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1.
Eur J Pharmacol ; : 173730, 2020 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188742

RESUMO

Our research group has previously synthesized various chalcone analogues. Of these analogues, compound 39 has been shown to exhibit potent antioxidative activities but its anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effects remain unclear. Thus, the present study investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects and mechanisms of compound 39 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). To induce ALI, the mice received LPS via a tracheal instillation 6 h after intragastric administration of compound 39 or vehicle. Histological changes, the lung wet/dry weight ratio, and the amounts of protein and inflammatory cells in the broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were assessed after 24 h. Additionally, to determine its underlying mechanisms, Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses were used. Moreover, the in vitro effects of compound 39 were also investigated. In the in vivo experiment, compound 39 markedly alleviated histopathological alterations, lung edema, and protein leakage, and exhibited potent anti-inflammatory effects. In the in vitro experiments, compound 39 dose-dependently reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species. The results suggested that the anti-inflammatory effects of compound 39 were due to suppression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway. Compound 39 also enhanced the protein levels of Bcl-2 and reduced the protein levels of Bax and cleaved caspase-3. The present study confirmed the anti-inflammatory, oxy-radical prohibitive, and anti-apoptosis activities of compound 39 against LPS-induced tissue and cell damage, and revealed the mechanisms underlying those processes.

2.
Planta ; 252(5): 74, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025156

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: In general, genes promoting IAA, CTK GA and ethylene biosynthesis were upregulated, while genes participating in ABA, chlorophyll and starch biosynthesis pathways performed opposite tendency during etiolation. Etiolation as a method for rejuvenation plays an important role in the vegetative propagation of woody plants. However, the molecular mechanism of etiolated shoot development remains unclear. In this study, we investigated changes at different etiolation stages of Juglans regia. The histology and transcriptome of J. regia were analysed using etiolated stems, which were treated in darkness for 30, 60, 90 days. The results showed that the ratios of pith (Pi) diameter/stem diameter (D), cortex (Co) width/D, and phloem (Ph) width/D increased, while the ratio of xylem (Xy) width/D decreased after etiolation, and the difference in these ratios between etiolated stems and the control was more significant at 60 days than 90 days. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were significantly enriched in pathways such as plant hormone biosynthesis and signal transduction, chlorophyll biosynthesis and degradation, and starch and sucrose metabolism. The difference in the contents of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), sugar and chlorophyll between etiolated stems and the control increased with increasing treatment duration; in contrast, the concentrations of gibberellin (GA), zeatin (ZT), and starch, as well as the difference between the etiolated stems and control were lowest at 60 days among the three stages. On the whole, the positive effect of etiolation on the rejuvenation of walnut stems changed as the treatment period increased. The present investigation lays a foundation for future studies on the effect of etiolation on rejuvenation and for promoting the efficiency of vegetative propagation.

3.
Head Neck ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the few malignant tumors that respond well to immunotherapy. We aimed to investigate the immune-related genes and immune cell infiltration of HNSCC and construct a predictive model for its prognosis. METHODS: We calculated the stromal/immune scores of patients with HNSCC from The Cancer Genome Atlas using the Estimation of STromal and Immune cells in MAlignant Tumor tissues using Expression data algorithm and investigated the relationship between the scores and patients' prognosis. Three machine learning algorithms (LASSO, Random Forest, and Rbsurv) were performed to screen key immune-related genes and constructed a predictive model. The immune cell infiltrating was calculated by the Tumor Immune Estimation Resource algorithm. RESULTS: The stromal and immune scores significantly correlated with prognosis. A 6-gene signature was selected and displayed a robust predictive effect. The expressions of key genes were associated with immune infiltrating. GSE65858 validated the results. CONCLUSION: Our study comprehensively analyzed the tumor microenvironment of HNSCC and constructed a robust predictive model, providing a basis for further investigation of therapy.

4.
Euro Surveill ; 25(42)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094713

RESUMO

BackgroundThe progression and geographical distribution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the United Kingdom (UK) and elsewhere is unknown because typically only symptomatic individuals are diagnosed. We performed a serological study of blood donors in Scotland in the spring of 2020 to detect neutralising antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 as a marker of past infection and epidemic progression.AimOur objective was to determine if sera from blood bank donors can be used to track the emergence and progression of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic.MethodsA pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 virus microneutralisation assay was used to detect neutralising antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. The study comprised samples from 3,500 blood donors collected in Scotland between 17 March and 18 May 2020. Controls were collected from 100 donors in Scotland during 2019.ResultsAll samples collected on 17 March 2020 (n = 500) were negative in the pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 virus microneutralisation assay. Neutralising antibodies were detected in six of 500 donors from 23 to 26 March. The number of samples containing neutralising antibodies did not significantly rise after 5-6 April until the end of the study on 18 May. We found that infections were concentrated in certain postcodes, indicating that outbreaks of infection were extremely localised. In contrast, other areas remained comparatively untouched by the epidemic.ConclusionAlthough blood donors are not representative of the overall population, we demonstrated that serosurveys of blood banks can serve as a useful tool for tracking the emergence and progression of an epidemic such as the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Doadores de Sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Masculino , Modelos Imunológicos , Testes de Neutralização , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Prevalência , Escócia/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , População Urbana
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036400

RESUMO

The climate characteristics of the islands in the Nansha Islands of China are a typical marine climate including high temperature, high relative humidity, high salt content, strong solar radiation, and long sunshine. These can provide suitable conditions for mold reproduction on the surface of the wall in a building. Therefore, mildew pollution on the wall for a long time can easily damage the building's structure. It does not only directly affect the appearance of the building, but also indirectly affects the indoor environment and human health. In this paper, dominant fungi in the residential buildings on thee Nansha Islands of China are Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Cladosporium. Critical lines of temperature and relative humidity for mould growth on the interior surfaces of island residential building envelopes have been given and discussed. The results show that the risk of mould growth on the wall with different materials, from low to high, is reinforced concrete, aerated concrete block, coral aggregate, brick, and wood. Furthermore, in order to prevent the room regulated by air conditioner from being contaminated by mould, indoor air temperature should be set variable and controlled between 26 °C and 28 °C, the relative humidity should be changed between 50% and 80%.

6.
Chin J Traumatol ; 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912709

RESUMO

Subtalar dislocation is defined as a separation of the talocalcaneal and talonavicular articulations, commonly caused by high-energy mechanisms, which include falls from height, motor vehicle crashes, and twisting leg injuries. The dislocations are divided into medial, lateral, anterior, and posterior types on the basis of the direction in which the distal part of the foot has shifted in relation to the talus. The most common type is medial dislocation resulted from inversion injury. Subtalar dislocation may accompany with other fractures. Physical examination must be performed carefully to assess for neurovascular compromise. Most of the subtalar dislocations can be treated with closed reduction under sedation. If this is not possible, open reduction without further delay should be conducted. After primary treatment, X-ray and computed tomography scan should be performed to evaluate the alignment and the fractures. We report a 37-year-old male patient sustained a subtalar dislocation without any bony injury when he was playing football. The patient was successfully treated by closed reduction, and a good alignment was observed at the last follow-up. The pathogenesis and treatment method of this case were analyzed, and the related literature were reviewed, which provided a reference for future clinical treatment.

7.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960814

RESUMO

Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer is thought to be more malignant and devastating than ER-positive breast cancer and exhibit elevated NF-κB activity. How abnormally high NF-κB activity is maintained in ER-negative breast cancer is poorly understood. The importance of linear ubiquitination, which is generated by the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC), is increasingly appreciated in NF-κB signaling, which regulates cell activation and death. Here, we showed that epsin proteins, a family of ubiquitin-binding endocytic adaptors, interacted with LUBAC via its Ubiquitin-Interacting Motif (UIM) and bound LUBAC's bona fide substrate NEMO via its N-terminal homolog (ENTH) domain. Furthermore, epsins promoted NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO) linear ubiquitination and served as scaffolds for recruiting other components of the IκB kinase (IKK) complex; thereby, resulting in the heightened IKK activation and sustained NF-κB signaling essential for the development of ER-negative breast cancer. Heightened epsin levels in ER-negative human breast cancer are associated with poor, relapse-free survival. We showed that transgenic and pharmacological approaches eliminating epsins potently impeded breast cancer development in both spontaneous and patient-derived xenograft breast cancer mouse models. Our findings established the pivotal role epsins played in promoting breast cancer. Thus, targeting epsins may represent a strategy to restrain NF-κB signaling, and provide an important perspective into ER-negative breast cancer treatment.

8.
Microbiome ; 8(1): 137, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant diseases caused by fungal pathogen result in a substantial economic impact on the global food and fruit industry. Application of organic fertilizers supplemented with biocontrol microorganisms (i.e. bioorganic fertilizers) has been shown to improve resistance against plant pathogens at least in part due to impacts on the structure and function of the resident soil microbiome. However, it remains unclear whether such improvements are driven by the specific action of microbial inoculants, microbial populations naturally resident to the organic fertilizer or the physical-chemical properties of the compost substrate. The aim of this study was to seek the ecological mechanisms involved in the disease suppressive activity of bio-organic fertilizers. RESULTS: To disentangle the mechanism of bio-organic fertilizer action, we conducted an experiment tracking Fusarium wilt disease of banana and changes in soil microbial communities over three growth seasons in response to the following four treatments: bio-organic fertilizer (containing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens W19), organic fertilizer, sterilized organic fertilizer and sterilized organic fertilizer supplemented with B. amyloliquefaciens W19. We found that sterilized bioorganic fertilizer to which Bacillus was re-inoculated provided a similar degree of disease suppression as the non-sterilized bioorganic fertilizer across cropping seasons. We further observed that disease suppression in these treatments is linked to impacts on the resident soil microbial communities, specifically by leading to increases in specific Pseudomonas spp.. Observed correlations between Bacillus amendment and indigenous Pseudomonas spp. that might underlie pathogen suppression were further studied in laboratory and pot experiments. These studies revealed that specific bacterial taxa synergistically increase biofilm formation and likely acted as a plant-beneficial consortium against the pathogen. CONCLUSION: Together we demonstrate that the action of bioorganic fertilizer is a product of the biocontrol inoculum within the organic amendment and its impact on the resident soil microbiome. This knowledge should help in the design of more efficient biofertilizers designed to promote soil function. Video Abstract.

9.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 20(1): 253, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some retrospective and in vitro studies suggest that general anesthetics influence breast cancer recurrence and metastasis. We compared the effects of general anesthetics sevoflurane versus propofol on breast cancer cell survival, proliferation and invasion in vitro. The investigation focused on effects in intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis as a mechanism for general anesthetic-mediated effects on breast cancer cell survival and metastasis. METHODS: Estrogen receptor-positive (MCF7) and estrogen receptor-negative (MDA-MB-436) human breast cancer cell lines along with normal breast tissue (MCF10A) were used. Cells were exposed to sevoflurane or propofol at clinically relevant and extreme doses and durations for dose- and time-dependence studies. Cell survival, proliferation and migration following anesthetic exposure were assessed. Intracellular and extracellular Ca2+ concentrations were modulated using Ca2+ chelation and a TRPV1 Ca2+ channel antagonist to examine the role of Ca2+ in mediating anesthetic effects. RESULTS: Sevoflurane affected breast cancer cell survival in dose-, time- and cell type-dependent manners. Sevoflurane, but not propofol, at equipotent and clinically relevant doses (2% vs. 2 µM) for 6 h significantly promoted breast cell survival in all three types of cells. Paradoxically, extreme exposure to sevoflurane (4%, 24 h) decreased survival in all three cell lines. Chelation of cytosolic Ca2+ dramatically decreased cell survival in both breast cancer lines but not control cells. Inhibition of TRPV1 receptors significantly reduced cell survival in all cell types, an effect that was partially reversed by equipotent sevoflurane but not propofol. Six-hour exposure to sevoflurane or propofol did not affect cell proliferation, metastasis or TRPV1 protein expression in any type of cell. CONCLUSION: Sevoflurane, but not propofol, at clinically relevant concentrations and durations, increased survival of breast cancer cells in vitro but had no effect on cell proliferation, migration or TRPV1 expression. Breast cancer cells require higher cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels for survival than normal breast tissue. Sevoflurane affects breast cancer cell survival via modulation of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis.

10.
Nat Immunol ; 21(11): 1336-1345, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887977

RESUMO

The development of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines and therapeutics will depend on understanding viral immunity. We studied T cell memory in 42 patients following recovery from COVID-19 (28 with mild disease and 14 with severe disease) and 16 unexposed donors, using interferon-γ-based assays with peptides spanning SARS-CoV-2 except ORF1. The breadth and magnitude of T cell responses were significantly higher in severe as compared with mild cases. Total and spike-specific T cell responses correlated with spike-specific antibody responses. We identified 41 peptides containing CD4+ and/or CD8+ epitopes, including six immunodominant regions. Six optimized CD8+ epitopes were defined, with peptide-MHC pentamer-positive cells displaying the central and effector memory phenotype. In mild cases, higher proportions of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells were observed. The identification of T cell responses associated with milder disease will support an understanding of protective immunity and highlights the potential of including non-spike proteins within future COVID-19 vaccine design.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Humanos , Epitopos Imunodominantes/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Reino Unido , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751695

RESUMO

Smoking prevalence stays high among adults in China, which also makes children exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) in their households. This study aimed to investigate the status of SHS exposure among Chinese children, identify the influencing factors, and determine "co-exposure" to tobacco and other smokes in households. A total of 41,439 children aged 6-17 years were recruited from 30 provinces in Mainland China through the first Chinese Environmental Exposure-Related Human Activity Model Survey for Children (CEERHAPS-C). Information regarding children's demographics, socioeconomic status, and exposures to SHS and solid fuel smoke (SFS) in households was collected using a comprehensive questionnaire. Factors that affected exposures to household smokes were identified using multivariable logistic regressions. The overall prevalence of household SHS exposure was 41.7%, and the average duration was 14.7 ± 14.6 min/day among the exposed participants. Prevalence of household SHS exposure increased among children in older age groups and with parents in lower education levels. Among SHS-exposed children, 34% had co-exposure to SFS, and they had a significantly higher risk of co-exposure than non-SHS exposed children (odds ratio = 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 1.061, 1.162). The prevalence of household SHS exposure remains high among school-age children, suggesting the need to develop and implement smoking-free home programs.

12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3984, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770009

RESUMO

The epsin family of endocytic adapter proteins are widely expressed, and interact with both proteins and lipids to regulate a variety of cell functions. However, the role of epsins in atherosclerosis is poorly understood. Here, we show that deletion of endothelial epsin proteins reduces inflammation and attenuates atherosclerosis using both cell culture and mouse models of this disease. In atherogenic cholesterol-treated murine aortic endothelial cells, epsins interact with the ubiquitinated endoplasmic reticulum protein inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (IP3R1), which triggers proteasomal degradation of this calcium release channel. Epsins potentiate its degradation via this interaction. Genetic reduction of endothelial IP3R1 accelerates atherosclerosis, whereas deletion of endothelial epsins stabilizes IP3R1 and mitigates inflammation. Reduction of IP3R1 in epsin-deficient mice restores atherosclerotic progression. Taken together, epsin-mediated degradation of IP3R1 represents a previously undiscovered biological role for epsin proteins and may provide new therapeutic targets for the treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/metabolismo , Proteólise , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transporte Vesicular/química , Animais , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Células HEK293 , Homeostase , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Ubiquitinação
13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686811

RESUMO

In this work, we introduced halogen-substituted chiral molecules as A-site cations to synthesize a series of novel organic-inorganic hybrid two-dimensional (2D) chiral perovskite materials (R-X-p-mBZA)2PbBr4 (X = H, F, Cl, Br; p: para-position; mBZA = α-methylbenzylamine) for the first time. This halogen-substituted cation strategy collectively solved problems of narrow emission, weak chirality and low photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) for the emerged chiral perovskites. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra are significantly broadened due to the additional emission from self-trapped excitons (STEs) besides free excitons (FEs) states modulated by introducing significant disorder to the Pb-Br-Pb angle. The chirality of A-site chiral molecules is transferred and amplified to entire perovskite materials by fixing the chiral molecules at A-site via the interaction of halogen atoms. Furthermore, their PLQYs are improved with the reduction of energy gap and inhibition of the non-radiative transition from STEs to ground state. The halogen-substituted A-site cation strategy can be performed to develop organic-inorganic hybrid chiral perovskites with various optoelectronic applications.

14.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 580: 528-539, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711203

RESUMO

Currently, aqueous zinc-ion batteries are receiving extraordinary attention because of their cheap price, superior energy density and great security. However, the inferior specific capacity and low rate capability significantly hamper their further widespread application. Herein, a novel egg waffle-like architecture consisting of double-shell ZnMn2O4 hollow microspheres embedded in 2D carbon networks (ZnMn2O4@C) is designed and employed as a cathode material for aqueous zinc-ion batteries. Specifically, the ZnMn2O4@C electrode displays a capacity of 481 mAh g-1 at 0.2 A g-1 after 110 cycles with excellent cycling stability. The superior cycling stability of the ZnMn2O4@C electrode is ascribed to the synergistic effect of the double-shell ZnMn2O4 hollow microspheres, which offer sufficient space to withstand volume expansion during Zn2+ intercalation/deintercalation process, as well as the 2D continuous conductive and interconnected carbon network, which facilitates rapid electronic transmission and guarantees good structural mechanical stability. This study offers a fascinating cathode material and extends the available choices for manganate based-materials in rechargeable aqueous zinc-ion batteries.

15.
Environ Int ; 143: 105950, 2020 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a global health issue, and limited evidence suggests that air pollution may be a contributing factor. This study aims to examine whether exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with obesity status in a nationally representative sample of schoolchildren in China. METHODS: The study population consisted of 41,439 schoolchildren of 6-17 years old, recruited from 30 provinces in China using a multi-stage stratified sampling method. Weights and heights were measured for all the participants, and sociodemographic information was collected using a questionnaire. The obesity status was classified following the Chinese national standards. The PM2.5 exposure was estimated as the 5-year average concentration at the school location for each participant. The association between obesity status and PM2.5 exposure was examined using weighted logistic regressions adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: The prevalence of normal weight, overweight, and obesity were 78.5%, 12.4%, and 9.0%, respectively. PM2.5 exposure averaged 59.8 ± 17.6 µg/m3 with a range of 30.5-115.2 µg/m3 among all the participants. The risk of obesity increased by 10.0% (95% confidence interval: 3.0-16.0%) per 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 exposure. The PM2.5-associated risk was significantly elevated in older age groups and children living in urban areas (interaction p-values < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This national survey revealed that approximately 1 in 5 Chinese schoolchildren were overweight or obese. Exposure to PM2.5 in the ambient air was significantly associated with childhood obesity. The findings suggest the need for further research to uncover the roles of PM2.5 exposure in childhood obesity development.

16.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parasitoid wasps are valuable natural enemies for controlling pests. To ensure successful parasitism, these wasps inject venoms along with their eggs that are deposited either into or on their hosts. Parasitoid venoms regulate host behaviors, development, metabolism and immune responses. Pteromalus puparum is a pupal endoparasitoid that parasitizes a number of butterflies, including the worldwide pest cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae. Venom from P. puparum has a variety of effects on host hemocytes, including alteration of absolute and relative hemocyte counts, and inhibition of hemocyte spreading and encapsulation. In particular, P. puparum venom causes hemocyte cell death in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: Using assay-guided chromatography, a cell death-inducing venom fraction was identified and defined as P. puparum endonuclease-like venom protein (PpENVP). It belongs to the DNA/RNA nonspecific endonuclease family, which contains two conserved endonuclease activation sites. We analyzed its expression profiles and demonstrated that PpENVP inhibits gene expression in transfected cells relying on two activation sites. However, RNA interference of PpENVP did not significantly reduce P. puparum venom cytotoxicity, suggesting that PpENVP may not be the sole cytotoxic factor present. CONCLUSION: Our results provide novel insight into the function of the P. puparum venom cocktail and identify a promising insecticide candidate endonuclease that targets insect hemocytes.

17.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(7): 3249-3256, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608898

RESUMO

The Niyang River is an important tributary of the Yarlong Zangbo River, which is also an important water source in the Gongbujiangda and Linzhi areas of Tibet. In this study, water and sediment samples from 18 sites in the Niyang River were collected. The physical and chemical properties, concentrations of 12 heavy metals, and the microbial community in the sediments were determined. The microbial community structures in the sediments collected in 2017 and 2018 were highly similar at the phylum and genus levels. The most dominant type of bacteria in the sediment of the Niyang River was Proteobacteria. Other dominant bacteria included Bacteroidetes, Acidbacteria, and Actinobacteria. At the genus level, the abundance of Flavobacterium was high. Other conditional pathogenic bacteria, such as Aeromonas and Acinetobacter, were detected. Cluster analysis found that there were certain spatial differences among the upstream, midstream, and downstream microbial communities. The microbial community of sediments in the power station reservoir area was unique. Correlation analysis showed that the temperature, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductance, Cr, Zn, Sr, and Ba in the sediments had high correlation with abundance of specific microbes at the phylum level. Redundancy analysis suggested that total nitrogen, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen, Cr, Sr, Ba, and Mn were the main influencing factors of microbial community structure in the sediments of the Niyang River. The results of this study provide data support for understanding the spatial and temporal distribution of the microbial community in sediments of the Niyang River and identifying their environmental impact factors.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Microbiota , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Rios , Tibet
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9504, 2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528144

RESUMO

Intercropping advantage occurs only when each species has adequate time and space to maximize cooperation and minimize competition between them. A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive years between 2013 and 2014 to investigate the effects of maize and soybean relay strip intercropping systems on the uptake and utilization of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. The treatments included "40:160" (T1, maize narrow and wide row spacing of 40 and 160 cm, where two rows of soybean with a 40 cm row were planted in the wide rows. The area occupation ratio of maize and soybean both were 50% of the every experimental block), "80:120" (T2, maize narrow and wide row spacing of 80 and 120 cm, the soybean planting was the same as T1 treatment. The area occupation ratio of maize and soybean were 60% and 40% of the every experimental block), "100:100" (T3, one row of maize and one row of soybean with a 100-cm row. The area occupation ratio of maize and soybean was the same as T1 treatment), sole cropping of maize (CK1, The area occupation ratio of maize was 100% of the every experimental block), and sole cropping of soybean (CK2, The area occupation ratio of soybean was 100% of the every experimental block). The results show that, compared with the sole cropping system (sole maize), the economic yields in T1, T2, and T3 treatments increased by 761, 536, and 458 kg·ha-1, respectively, and the biological yields increased by 2410, 2127, and 1588 kg·ha-1. The uptake and utilization of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in T1, T2, and T3 treatments were significantly higher than those in sole crops, and the nutrient advantage is mainly due to nutrient uptake rather than nutrient use efficiency. The land equivalent ratio values in T1, T2, and T3 treatments were 1.43, 1.32, and 1.20, respectively. In particular, the economic and biological yield in T1 treatment exhibited potential as an intercropping pattern.

19.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(12): 12032-12050, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559178

RESUMO

Aging is associated with immune dysregulation, especially T cell disorders, which result in increased susceptibility to various diseases. Previous studies have shown that loss of co-stimulatory receptors or accumulation of co-inhibitory molecules play important roles in T cell aging. In the present study, CD70, which was generally regarded as a costimulatory molecule, was found to be upregulated on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of elderly individuals. Aged CD70+ T cells displayed a phenotype of over-activation, and expressed enhanced levels of numerous inhibitory receptors including PD-1, 2B4 and LAG-3. CD70+ T cells from elderly individuals exhibited increased susceptibility to apoptosis and high levels of inflammatory cytokines. Importantly, the functional dysregulation of CD70+ T cells associated with aging was reversed by blocking CD70. Collectively, this study demonstrated CD70 as a prominent regulator involved in immunosenescence, which led to defects and overwhelming inflammatory responses of T cells during aging. These findings provide a strong rationale for targeting CD70 to prevent dysregulation related to immunosenescence.

20.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 44(11): 2194-2202, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546859

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The literature is inconsistent regarding milk intake and physical growth. This study aims to evaluate the association of milk intake with body height and weight in a nationally representative sample of Chinese children. METHODS: A total of 41,439 children ages 6-17 were recruited from 30 provinces in mainland China in 2013-2016 using a multistage stratified cluster sampling approach. Milk intake information was collected using a questionnaire aided with standard containers. Weight and height were measured using a standard physician beam scale with a height rod. Milk intake was categorized into no-, low-, and high-intake groups based on the intake rate, and weight status into normal, overweight, and obese groups based on the body-mass-index (BMI). Associations between height/weight status and milk intake were evaluated using multivariate weighted linear and logistic regression models. RESULTS: Chinese children had low milk intake: 1/5 of children did not drink milk, and those drinking milk had a median intake of 100 ml/month. The low- and high-intake groups were 0.83 cm (95% confidence interval: 0.00, 1.68 cm) and 1.26 cm (0.34, 2.19 cm) taller than the no-intake group for girls, respectively, after adjusting for confounding factors. Boys with high milk intake had lower BMI (-0.56, 95% CI: -1.00, -0.12 kg/m2) and risk of obesity (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.97) than those without milk intake. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the association of increased milk intake with increased body height and lowered obesity risk among Chinese children. Given the cross-sectional nature of the study and the possibility of residual confounding, further research is warranted to uncover the role of milk intake in promoting children's growth.

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