence in HeLa and GES-1 cells with negligible cytotoxicity. In addition, effective inhibition of N-BCDs to human insulin (HI) fibrillation is observed even at 10:1 (mass ratio of HI: N-BCDs) by ThT fluorescence, CD assay and TEM. N-BCDs prevent HI from fibrillation with prolonged lag time and reduced fluorescent intensity at equilibrium, regardless of the addition time of N-BCDs (HI: N-BCDs = 1:1, mass ratio), which has been rarely reported before. Furthermore, the morphology of final HI fibrils is shorter and thinner in the presence of N-BCDs. Mechanism studies reveal that the enhanced hydrogen bond between HI monomers and N-BCDs inhibits nucleation during the lag stage (Ka: 1.54 × 104 L·mol-1, 298 K), while the accumulation of N-BCDs blocks the growth of profibrils in the elongation stage. To the best of our knowledge, it's the first time to observe the accumulation of N-BCDs around HI profibrils with TEM. Our study provides a new strategy for developing efficient nanoparticle inhibitors for protein fibrillation.

3.
Drug Chem Toxicol ; : 1-9, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826665

RESUMO

The levels of the chlorinated organic compound Dechlorane Plus (DP) are increasing in aquatic ecosystems. To investigate the adverse effects of DP on aquatic animals, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were subjected to three different DP concentrations (30 µg L-1, 60 µg L-1, and 120 µg L-1) for 1 d, 15 d, and 30 d. Histology and the hepatic and cerebral expression levels of several key antioxidant, detoxification, and apoptotic factors were then examined. Histopathological inspections showed that the liver and brain were severely damaged in carp exposed to 60 µg L-1 and 120 µg L-1 DP. Relative to the controls, the superoxide dismutase and glutathione activity levels and the malondialdehyde content were also changed in livers and brains exposed to DP. Besides, significant alterations in the expression levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-10 were observed in the livers of carp subjected to DP. Relative to the control, the brains of DP-exposed carp presented with significantly upregulated IL-1ß and IL-6 in carp treated with 120 µg L-1 DP for 30 d. The transcription levels of hepatic cyp2b4, cyp1b1, and cyp3a138 were all increased compared with the untreated at all DP exposure concentrations. The aforementioned results suggest that DP exposure perturbs fish metabolism and causes liver injury by inhibiting antioxidant enzyme activity, increasing lipid peroxidation, promoting inflammation, and inducing cell apoptosis. This information and the analytical methodology used to acquire it may form the basis for future ecological risk assessments on DP and related xenobiotics in aquatic animals.

4.
Cell Biol Toxicol ; 2019 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884678

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) is an environmental pollutant closely associated with human airway inflammation. However, the molecular mechanisms of PM-related airway inflammation remains to be fully elucidated. It is known that COX-2/PGE2 play key roles in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation. Filaggrin is a transmembrane protein contributing to tight junction barrier function. As such, Filaggrin prevents leakage of transported solutes and is therefore necessary for the maintenance of epithelial integrity. The objective of the present study was to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of COX-2/PGE2 and Filaggrin upon PM exposure both in vivo and in vitro. C57BL/6 mice received intratracheal instillation of PM for two consecutive days. In parallel, human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) were exposed to PM for 24 h. PM exposure resulted in airway inflammation together with upregulation of COX-2/PGE2 and downregulation of Filaggrin in mouse lungs. Corresponding dysregulation of COX-2/PGE2 and Filaggrin was also observed in HBECs subjected to PM. PM exposure led to the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and PI3K signaling pathways in a time-dependent manner, while blockade of PI3K with the specific molecular inhibitor LY294002 partially reversed the dysregulation of COX-2/PGE2 and Filaggrin. Moreover, pretreatment of HBECs with NS398, a specific molecular inhibitor of COX-2, and AH6809, a downstream PGE2 receptor inhibitor, reversed the downregulation of Filaggrin upon PM exposure. Taken together, these data demonstrated that the PI3K signaling pathway upregulated COX-2 as well as PGE2 and acted as a pivotal mediator in the downregulation of Filaggrin.

5.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2535, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781059

RESUMO

Soil-borne diseases, especially those caused by fungal pathogens, lead to profound annual yield losses. One key example for such a disease is Fusarium wilt disease in banana. In some soils, plants do not show disease symptoms, even if the disease-causing pathogens are present. However, the underlying agents that make soils suppressive against Fusarium wilt remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to determine the underlying microbial agents governing soil disease-suppressiveness. We traced the shift of microbiomes during the invasion of disease-causing Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense in disease-suppressive and disease-conducive soils. We found distinct microbiome structures in the suppressive and conducive soils after pathogen invasion. The alpha diversity indices increased (or did not significantly change) and decreased, respectively, in the suppressive and conducive soils, indicating that the shift pattern of the microbiome with pathogen invasion was notably different between the suppressive and conductive soils. Microbiome networks were more complex with higher numbers of links and revealed more negative links, especially between bacterial taxa and the disease-causing Fusarium, in suppressive soils than in conducive soils. We identified the bacterial genera Chryseolinea, Terrimonas, and Ohtaekwangia as key groups that likely confer suppressiveness against disease-causing Fusarium. Overall, our study provides the first insights into agents potentially underlying the disease suppressiveness of soils against Fusarium wilt pathogen invasion. The results of this study may help to guide efforts for targeted cultivation and application of these potential biocontrol agents, which might lead to the development of effective biocontrol agents against Fusarium wilt disease.

6.
Indoor Air ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755597

RESUMO

Stunting adversely affects physical and mental outcomes of children. It has not been examined whether household air pollution from solid fuel combustion is a risk factor for stunting in children. In a total of 41,439 children aged 6-17 across China, height was measured using a unified protocol. Multivariable linear regression models and logistic regression models were used to assess the associations of solid fuel use for cooking/heating with stunting in children. Adjusted for covariates, cooking/heating with solid fuel was significantly associated with a lower z-score for height for age and sex (ß = -0.21 [-0.32 to -0.09] and -0.17 [-0.31 to -0.03], respectively) and an increased risk of stunting with an estimated ORs of 1.34 [1.07~1.68] and 1.37 [1.02~1.83], respectively. The risk of stunting associated with solid fuel use was statistically significant in high-age children. And the effect was greater on girls than on boys, though the difference was not statistically significant. Our study suggested that Chinese children living in households using solid fuel had a significantly higher risk of stunting than those living in households using cleaner fuel.

7.
Cancer Med ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769229

RESUMO

LncRNAs have been shown to play essential roles in bladder cancer (BC) progress. Our microarrays of clinical samples firstly screened that lncRNA muscleblind-like 1 antisense RNA 1 (MBNL1-AS1) was poorly expressed in BC tissues. However, its biological function in BC remains not well understood. Here we examined the clinical correlations with MBNL1-AS1 in BC patients. Then, 5673 and T24 cell lines were employed to investigate the role of MBNL1-AS1 in the proliferation and apoptosis of BC cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, miR-135a-5p (miR-135a)/PHLPP2/FOXO1 axis was focused to explore its regulatory mechanism in BC. The results showed that MBNL1-AS1 was significantly downregulated in bladder tumor tissues, and associated with BC progression. In vitro, MBNL1-AS1 knockdown increased the number of viable cells and bromodeoxyuridine-positive cells, accelerated cell cycle, and dysregulated proliferative regulators (Ki67, p21, p27, and Cyclin D1) in BC cells. The apoptotic cells and the cleavages of caspase-3/9 were reduced in MBNL1-AS1-silenced BC cells. Overexpression of MBNL1-AS1 had opposite effects on BC cell proliferation and apoptosis. Moreover miR-135a was demonstrated to interact with MBNL1-AS1, and inhibiting miR-135a reversed the effects of shMBNL1-AS1 on BC cells. The downstream effectors (PHLPP2 and FOXO1) were positively regulated by MBNL1-AS1, but negatively regulated by miR-135a. Similar results were also observed in xenograft tumors. In conclusion, this study firstly suggests that MBNL1-AS1 acts as a tumor suppressor of BC by targeting miR-135a/PHLPP2/FOXO1 axis, providing a novel insight for BC diagnosis and treatment.

8.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e1900612, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703241

RESUMO

SCOPE: Vegetarian diets confer health benefits to many cardiometabolic diseases, although whether and how gut microbiota in vegetarians contributes to host metabolism remains unclear. Thus, the aim is to explore the possible links between the gut microbiota and circulating gut microbiota-host co-metabolites among vegetarians and omnivores. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fecal and serum samples from 36 adults following a vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, or omnivorous diet are collected. A 16S rRNA gene, metagenome, metatranscriptome, and metabolome integrated multi-omics approach is adopted to profile fecal microbial composition and functionality and circulating gut microbiota-host co-metabolites. 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequencing suggest a significant difference in gut microbial composition between the two vegetarian groups and the omnivorous group at the family, genus, and species level. Metabolomic analysis reveals that circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs)-valine, leucine, and isoleucine-are significantly lower in the two vegetarian groups than those in the omnivorous group. In line with the lower concentrations of BCAAs, metatranscriptomic analysis shows that the gut microbial pathway for the degradation of BCAAs is significantly upregulated among vegetarians compared with the omnivores. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that gut microbiota plays an important role in the modulation of circulating BCAAs among vegetarians.

9.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 1061, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To reveal roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) status in chemotherapy resistance and to develop a ROS scoring system for prognosis prediction in ovarian cancer. METHODS: We tested the sensitizing effects of ROS elevating drugs to cisplatin (cDDP) in ovarian cancer both in vitro and in vivo. A ROS scoring system was developed using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database of ovarian cancer. The associations between ROS scores and overall survival (OS) were analyzed in TCGA, Tothill dataset, and our in-house dataset (TJ dataset). RESULTS: ROS-inducing drugs increased cisplatin-induced ovarian cancer cell injury in vitro and in vivo. ROS scoring system was established using 25 ROS-related genes. Patients were divided into low (scores 0-12) and high (scores 13-25) score groups. Improved patient survival was associated with higher scores (TCGA dataset hazard ratio (HR) = 0.43, P < 0.001; Tothill dataset HR = 0.65, P = 0.022; TJ dataset HR = 0.40, P = 0.003). The score was also significantly associated with OS in multiple datasets (TCGA dataset r2 = 0.574, P = 0.032; Thothill dataset r2 = 0.266, P = 0.049; TJ dataset r2 = 0.632, P = 0.001) and with cisplatin sensitivity in ovarian cancer cell lines (r2 = 0.799, P = 0.016) when used as a continuous variable. The scoring system showed better prognostic performance than other clinical factors by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (TCGA dataset area under the curve (AUC) = 0.71 v.s. 0.65, Tothill dataset AUC = 0.73 v.s. 0.67, TJ dataset AUC = 0.74 v.s. 0.66). CONCLUSIONS: ROS status is associated with chemotherapy resistance. ROS score system might be a prognostic biomarker in predicting the survival benefit from ovarian cancer patients.

10.
Oncogene ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705064

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer selective metastasizes to the omentum contributing to the poor prognosis associated with ovarian cancer. However, the mechanism underlining this propensity and therapeutic approaches to counter this process has not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that MCP-1 produced by omental adipocytes binding to its cognate receptor CCR-2 on ovarian cancer cells facilitates migration and omental metastasis by activating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and its downstream effectors HIF-1α and VEGF-A in cell lines, xenografts, and transgenic murine models. MCP-1 antibody significantly decreased tumor burden and increased survival of mice in vivo. Interestingly, metformin decreased omental metastasis at least partially by inhibiting MCP-1 secretion from adipocytes independent of direct effects on cancer cells. Together this suggests a novel target of MCP-1/CCR-2 axis that could benefit ovarian cancer patients.

11.
Front Physiol ; 10: 1282, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680999

RESUMO

The immunological interaction between Drosophila melanogaster and its larval parasitoids has been thoroughly investigated, however, little is known about the interaction between the host and its pupal parasitoids. Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae, a pupal ectoparasitoid of D. melanogaster, injects venom into its host while laying eggs on the puparium, which regulates host immunity and interrupts host development. To resist the invasion of parasitic wasps, various immune defense strategies have been developed in their hosts as a consequence of co-evolution. In this study, we mainly focused on the host immunomodulation by P. vindemmiae and thoroughly investigated cellular and humoral immune response, including cell adherence, cell viability, hemolymph melanization and the Toll, Imd, and JAK/STAT immune pathways. Our results indicated that venom had a significant inhibitory effect on lamellocyte adherence and induced plasmatocyte cell death. Venom injection and in vitro incubation strongly inhibited hemolymph melanization. More in-depth investigation revealed that the Toll and Imd immune pathways were immediately activated upon parasitization, followed by the JAK/STAT pathway, which was activated within the first 24 h post-parasitism. These regulatory effects were further validated by qPCR. Our present study manifested that P. vindemmiae regulated the cellular and humoral immune system of host D. melanogaster in many aspects. These findings lay the groundwork for studying the immunological interaction between D. melanogaster and its pupal parasitoid.

12.
Future Med Chem ; 11(20): 2715-2734, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571504

RESUMO

Proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs) have received much attention for their promising therapeutic intervention in recent years. These molecules, with the mechanism of simultaneous recruitment of target protein and an E3 ligase, can trigger the cellular ubiquitin-proteasome system to degrade the target proteins. This article systematically introduces the mechanism of small-molecule PROTACs, and summarized the research progress of small-molecule PROTACs. The prospect for further application and the problems to be solved are also discussed.

13.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; : e21634, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587360

RESUMO

Pteromalus puparum is a gregarious pupal endoparasitoid with a wide host range. It deposits eggs into pierid and papilionid butterfly pupae. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of multifunctional detoxification enzymes that act in xenobiotic metabolism in insects. Insect genome projects have facilitated identification and characterization of GST family members. We identified 20 putative GSTs in the P. puparum genome, including 19 cytosolic and one microsomal. Phylogenetic analysis showed that P. puparum GSTs are clustered into Hymenoptera-specific branches. Transcriptomic data of embryos, larvae, female pupae, male pupae, female adults, male adults, venom glands, carcass, salivary glands, and ovaries revealed stage-, sex-, and tissue-specific expression patterns of GSTs in P. puparum. This is the most comprehensive study of genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression profiling of GST family in hymenopterans. Our results provide valuable information for understanding the metabolic adaptation of this wasp.

14.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; : e21633, 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587364

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a form of endogenous small noncoding RNAs that regulate protein-coding gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. So far, knowledge of miRNAs in parasitoids remains rudimentary. We investigated miRNAs in Pteromalus puparum, a pupal endoparasitoid wasp with genome and transcriptome sequences completed. In this study, we constructed eight small RNA libraries from selected developmental stages and genders: male embryos, male larvae, male pupae, male adults, mixed-sex embryos, mixed-sex larvae, mixed-sex pupae, and female adults. We identified 254 mature miRNAs with 5p/3p arm features originated from 75 known and 119 novel miRNA genes in P. puparum, 88 of which reside in 26 clusters. The miRNAs in more than half of the clusters exhibit a consistent expression pattern, indicating they were co-transcribed from a long transcript. Comparing miRNA expression in the eight libraries, we found that 84 mature miRNAs were differentially expressed between embryos and larvae, 20 between larvae and pupae, and 26 between pupae and adults. We found some miRNAs were differentially expressed between sexes in embryos (10), larvae (29), pupae (8), and adults (14). Target predictions resulted in 211,571 miRNA-mRNA interactions for 254 different mature miRNAs. These miRNAs may be involved in sexual and developmental regulation of gene expression.

15.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; : e21635, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625210

RESUMO

Among insects, lifespans vary over a broad range, from the short-lived mayflies to the 17-year periodical cicadas. Generally, lifespans are determined by a phase in life, the reproductive lifespan, which varies among species. Numerous pathways, such as the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway, the target of rapamycin pathway and the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinases pathways, influence aging and lifespan. Components of these pathways were identified as lifespan-related genes, including genes mediating growth, metabolism, development, resistance, and other processes. Many age-related genes have been discovered in fruit flies, honeybees, and ants among other insect species. Studies of insect aging and longevity can help understand insect biology and develop new pest management technologies. In this paper, we interrogated the new Pteromalus puparum genome, from which we predicted 133 putative lifespan-related genes based on their homology with known lifespan-related genes of Drosophila melanogaster. These genes function in five signaling pathways and three physiological processes. The conserved domain structures of these genes were predicted and their expression patterns were analyzed. Amino acid sequence alignments and domain structure analysis indicate that most components remain conserved across at least six insect orders. The data in this paper will facilitate future work on parasitoid lifespans, which may have economic value in biocontrol programs.

16.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(21)2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653050

RESUMO

Corn straw is a kind of biomass material with huge reserves, which can be used in plate processing, handicraft manufacturing, indoor decoration, and other fields. To investigate the dyeing mechanism of corn straw with different dyes, corn straw was pretreated and dyed with Acid Red GR and Brilliant Red X-3B. The dyeing properties and light resistance of the two dyes were analyzed by dyeing rate, photochromaticity, FTIR, SEM, and water-washing firmness. The results showed that the structure and stability of the dyes were the main factors which influenced fading. A bleaching pretreatment could remove the waxiness of the corn straw epidermis and increase the porosity on the surface of the straw, which accelerated the photochromic coloring of the corn straw skin. The corn straw dyed with both dyes had good light resistance, but the straw dyed with Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B had higher dyeing rate, brighter color, and higher photochromaticity than the straw dyed with Acid Red GR. FTIR and water-washing firmness showed that Acid Red GR mainly bound to lignin, while Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B mainly bound to cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in corn straw through covalent bonds, which increased the coloring rate.

17.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(11): 804, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645547

RESUMO

Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been shown to be beneficial in some pulmonary diseases, and the paracrine effect is the major mechanism underlying ADSC-based therapy. Autophagy plays a crucial role in maintaining stem cell homeostasis and survival. However, the role of autophagy in mediating ADSC paracrine effects has not been thoroughly elucidated. We examined whether ADSCs participate in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell (PMVEC) barrier damage in a paracrine manner and illuminated the role of autophagy in regulating ADSC paracrine effects. PMVECs and ADSCs with or without autophagy inhibition were cocultured without intercellular contact, and the microvascular barrier function was assessed after LPS treatment. ADSC paracrine function was evaluated by detecting essential growth factors for endothelial cells. For in vivo experiments, ADSCs with or without autophagy inhibition were transplanted into LPS-induced lung-injury mice, and lung injury was assessed. ADSCs significantly alleviated LPS-induced microvascular barrier injury. In addition, ADSC paracrine levels of VEGF, FGF, and EGF were induced by LPS treatment, especially in the coculture condition. Inhibiting autophagy weakened the paracrine function and the protective effects of ADSCs on microvascular barrier injury. Moreover, ADSC transplantation alleviated LPS-induced lung injury, and inhibiting autophagy markedly weakened the therapeutic effect of ADSCs on lung injury. Together, these findings show that ADSC paracrine effects play a vital protective role in LPS-induced pulmonary microvascular barrier injury. Autophagy is a positive mediating factor in the paracrine process. These results are helpful for illuminating the role and mechanism of ADSC paracrine effects and developing effective therapies in acute lung injury.

18.
EBioMedicine ; 49: 26-39, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding how cells respond to mitotic poisons is of great biomedical and clinical significance. However, it remains unknown how cell-death or survival is determined during exposure to anti-mitotic drugs. METHODS: The biological effects of SLC39A6 (LIV-1) and GrpE-like 1 (GRPEL1) on mitotic exit and apoptosis were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using flow cytometry, western blotting, xenografts and time-lapse imaging. The interactions between proteins and the ubiquitination of GRPEL1 were assessed by GST pull down, immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis. The expression of LIV-1 in cancers was assessed by immunohistochemistry. FINDINGS: Overexpression of LIV-1 led to direct apoptosis. Depleted for LIV-1 evade anti-mitotic agent-induced killing through a rapid exit from arrested mitosis. LIV-1 interacts with GRPEL1 and Stabilizes GRPEL1 Protein by Preventing Ubiquitylation of GRPEL1. LIV-1-GRPEL1 axis depletion works to reduce the mitotic arrest by inducing PP2A-B55α phosphates activity, while inhibit apoptosis by banding AIF and preventing the latter's release into the nucleus. Loss of function in this axis was frequent in multiple types of human epithelial cancer. INTERPRETATION: These data demonstrate that LIV-1-GRPEL1 axis dually regulates mitotic exit as well as apoptosis by interacting with PP2A B55α and AIF. Its discovery constitutes a conceptual advance for the decisive mechanism of cell fate during damaged mitosis. FUND: National Clinical Research Center for Obstetric and Gynecologic Diseases, the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

19.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(10): 707, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548594

RESUMO

Following publication of this article [1], the authors became aware of an error in Fig. 7e which requires correction. The images do not currently match the correct treatment and/or control conditions. Specifically, the images of siNC+AD-ctr (the top left panel) and siPDK4+AD-PDK4 (the bottom right panel) were incorrect. The error does not impact the conclusions of the article. They sincerely apologize for the mistakes in the article and any inconvenience caused.

20.
Int J Med Microbiol ; 309(8): 151340, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494039

RESUMO

Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) infection is associated with the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. The migration of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) from the media to the intima is a key event in the development of atherosclerosis. Interleukin-17C (IL-17C) could enhance cell migration ability. The aim of our study is to investigate the role of IL-17C in C. pneumoniae infection-promoted VSMC migration, thereby possibly accelerating atherosclerosis. We firstly demonstrated that C. pneumoniae infection significantly increased IL-17C expression in VSMCs in the atherosclerotic lesion area from ApoE deficient mice. Our in vitro study further showed that IL-17C is required for C. pneumoniae infection-promoted VSMC migration, and its expression could be regulated by c-Fos through phosphorylating extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Unexpectedly, in the present study, we also found that IL-17C is critical for C. pneumoniae infection-induced c-Fos activation. c-Fos expression and activation induced by the exposure to recombinant IL-17C were markedly suppressed in the presence of the ERK inhibitor PD98059. These results suggest a possible positive feedback between c-Fos and IL-17C after C. pneumoniae infection. Taken together, our results indicate that C. pneumoniae infection promotes VSMC migration via c-Fos/IL-17C signaling.

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