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1.
Cancer Med ; 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227453

RESUMO

Sitagliptin is an emerging oral hypoglycemic agent that inhibits the development of a wide variety of tumors. Current researches indicate that the abnormal activation of Yes-associated protein (YAP) promotes the proliferation and poor prognosis of multiple tumors. However, the ability of sitagliptin to regulate YAP and its effects on gastric cancer (GC) cells remain unclear. Here, we first showed that sitagliptin inhibited the proliferation of GC cells, and this inhibition was regulated by Hippo pathway. Sitagliptin phosphorylated YAP in a large tumor suppressor homolog-dependent manner, thereby inhibiting YAP nuclear translocation, and promoted YAP cytoplasm retention. This inhibition can be blocked by adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Moreover, sitagliptin could reduce the expression of tumor-testis antigen Melanoma-associated antigen-A3 through YAP. In conclusion, sitagliptin may have a potential inhibitory effect on GC by AMPK/YAP/melanoma-associated antigen-A3 pathway.

2.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236236

RESUMO

Topological semimetals, including topological nodal point semimetals (TNPSs), topological nodal line state semimetals (TNLSs), and topological nodal surface semimetals (TNSSs), featuring zero-dimensional (0D), one-dimensional (1D), and two-dimensional (2D) topological elements (TEs), respectively, have attracted widespread attention in recent years. In this work, based on first-principles calculations, we propose for the first time that three different (0D, 1D, and 2D) TEs are simultaneously present in a synthetic compound, HfIr3B4, with a P63/m type structure. In detail, HfIr3B4 hosts a Dirac point (DP) state at the K point, a TNL state in the kz = 0 plane, and a 2D TNS state in the kz = π plane, respectively. All sorts of topological elements, 0D, 1D, and 2D TEs, coexisting in the P63/m type HfIr3B4, provide an ideal platform to study the rich fermionic states and their related physical properties in this type of compound. In addition, because the 0D, 1D, and 2D TEs of HfIr3B4 are equally distributed in different energy ranges relative to the Fermi level, an approach is proposed to utilize individual TEs to build on-demand devices.

3.
Adipocyte ; 9(1): 108-115, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125221

RESUMO

Background: Breast reconstruction with fat grafting has an unstable retention rate due to insufficient revascularization. Tissue Engineering Chamber (TEC) model can promote tissue regeneration in the chamber by introducing ligated vessels around the tissue. We introduced ligated vessels with free fat graft to investigate the retention rate and revascularization of grafted fat that in TEC model.Methods: SD rats (n=24) was divided into 3 groups randomly. Group A: Standard TEC model was constructed; Group B: the epigastric vessel bundles were dissected from the fat flap and ligated, fat flap was cut into granules and planted into the chamber; Group C: Free fat was planted in the chamber. At week 6, samples in the chamber were harvested.Results: Significant volume increase was observed in group A and B, while the volume decreased in group C (P<0.05). Regeneration morphology could be found according to the histological observation in A and B. Micro CT results showed the ligated vessels into grafted fat sprouting robustly, coordinated with volume changes.Conclusion: Fat grafts in TEC model could not only survive but also regenerate. The combination of fat graft and TEC could fabricate a vascularized fat flap, which was a promising method in breast reconstruction.Abbreviations: VOI: Volumes of Interest; TEC: Tissue Engineering Chamber; CAL: Cell Assisted Lipotransfer.

4.
Inorg Chem ; 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159947

RESUMO

IR nonlinear-optical (NLO) crystal is the important device in IR laser technology. Nevertheless, the application of most IR NLO crystals in high-power lasers is always limited by the low laser damage threshold (LDT), which is mainly caused by the narrow optical band gap (Eg). Here, the physical properties of the Rb21.89W32.66O108 (RWO) crystal with a longer absorption cutoff edge and a wide Eg were systematically studied for the first time. A preliminary measurement of the LDT was performed, and the result shows that RWO has a high powder LDT of about 42 times that of AgGaS2. In order to better understand the relationship between the structure and properties, the dipole moments of WO6 octahedra were accurately calculated and analyzed. Meanwhile, it was indicated that RWO exhibits an ideal frequency doubling strength with the type I phase matching. Finally, it was revealed that RWO has great application value as an IR NLO crystal.

5.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230320, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187220

RESUMO

In this study, two parasites on the fins of Homatula variegata were recorded from March to September 2016. A dissection mirror was used to examine the distribution and quantity of the ectoparasitic Gyrodactylus sp. and Paragyrodactylus variegatus on the host Homatula variegata in different seasons. The present study explored possible explanations for the site specificity of gyrodactylid parasites in 442 Homatula variegata infected with 4307 Gyrodactylus sp. (species identification is incomplete, only characterized to the genus level) and 1712 Paragyrodactylus variegatus. These two gyrodactylid parasites were collected from fish fins, and the fish were harvested in China's Qinling Mountains.The results indicated that the highest number of Gyrodactylus sp., which was numerically the dominant species, appeared on the fish fins in April, while the highest number of Paragyrodactylus variegatus was found on the fish fins in March. The two parasite species appeared to be partitioned spatially, with Gyrodactylus sp. occurring more frequently on pectoral and pelvic fins, and P. variegatus occurring more frequently on caudal fins. However, Gyrodactylus sp. appeared to occur on fish of all lengths, while P. variegatus tended to occur more abundantly on shorter fish rather than on longer fish. At lower Gyrodactylus sp. infection levels (<100), the pelvic and pectoral fins were the main locations of attachment, followed by the dorsal fin. For infections of more than 100 parasites, more samples of Gyrodactylus sp. were located on the pectoral fin. For a low number of Paragyrodactylus variegatus infections (<100), the pelvic and pectoral fins were the preferred locations of attachment, followed by the caudal fin. Between April and September, there were many monogenean parasites on fish fins, and the fish size was within the range of 5-10 cm. However, when a fish was longer than 10 cm long, the number of parasites on its fins greatly decreased.

6.
Eur J Radiol ; 126: 108935, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171913

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance defecography (MRD) was used to evaluate anatomic and functional pelvic floor disorders in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) before and after midurethral sling (MUS) intervention. METHOD: We performed MRD in both SUI patients and continent controls. Static MR was used to describe the anatomic abnormalities in levator ani muscle and periurethral ligaments (PUL). Dynamic MR was used to depict the function of the urethra and pelvic floor. We compared the MRD parameters between the SUI patients and continent controls before surgery. For SUI patients, dynamic MR images evaluated the functional changes of the urethra and pelvic floor after surgery. RESULTS: In SUI group, 75.8 % have PUL defects, 65.7 % discontinuity or complete loss of pubococcygeal muscle, as compared to the continent groups (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference between the perimenopausal volunteers and SUI patients in the puborectalis defection (p > 0.05). The dynamic MR showed the urethral hypermobility, functional urethra shortening, bladder neck funneling, urethra opening and cystocele were significantly associated with SUI patients (p < 0.01). Postoperative MR indicated that SUI patients after MUS had a lower risk of bladder funneling and urethral opening at the defection phase (p < 0.01), but no significant difference in urethral hypermobility or pelvic floor prolapse was seen (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: MRD with high-resolution and defecation phases provides a detailed anatomic and functional evaluation of the pelvic floor in female SUI before and after pelvic reconstruction.

7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 126: 110080, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203889

RESUMO

In recent years, autophagy has become a research hotspot in the field of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD) due to its ambiguous roles in pancreatic tumor progression. Hence, it is necessary to assess its clinical significance in a larger cohort of patients with PAAD. Here, we identified autophagy-related genes with prognostic value in PAAD and constructed a risk model based on these genes. We found that patients in high-risk group were significantly associated with poor prognosis. Genome mutation analysis suggested that KRAS and TP53 mutations were significantly higher in high-risk groups. In addition, functional enrichment analysis showed that high-risk groups were associated with immune cell infiltration and tumor-associated signaling pathways. We further performed CIBERSORT analysis and observed increased macrophage infiltration in high-risk group, but decreased B and T cell counts compared to that in low-risk group. Gene set enrichment analysis indicated that the Hippo pathway was enriched in the high-risk group. Further, using weighted gene co-expression network analysis, Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) was identified as a critical hub gene. Interestingly, we found that the autophagy status and YAP1 expression status could influence each other, thus creating a positive feedback loop. In conclusion, in this study, we highlighted the clinical significance of autophagy in pancreatic cancer, constructed an autophagy-related prognostic predictive system, and identified a promising target for autophagy regulation in pancreatic cancer.

8.
Ecol Appl ; : e02113, 2020 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112460

RESUMO

In temperate grassland ecosystems, grazing can affect plant growth by foraging, trampling, and excretion. The ability of dominant plant species to regrow after grazing is critical, since it allows the regeneration of photosynthetic tissues to support growth. We conducted a field experiment to evaluate the effects of different grazing intensities (control, light, medium, and heavy) on the physiological and biochemical responses of Leymus chinensis and the carbon (C) sources utilized during regrowth. Light grazing promoted regrowth and photoassimilate storage of L. chinensis, by increasing the net photosynthetic rate (Pn ), photosynthetic quenching, light interception, sugar accumulation, sucrose synthase activities, and fructose supply from stems. At medium grazing intensity, L. chinensis had low Pn , light interception, and sugar accumulation, but higher expression of a sucrose transporter gene (LcSUT1) and water-use efficiency, which reflected a tendency to store C in belowground to promote survival. This strategy was associated with regulation by abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonate, and salicylic acid (SA) signaling. However, L. chinensis tolerated heavy grazing by increased ABA and jasmonate-induced promotion of C assimilation and osmotic adjustment, combined with photoprotection against photo-oxidation, suggesting a strategy based on regrowth. In addition, stems were the main C source organs and energy supply rather than roots. Simultaneously, SA represented a weaker defense than ABA and jasmonate. Therefore, L. chinensis adopted different strategies for regrowth under different grazing intensities, and light grazing promoted regrowth the most. Our results demonstrate the regulation of C reserves utilization by phytohormones, and this regulation provides an explanation for recent results about grazing responses.

9.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106109

RESUMO

Salt inducible kinases (SIKs) are key regulators of cellular metabolism and growth, but their role in cardiomyocyte plasticity and heart failure pathogenesis remains unknown. Here, we showed that loss of SIK1 kinase activity protected against adverse cardiac remodeling and heart failure pathogenesis in rodent models and human iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes. We found that SIK1 phosphorylated and stabilized histone deacetylase 7 (HDAC7) protein during cardiac stress, an event that is required for pathologic cardiomyocyte remodeling. Gain- and loss-of-function studies of HDAC7 in cultured cardiomyocytes implicated HDAC7 as a pro-hypertrophic signaling effector that can induce c-Myc expression, indicating a functional departure from the canonical MEF2 co-repressor function of class IIa HDACs. Taken together, our findings reveal what we believe to be a previously unrecognized role for a SIK1-HDAC7 axis in regulating cardiac stress responses and implicate this pathway as a potential target in human heart failure.

10.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045092

RESUMO

In the ageing skeleton, the balance of bone reconstruction could commonly be broken by the increasing of bone resorption and decreasing of bone formation. Consequently, the bone resorption gradually occupies a dominant status. During this imbalance process, osteoclast is unique cell linage act the bone resorptive biological activity, which is a highly differentiated ultimate cell derived from monocyte/macrophage. The erosive function of osteoclasts is that they have to adhere the bone matrix and migrate along it, in which adhesive cytoskeleton recombination of osteoclast is essential. In that, the podosome is a membrane binding microdomain organelle, based on dynamic actin, which forms a cytoskeleton superstructure connected with the plasma membrane. Otherwise, as the main adhesive protein, integrin regulates the formation of podosome and cytoskeleton, which collaborates with the various molecules including: c-Cbl, p130Cas , c-Src and Pyk2, through several signalling cascades cross talking, including: M-CSF and RANKL. In our current study, we discuss the role of integrin and associated molecules in osteoclastogenesis cytoskeletal, especially podosomes, regulation and relevant signalling cascades cross talking.

12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 685, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959790

RESUMO

Repeated cycles of post-remission high-dose cytarabine (Ara-C) have been suggested to improve survival in core binding factor (CBF) acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). High-dose Ara-C used for induction regimens has also been reported to be associated with increased treatment-related mortality (TRM). Few data are available about intermediate-dose Ara-C serving as induction therapy. The aim of our study was to compare the tolerance and outcomes of standard- and intermediate-dose levels of Ara-C as induction in CBF AML and to analyse the clinical heterogeneity of the two AML entities under these induction settings. We retrospectively investigated the outcomes in adults with CBF AML induced with regimens based on standard-dose Ara-C at 100 to 200 mg/m2 or intermediate-dose Ara-C at 1,000 mg/m2. In total, 152 patients with t(8; 21) and 54 patients with inv(16) AML were administered an induction regimen containing anthracyclines plus either standard- or intermediate-dose Ara-C. After a single course of induction, the complete remission (CR) rate in the inv(16) cohort was 52/52 (100%), higher than the 127/147 (86.4%) in the t(8; 21) cohort (P = 0.005). Intermediate-dose Ara-C (HR = 9.931 [2.135-46.188], P = 0.003) and negative KITmut (HR = 0.304 [0.106-0.874], P = 0.027) independently produced an increased CR rate in the t(8; 21) cohort. Positive CD19 expression (HR = 0.133 [0.045-0.387], P = 0.000) and sex (male) (HR = 0.238 [0.085-0.667], P = 0.006) were associated with superior leukaemia-free survival (LFS) in the t(8; 21) cohort independently of KITmut status or the induction regimen. We conclude that intermediate-dose Ara-C is superior to standard-dose Ara-C for induction of remission in t(8; 21) AML, and CD19 status and sex independently confer prognostic significance for LFS. The KITmut status alone does not have an independent effect on survival in t(8; 21) AML. More intensive induction therapy is unnecessary in inv(16) AML.

13.
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(2): 522-526, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977700

RESUMO

This preliminary study aims to investigate the effects of a maximal implant retention procedure. The authors retrospectively reviewed the use of negative pressure wound therapy with chymotrypsin irrigation treating implant infection/exposure in titanium mesh cranioplasty by comparing patients with titanium mesh totally retained, partially removed, or totally removed according to the evaluation during the surgery. Negative pressure wound therapy with chymotrypsin irrigation was applied 5 days after the surgery. The negative pressure was set at -125 to -150 mmHg. A total of 21 patients were included, 4 patients treated with titanium mesh totally removed; 3 patients treated with titanium mesh partially removed; and 14 patients treated with U-shape debridement with titanium mesh preserved completely. However, 1 patient in the U-shape group required a second debridement to remove all implant. Negative pressure wound therapy with chymotrypsin irrigation is a novel procedure and could be used to treat implant-related infection without the exchange of implant.

14.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(5): 1914-1918, 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710145

RESUMO

How 2D Ti3 C2 enhances photocatalytic efficiency remains unclear. Now, it is shown that it is graphene quantum dots (GQDs) derived from Ti3 C2 , rather than 2D Ti3 C2 itself, that play the role of co-catalyst for La2 Ti2 O7 /Ti3 C2 (LTC) composites during the photocatalytic reaction. After modification of Ti3 C2 derivatives, the photocatalytic efficiency of La2 Ti2 O7 is enhanced 16 times over pure La2 Ti2 O7 . Solid-state NMR, Raman, and HRTEM results confirm the existence of GQDs in Ti3 C2 and LTC composites. The GQDs are formed during the chemical change from Ti3 AlC2 to Ti3 C2 via HF etching, as Ti atoms are removed and unsaturated carbon bonds are left, which react with each other to form sp2 π-conjugation GQDs. 2D Ti3 C2 is completely oxidized to COx modified TiOx species, causing Ti3 C2 to lose its electrical conductivity and the role as co-catalyst. GQDs largely suppress the photogenerated charge recombination of La2 Ti2 O7 , as revealed by the photoluminescence (PL) and transient photocurrent.

15.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 38(1): 28-37, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710389

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide, and outstanding biomarkers for therapeutic targets or predicting GC survival are still lacking. Increasing evidence indicated that nucleolar and spindle associated protein 1 (NUSAP1) involved in regulating the progression of various cancers; however, its specific role in GC remained unclear. In this study, we found that NUSAP1 was upregulated in the GC tissues and cell lines via analysing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), gene expression omnibus (GEO), qRT-PCR, and western blot assays. Patients with high NUSAP1 expression levels showed shorter free-progression survival (FPS), larger tumour size, and higher lymphatic metastasis rate compared with those with low NUSAP1 expression. Further functional experiments revealed knockdown of NUSAP1 could inhibit the growth, migration, and invasion of GC cells in vitro and vivo. Additionally, silencing NUSAP1 induced G0/G1 phase arrest, apoptosis, and suppressed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. Finally, we performed gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and observed NUSAP1 was positive with mTORC1 signalling pathway, which was verified by the subsequent immunoblotting. In conclusion, our findings suggested that NUSAP1 contributed to GC progression and may act as a potential therapeutic target for GC. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: Our results firstly illuminated that NUSAP1 expression was significantly upregulated in GC tissues and predicted poor FPS. Silencing it could attenuate GC progression via inhibiting mTORC1 signalling pathway. Hence, NUSAP1 may act as a promising therapy target for GC.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 710: 135512, 2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785897

RESUMO

The excessive use of acetochlor (ACT), a commonly used herbicide with latent endocrine disrupting functions, causes surface water pollution. The efficient removal of ACT from contaminated water supplies is of paramount importance. In the current work, 3,5-Bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl isocyanate (BTP) was successfully anchored onto Cr-MIL-101 walls via covalent incorporation to afford Cr-MIL-101-BTP as a novel adsorbent for the high-efficiency removal of ACT in aqueous solutions. The kinetic adsorption process, adsorption isotherms, adsorbent regeneration, and key parameters, such as adsorbent dosage, pH value, and ionic strength, for the adsorption of ACT were studied. Results showed that a pseudo-second-order rate equation effectively describes the adsorption kinetics. The Langmuir model exhibited a better fit to adsorption isotherm than the Freundlich model. Given the π-π stacking and hydrogen bond interaction, the adsorption capacity in Cr-MIL-101-BTP approached a maximum of 312.5 mg/g for ACT, which was considerably higher than the adsorption capacities of many other reported adsorbents. The excellent adsorption characteristics of Cr-MIL-101-BTP toward ACT were preserved in a wide pH range and high concentration of background electrolytes. In addition, the result showed that partition coefficient (PC) of Cr-MIL-101-BTP was 356.14 mg/g/µM at 5 mg/L of ACT concentration, which was found as the outperformer in all tested subjects. The ACT adsorption capacity of Cr-MIL-101-BTP at the breakthrough point was greatly influenced by initial concentration, and could be described by the Thomas model. Regeneration experiments indicated that the Cr-MIL-101-BTP was recycled at least six times without significant loss of adsorption capacity. Moreover, Cr-MIL-101-BTP did not show cytotoxic activity against the tested HepG2 cell lines and did not pose serious risks to Daphnia carinata survival (48 h LC50 = 446.6 µg/mL). These results prefigured the promising potential of Cr-MIL-101-BTP as a novel adsorbent for the efficient removal of ACT from aqueous solutions.

17.
Cancer Sci ; 111(2): 383-394, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830330

RESUMO

Patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lack molecular targets and have an unfavorable outcome. CD155 is overexpressed in human cancers, but whether it plays a role in TNBC is unexplored. Here we found that CD155 was enriched in both TNBC cell lines and tumor tissues. High CD155 expression was related to poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. CD155 was associated with a mesenchymal phenotype. CD155 knockdown induced a mesenchymal-epithelial transition in TNBC cells, and suppressed TNBC cell migration, invasion and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, CD155 cross-talked with oncogenic IL-6/Stat3 and TGF-ß/Smad3 pathways. Moreover, CD155 knockdown inhibited TNBC cell growth and survival. Taken together, these data indicate that CD155 contributes to the aggressive behavior of TNBC; targeting CD155 may be beneficial to these patients.


Assuntos
Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Regulação para Cima , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Metástase Neoplásica , Transplante de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Receptores Virais/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo
18.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 32(3): 035402, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557731

RESUMO

Recent experiments have demonstrated the existence of vortex or flux-closure domains in ferroelectric nanostructures, which are attractive to develop high-density data storage and novel configurable electronic devices. However, it remains challenging to stabilize in-plane vortex or flux-closure domains in ferroelectric film for the absence of a lateral geometry confinement. Based on a 3D phase field model, here we show that stabilization of isolated or interacting in-plane vortices in ferroelectric film can be achieved via applying a mechanical tip-force. The formation of such dipole vortices is caused by a conjoint effect of the tip-force-induced depolarization effect and in-plane strain. The effects of factors like film thickness, misfit strain, tip force and temperature on the vortex formation are systematically revealed and summarized as phase diagrams. The interaction between tip-induced vortices is also investigated. It is found that as the two tips get closer than the critical distance, the two initially isolated vortices become coupled, with identical or opposite chirality, depending on the distance between the two tips. A maximum data storage density of isolated in-plane vortices in ferroelectric thin film is estimated to be ~1 Tb in-2. Our work thus demonstrates a mechanical strategy to stabilize dipole vortices, and provides a comprehensive insight into the characteristics of ferroelectric film under a mechanical tip force.

19.
Brain Behav Immun ; 83: 226-238, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626970

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated that the dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) inhibitor, NGB2904, increases susceptibility to depressive-like symptoms, elevates pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, and alters brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in mesolimbic dopaminergic regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and ventral tegmental area (VTA) in mice. The mechanisms by which D3R inhibition affects neuroinflammation and onset of depression remain unclear. Here, using D3R-knockout (D3RKO) and congenic wild-type C56BL/6 (WT) mice, we demonstrated that D3RKO mice displayed depressive-like behaviors, increased tumornecrosisfactor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and IL-6 levels, and altered BDNF expression in selected mesolimbic dopaminergic regions. D3R expression was localized to astrocytes or microglia in the mPFC, NAc, and VTA in WT mice. D3RKO mice exhibited a large number of Iba1-labelled microglia in the absence of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-labelled astrocytes in mesolimbic dopaminergic brain areas. Inhibition or ablation of microglia by minocycline (25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg) or PLX3397 (40 mg/kg) treatment ameliorated depressive-like symptoms, alterations in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, and BDNF expression in the indicated brain regions in D3RKO mice. Minocycline therapy alleviated the increase in synaptic density in the NAc in D3RKO mice. These findings suggest that microglial activation in selected mesolimbic reward regions affects depressive-like behaviors induced by D3R deficiency.

20.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(1): 384-394, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beta-aminobutyric acid (BABA) confer plant resistance to a broad spectrum of biotic and abiotic stresses. The soybean aphid (SBA), is native to eastern Asia and is a predominant insect pest of soybean. Both isoflavone and lignin pathway are important branches of the general phenylpropanoid pathway, which would be likely associated with resistance against soybean aphid. However, little is known about the role of the phenylpropanoid pathway in defense response to SBA as induced by BABA application. RESULTS: The application of BABA effectively enhanced soybean resistance against Aphis glycines, the soybean aphid. Consistent with significantly increased content of isoflavones, especially genistein, the related biosynthetic genes were upregulated by use of BABA. Lignin, another important defense component against arthropods, accumulated at a high level and four lignin biosynthesis related genes were also activated. Additionally, BABA application augmented the expression of callose synthase genes and increased callose deposition in SBA-infested seedlings. In non-caged and caged tests, SBA numbers were significantly reduced in BABA-treated seedlings. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that application of BABA has an obvious positive effect on soybean resistance to aphids, and this defense response partly depends on the potentiation of isoflavone biosynthesis and callose deposition. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Soja , Aminobutiratos , Animais , Extremo Oriente , Glucanos
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