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J Oleo Sci ; 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404547


This study investigated the effect of papain on the demulsification of peanut oil body emulsion extracted using an aqueous enzymatic method and the associated mechanism. The highest free oil yield using papain (92.39%) was obtained under the following conditions: an enzymatic hydrolysis temperature of 55℃, sample-to-water ratio of 1:3, enzyme concentration of 1400 U/g, and an enzymatic hydrolysis time of 3 h. Papain degraded the peanut oil body protein to small-molecular-weight peptides (≤ 14.4 kDa). Compared to the emulsion before enzymatic hydrolysis, the amino acid content in the aqueous phase was higher after enzymatic hydrolysis, the viscosity of the oil body emulsion was lower, and the particle diameter of the emulsion was significantly larger. The following demulsification mechanism was derived. Papain degrades the protein on the peanut oil body and dissolves it in water. The outer side of the oil body loses the protection of electrostatic repulsion and steric hindrance provided by the membrane protein. This causes the viscosity of the emulsion system and the molecular steric hindrance to decrease. As a result, the oil droplets gather and eventually demulsify. The results of this study provide the theoretical basis for the instability in oil body emulsions and are expected to promote the application of enzymatic demulsification in industry.

J Neural Eng ; 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299074


Objective. Avoidance of the adverse electrochemical reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface defines the voltage safety window and limits the charge injection capacity (CIC) of an electrode material. For an electrode that is not ideally capacitive, the CIC depends on the waveform of the stimulus. We study the modeling of the charge injection dynamics to optimize the waveforms for efficient neural stimulation within the electrochemical safety limits.Approach. The charge injection dynamics at the electrode-electrolyte interface is typically characterized by the electrochemical impedance spectrum, and is often approximated by discrete-element circuit models. We compare the modeling of the complete circuit, including a non-linear driver such as a photodiode, based on the harmonic-balance (HB) analysis with the analysis based on various discrete element approximations. To validate the modeling results, we performed experiments with iridium-oxide electrodes driven by a current source with diodes in parallel, which mimics a photovoltaic circuit.Main results. Application of HB analysis based on a full impedance spectrum eliminates the complication of finding the discrete-element circuit model in traditional approaches. HB-based results agree with the experimental data better than the discrete-element circuit. HB technique can be applied not only to demonstrate the circuit response to periodic stimulation, but also to describe the initial transient behavior when a burst waveform is applied.Significance. HB-based circuit analysis accurately describes the dynamics of electrode-electrolyte interfaces and driving circuits for all pulsing schemes. This allows optimizing the stimulus waveform to maximize the CIC, based on the impedance spectrum alone.

Br J Radiol ; 92(1102): 20190255, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430186


OBJECTIVE: To develop a big data intelligence platform for secondary use of electronic health records (EHRs) data to facilitate research for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC). METHODS: This project was launched in 2015 and carried out by the cooperation of an academic cancer centre and a technology company. Patients diagnosed with NPC at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Centre since January 2008 were included in the platform. Standard data elements were established to defined 981 variables for the platform. For each patient, data from 13 EHRs systems were extracted, integrated, structurized and normalized. Eight functional modules were constructed for the platform to facilitate the investigators to identify eligible patients, establish research projects, conduct statistical analysis, track the follow-up, search literature, etc. RESULTS: From January 2008 to December 2018, 54,703 patients diagnosed with NPC were included. Of these patients, 39,058 (71.4%) were male, and 15,645 (28.6%) were female; median age was 47 (interquartile range, 39-55) years. Of 981 variables, 341 were obtained from data structurization and normalization, of which 68 were generated by interacting multiple data sources via well-defined logical rules. The average precision rate, recall rate and F-measure for 341 variables were 0.97 ± 0.024, 0.92 ± 0.030, and 0.94 ± 0.027 respectively. The platform is regularly updated every seven days to include new patients and add new data for existing patients. Up to now, eight big data-driven retrospective studies have been published from the platform. CONCLUSION: Our big data intelligence platform demonstrates the feasibility of integrating EHRs data of routine healthcare, and offers an important perspective on real-world study of NPC. The continued efforts may be focus on data sharing among multiple hospitals and publicly releasing of data files. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: Our big data intelligence platform is the first disease-specific data platform for NPC research. It incorporates comprehensive EHRs data from routine healthcare, which can facilitate real-world study of NPC in risk stratification, decision-making and comorbidities management.

Big Data , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Pesquisa Biomédica , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Endêmicas , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(8): 1002-1011, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30833805


BACKGROUND: A clinical pathway (CP) is a standardized approach for disease management. However, big data-based evidence is rarely involved in CP for related common bile duct (CBD) stones, let alone outcome comparisons before and after CP implementation. AIM: To investigate the value of CP implementation in patients with CBD stones undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted at Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital in patients with CBD stones undergoing ERCP from January 2007 to December 2017. The data and outcomes were compared by using univariate and multivariable regression/linear models between the patients who received conventional care (non-pathway group, n = 467) and CP care (pathway group, n = 2196). RESULTS: At baseline, the main differences observed between the two groups were the percentage of patients with multiple stones (P < 0.001) and incidence of cholangitis complication (P < 0.05). The percentage of antibiotic use and complications in the CP group were significantly less than those in the non-pathway group [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55-0.93, P = 0.012, adjusted OR = 0.44, 95%CI: 0.33-0.59, P < 0.001, respectively]. Patients spent lower costs on hospitalization, operation, nursing, medication, and medical consumable materials (P < 0.001 for all), and even experienced shorter length of hospital stay (LOHS) (P < 0.001) after the CP implementation. No significant differences in clinical outcomes, readmission rate, or secondary surgery rate were presented between the patients in the non-pathway and CP groups. CONCLUSION: Implementing a CP for patients with CBD stones is a safe mode to reduce the LOHS, hospital costs, antibiotic use, and complication rate.

Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/estatística & dados numéricos , Coledocolitíase/cirurgia , Procedimentos Clínicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Dados , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Big Data , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/economia , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/métodos , Coledocolitíase/economia , Ducto Colédoco/cirurgia , Procedimentos Clínicos/economia , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Preços Hospitalares/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/economia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
Appl Plant Sci ; 6(12): e01206, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598864


Premise of the Study: Maca (Lepidium meyenii; Brassicaceae) has been cultivated by Andeans for thousands of years as a food source and has been used for medicinal purposes. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying material accumulation during plant growth. Methods: RNA-Seq technology was used to compare the transcriptome of black maca root at three developmental stages. Gene Ontology term enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were applied for the identification of pathways in which differentially expressed genes were significantly enriched. Results: Trinity was used to de novo assemble the reads, and 120,664 unigenes were assembled. Of these, 71.53% of the unigenes were annotated based on BLAST. A total of 18,321 differentially expressed genes were observed. Gene Ontology term enrichment analysis found that the most highly represented pathway among the differentially expressed genes was for genes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism. We also found that genes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis, such as glucosinolate biosynthesis, were significantly enriched. Discussion: The genes that were differentially expressed between developmental time points likely reflect both developmental pathways and responses to changes in the environment. As such, the transcriptome data in this study serve as a reference for subsequent mining of genes that are involved in the synthesis of important bioactive components in maca.