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1.
BMC Proc ; 12(Suppl 9): 28, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30275882

RESUMO

Epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) have traditionally focused on the association test of single epigenetic markers with complex traits. However, it is possible that multiple cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites at the same locus could jointly exert their effects on human traits. Therefore, a region-based test that combines multiple markers could be more powerful. We used 2 different region-based tests to investigate the association between changes in DNA methylation and drug response, including the median methylation level test (MMLT) and sequence kernel association test (SKAT). No genes were found to be significantly associated with the drug response (for triglycerides, the false discovery rate ranged from 0.855 to 0.999; for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the false discovery rate ranged from 0.584 to 0.915). Further evidence is needed to explore potential application of gene-level methylation association analysis.

2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2018 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307499

RESUMO

E-selectin mediates the rolling of circulating leukocytes during inflammatory processes. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in European and Asian individuals have identified the ABO locus associated with E-selectin levels. Using Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data in 2,249 African Americans (AAs) from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS), we examined genome-wide associations with soluble E-selectin levels. In addition to replicating known signals at ABO, we identified a novel association of a common loss-of-function, missense variant in FUT6 (rs17855739,p.Glu274Lys, p=9.02 x 10-24) with higher soluble E-selectin levels. This variant is considerably more common in populations of African-ancestry compared to non-African ancestry populations. We replicated the association of FUT6 p.Glu274Lys with higher soluble E-selectin in an independent population of 748 AAs from the Women's Health Initiative and identified an additional pleiotropic association with vitamin B12 levels. Despite the broad role of both selectins and fucosyltransferases in various inflammatory, immune and cancer-related processes, we were unable to identify any additional disease associations of the FUT6 p.Glu274Lys variant in an EMR-based phenome-wide association scan of over 9,000 African Americans.

3.
BMC Proc ; 12(Suppl 9): 55, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30263053

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies often collect multiple phenotypes for complex diseases. Multivariate joint analyses have higher power to detect genetic variants compared with the marginal analysis of each phenotype and are also able to identify loci with pleiotropic effects. We extend the unified score-based association test to incorporate family structure, apply different approaches to analyze multiple traits in GAW20 real samples, and compare the results. Through simulation studies, we confirm that the Type I error rate of the pedigree-based unified score association test is appropriately controlled. In marginalanalysis of triglyceride levels, we found 1 subgenome-wide significant variant on chromosome 6. Joint analyses identified several suggestive genome-wide significant signals, with the pedigree-based unified score association test yielding the greatest number of significant results.

4.
Environ Health Perspect ; 126(6): 067005, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29906262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aging is related to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality and is affected by environmental factors. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is associated with adverse health outcomes; but the association of such exposure with DNA methylation aging, a novel aging marker, is unclear. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to investigate the association of PAH exposure with methylation aging. METHODS: We trained and validated a methylation age predictor suitable for Chinese populations using whole blood methylation data in 989 Chinese and 160 Caucasians. We defined two aging indicators: δage, as methylation age minus chronological age; and aging rate, the ratio of methylation to chronological age. The association of PAH exposure with aging indicators was evaluated using linear regressions in three panels of healthy Chinese participants (N=539, among the aforementioned 989 Chinese participants) whose exposure levels were assessed by 10 urinary monohydroxy-PAH metabolites. RESULTS: We developed a methylation age predictor providing accurate predictions in both Chinese individuals and Caucasian persons (R=0.94-0.96, RMSE=3.8-4.3). Among the 10 urinary metabolites that we measured, 1-hydroxypyrene and 9-hydroxyphenanthrene were associated with methylation aging independently of other OH-PAHs and risk factors; 1-unit increase in 1-hydroxypyrene was associated with a 0.53-y increase in Δage [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18, 0.88; false discovery rate (FDR) FDR=0.004] and 1.17% increase in aging rate (95% CI: 0.36, 1.98; FDR=0.02), whereas for 9-hydroxyphenanthrene, the increase was 0.54-y for Δage (95% CI: 0.17, 0.91; FDR=0.004), and 1.15% for aging rate (95% CI: 0.31, 1.99; FDR=0.02). The association direction was consistent across the three Chinese panels with the association magnitude correlating with the panels' exposure levels; the association was validated by methylation data of purified leukocytes. Several cytosine-phosphoguanines, including those located on FHL2 and ELOVL2, were found associated with both aging indicators and monohydroxy-PAH levels. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a methylation age predictor specific for Chinese populations but also accurate for Caucasian populations. Our findings suggest that exposure to PAHs may be associated with an adverse impact on human aging and epigenetic alterations in Chinese populations. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2773.

5.
BMJ ; 361: k1453, 2018 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29699974

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between risk factor burdens-categorized as optimal, borderline, or elevated-and the lifetime risk of atrial fibrillation. DESIGN: Community based cohort study. SETTING: Longitudinal data from the Framingham Heart Study. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals free of atrial fibrillation at index ages 55, 65, and 75 years were assessed. Smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, blood pressure, diabetes, and history of heart failure or myocardial infarction were assessed as being optimal (that is, all risk factors were optimal), borderline (presence of borderline risk factors and absence of any elevated risk factor), or elevated (presence of at least one elevated risk factor) at index age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Lifetime risk of atrial fibrillation at index age up to 95 years, accounting for the competing risk of death. RESULTS: At index age 55 years, the study sample comprised 5338 participants (2531 (47.4%) men). In this group, 247 (4.6%) had an optimal risk profile, 1415 (26.5%) had a borderline risk profile, and 3676 (68.9%) an elevated risk profile. The prevalence of elevated risk factors increased gradually when the index ages rose. For index age of 55 years, the lifetime risk of atrial fibrillation was 37.0% (95% confidence interval 34.3% to 39.6%). The lifetime risk of atrial fibrillation was 23.4% (12.8% to 34.5%) with an optimal risk profile, 33.4% (27.9% to 38.9%) with a borderline risk profile, and 38.4% (35.5% to 41.4%) with an elevated risk profile. Overall, participants with at least one elevated risk factor were associated with at least 37.8% lifetime risk of atrial fibrillation. The gradient in lifetime risk across risk factor burden was similar at index ages 65 and 75 years. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of index ages at 55, 65, or 75 years, an optimal risk factor profile was associated with a lifetime risk of atrial fibrillation of about one in five; this risk rose to more than one in three a third in individuals with at least one elevated risk factor.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Estilo de Vida , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
6.
Circulation ; 137(10): 1027-1038, 2018 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29129827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term probability of developing atrial fibrillation (AF) considering genetic predisposition and clinical risk factor burden is unknown. METHODS: We estimated the lifetime risk of AF in individuals from the community-based Framingham Heart Study. Polygenic risk for AF was derived using a score of ≈1000 AF-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Clinical risk factor burden was calculated for each individual using a validated risk score for incident AF comprised of height, weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, current smoking status, antihypertensive medication use, diabetes mellitus, history of myocardial infarction, and history of heart failure. We estimated the lifetime risk of AF within tertiles of polygenic and clinical risk. RESULTS: Among 4606 participants without AF at 55 years of age, 580 developed incident AF (median follow-up, 9.4 years; 25th-75th percentile, 4.4-14.3 years). The lifetime risk of AF >55 years of age was 37.1% and was substantially influenced by both polygenic and clinical risk factor burden. Among individuals free of AF at 55 years of age, those in low-polygenic and clinical risk tertiles had a lifetime risk of AF of 22.3% (95% confidence interval, 15.4-9.1), whereas those in high-risk tertiles had a risk of 48.2% (95% confidence interval, 41.3-55.1). A lower clinical risk factor burden was associated with later AF onset after adjusting for genetic predisposition (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In our community-based cohort, the lifetime risk of AF was 37%. Estimation of polygenic AF risk is feasible and together with clinical risk factor burden explains a substantial gradient in long-term AF risk.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 6(11)2017 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29138179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advancing age is a prominent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF). Shorter telomere length is a biomarker of biological aging, but the link between shorter telomere length and increased risk of AF remains unclear. We examined the association between shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and incident AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included AF-free participants from the observational Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort from 1995 to 1998, who had LTL measurements. We examined the association between baseline LTL and incident AF with multivariable Cox models adjusted for age, sex, current smoking, height, weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, use of antihypertensive medication, diabetes mellitus, history of myocardial infarction, and history of heart failure. The study sample comprised 1143 AF-free participants (52.8% women), with mean age of 60±8 years. The mean LTL at baseline was 6.95±0.57 kb. During 15.1±4.2 years mean follow-up, 184 participants (64 women) developed AF. Chronological age was associated with increased risk of AF (hazard ratio per 10-year increase, 2.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.71-2.72). There was no significant association between LTL and incident AF (hazard ratio per 1 SD decrease LTL, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 0.86-1.19). Our study was observational in nature; hence, we could not exclude residual confounding and we were unable to establish causal pathways. CONCLUSIONS: In our moderate-sized community-based cohort, we did not find evidence for a significant association between LTL and risk of incident AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Leucócitos/fisiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Homeostase do Telômero/genética , Telômero/genética , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/metabolismo , Southern Blotting , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Telômero/metabolismo
8.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 24(3): 750-6, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26833823

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the gene-environment interaction of physical activity and body mass index (BMI) using the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR). METHODS: A total of 19,308 same-sex adult twins from CNTR were included in the analysis. Twin zygosity was determined by self-reported questionnaire. Height and weight were measured using self-reported questionnaire. The vigorous physical activity was defined as greater or equal to five times a week of at least 30 min moderate- or high-intensity physical activity. A twin structural equation model was used to analyze the gene-environment interaction of vigorous exercise with BMI among 13,506 monozygotic twins and 5,802 dizygotic twins. RESULTS: A structural equation model adjusting for age and sex found vigorous exercise significantly moderated the additive genetic effects (P < 0.001) and shared environmental effects (P < 0.001) on BMI. The genetic contributions to BMI were significantly lower for people who adopted a physically active lifestyle [h(2) = 40%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 35%-46%] than those who were relative sedentary (h(2) = 59%, 95% CI: 52%-66%). The observed gene-physical activity interaction was more pronounced in men than women. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that adopting a physically active lifestyle may help to reduce the genetic influence on BMI among the Chinese population.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal/genética , Doenças em Gêmeos/genética , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/genética , Sistema de Registros , Inquéritos e Questionários , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética
10.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0123992, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25927701

RESUMO

Previous studies have shown that both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and questionnaires-based method can be used for twin zygosity determination, but few validation studies have been conducted using Chinese populations. In the current study, we recruited 192 same sex Chinese adult twin pairs to evaluate the validity of using genetic markers-based method and questionnaire-based method in zygosity determination. We considered the relatedness analysis based on more than 0.6 million SNPs genotyping as the golden standards for zygosity determination. After quality control, qualified twins were left for relatedness analysis based on identical by descent calculation. Then those same sex twin pairs were included in the zygosity questionnaire validation analysis. Logistic regression model was applied to assess the discriminant ability of age, sex and the three questions in zygosity determination. Leave one out cross-validation was used as a measurement of internal validation. The results of zygosity determination based on 65 SNPs in 450k methylation array were all consistent with genotyping. Age, gender, questions of appearance confused by strangers and previously perceived zygosity consisted of the most predictable model with a consistency rate of 0.8698, cross validation predictive error of 0.1347. For twin studies with genotyping and\or 450k methylation array, there would be no need to conduct other zygosity testing for the sake of costs consideration.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Inquéritos e Questionários , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 18(2): 158-70, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25744168

RESUMO

The genetic contribution of blood pressure and heart rate (HR) varied widely between studies. Demographic factors such as ethnicity, age and/or sex might explain some of the heterogeneity. We performed a systematic review focusing on four phenotypes: systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), HR and pulse pressure (PP). Meta-regression was conducted to analyze potential factors in relation to SBP and DBP heritability. A total of 10,613 independent twins that came from 17 studies were included in the analysis. The weighted mean value of heritability for SBP and DBP was 0.54 (95% CIs: 0.48-0.60) and 0.49 (95% CIs: 0.42-0.56). Comparatively, three studies of HR and four studies of PP heritability were limited for the heterogeneity test. Meta-regression showed that, on average, SBP heritability with additive genes/unique environment (AE) model tend to have a higher heritability than additive genes/shared environment/unique environment (ACE) model (coefficient = 0.0947, p = .0142). A similar result was found for DBP as well. No other factors such as sex, age, ethnicity, publication year were significantly associated with heritability variance. Our study shows heritability estimates based on twin studies of both SBP and DBP are around 50%, using an AE rather than an ACE model; the variance due to C ended up in A, suggesting that the AE model may overestimate heritability if a small contribution of shared environment exists.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Frequência Cardíaca/genética , Gêmeos/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos em Gêmeos como Assunto
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