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1.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 44(1): 28-31, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412621

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the spectrum of pathogens causing lung fungal disease diagnosed by histopathology through histochemical special staining, compared to the fungal culture results, and to further evaluate the diagnostic value of histochemical special staining in pulmonary fungal disease. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 187 cases of pulmonary fungal disease diagnosed by histopathology in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2001 to 2015 (including 92 cases with pulmonary resection or open lung biopsy, 33 with percutaneous lung biopsy and 62 ones with fiberoptic bronchoscopic lung biopsy). All cases were treated with hexamine silver, PAS, mucus carmine and acid-fast staining in addition to conventional HE staining. The clinical records and the fungal culture results were reviewed. Results: There were 103 male and 84 female patients, aged from 12 to 70 years [average (48±14) years]. There were 85 cases(45.5%) of pulmonary aspergillosis(including 60 cases of invasive infection and 25 cases of aspergilloma), 51 cases(27.3%) of pulmonary cryptococosis, 6 cases (3.2%)of pulmonary mucormycosis, 3 cases(1.6%) of pulmonary histoplasmosis, 3 cases (1.6%)of pulmonary candidiasis, and 2 cases (1.1%) of pneumocystosis, while in the remaining 37 cases (19.8%) the pathogens could not be clearly classified by microscopy due to limited tissue or degeneration. Among the 88 patients with pulmonary fungal disease diagnosed by histopathology from 2011 to 2015, 35 ones (39.9%) were detected by fungal culture (including lung biopsy, intraoperative swab, blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and sputum, etc.). The diagnostic results of 18 cases were completely consistent between histopathological examination and fungal culture (18/35, 51.4%), while 13 cases (13/35, 37.1%) were diagnosed by histopathology but no fungi were cultured, and in 3 cases (3/35,8.6%) the culture was positive for fungi which could not be classified clearly by histopathology. In another case the pathogen was found to be Cryptococcus histopathologically but the lavage culture grew"candida", but the patient's blood cryptococcal antigen was positive. Conclusions: Among patients with histopathological diagnosis of pulmonary fungal disease, pulmonary aspergillosis was the most common, followed by pulmonary cryptococcosis, pulmonary mucormycosis, pulmonary histoplasmosis, pulmonary candidiasis and pneumocystosis. A small number of cases could not be classified by histopathology through histochemical special staining. There was a high consistency in discovering fungal pathogens between pathological histochemical special staining and culture method, but 37% pulmonary fungal disease diagnosed by histopathology were culture negative. In practice, the role of histochemical special staining in diagnosing pulmonary fungal disease should be paid more attention.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias Fúngicas/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Criança , Feminino , Histocitoquímica , Humanos , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Coloração e Rotulagem , Adulto Jovem
2.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(1): 7-10, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423444

RESUMO

In recent years, pulmonary hypertension (PH) has attracted increasing attention from scholars worldwide, which involves diverse etiology and complicated pathogenesis. Due to changes in the structure and function of pulmonary vasculatures, it can lead to an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary artery pressure, and then progress to right ventricular heart failure or even death. The diagnosis of PH involves multiple disciplines, which could easily give rise to missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis and non-standardized treatment. Recently, we have made great progress in the field of clinical diagnosis, treatment and research of PH. However, many issues remain to be solved. Accordingly, this article aims to call for further strengthening of multidisciplinary collaboration in PH field and promote the construction of a standardized system for PH in China.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hipertensão Pulmonar , Disfunção Ventricular Direita , China , Ventrículos do Coração , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Pulmonar/terapia
3.
Cancer Radiother ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446419

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify the valuable predictors of grade≥2 radiation pneumonitis (RP) in patient treated with radiotherapy after pneumonectomy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); and to construct a nomogram predicting the incidence of grade≥2 RP in such patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed 82 patients with NSCLC received radiotherapy after pneumonectomy from 2008 to 2018. The endpoint was grade≥2 RP. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis were conducted to evaluate significant factors of grade≥2 RP. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to establish optimal cutoff values and the nomogram was built to make the predictive model visualized. Descriptive analysis was performed on 5 patients with grade 3 RP. RESULTS: A total of 22(26.8%) patients developed grade 2 RP and 5(6.1%) patients were grade 3 RP. V5, V10, V20, V30, MLD, PTV, and PTV/TLV were associated with the occurrence of grade≥2 RP in univariate analysis, while none of the clinical factors was significant; V5(OR,1.213;95%CI,1.099-1.339; P<0.001) and V20(OR,1.435;95%CI,1.166-1.765; P=0.001) were the independent significant predictors by multivariate analysis and were included in the nomogram. The ROC analysis for the cutoff values for predicting grade≥2 RP were V5>23% (AUC=0.819, sensitivity:0.701, specificity:0.832) and V20>8% (AUC=0.812, sensitivity:0.683, specificity:0.811). Additionally, grade≥3 RP did not occur when V5<30%, V20<13% and MLD<751.2cGy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that V5 and V20 were independent predictors for grade≥2 RP in NSCLC patients receiving radiotherapy after pneumonectomy. Grade 3 RP did not occur whenV5<30%, V20<13% and MLD<751.2cGy, respectively. In addition, patient underwent right pneumonectomy may have a lower tolerance to radiation compared to left pneumonectomy.

4.
Public Health ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33451823

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Diabetes mellitus is the most common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD); however, the inter-relationships and pathogenetic mechanisms among risk factors are still largely unknown. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was applied to test a hypothesis of causal pathways related to CKD in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective observational study. METHODS: A total of 3395 patients with T2DM were enrolled in this study. A hypothesised SEM was applied to assess associations among demographic data, diabetic self-management behaviours, diabetes control, lifestyle, psycho-social, chronic inflammation factors, anthropometric and metabolic variables simultaneously and the risk of CKD. RESULTS: Demographic data (including education, marital status and mini-mental state examination score) (-0.075), white blood cell count (0.084), high blood pressure (0.144), World Health Organisation (WHO) 5 well-being index (-0.082), diabetes control (0.099), triglyceride (0.091) and uric acid (0.282) levels had direct effects on the risk of CKD. The final model could explain 26% of the variability in baseline CKD status. In addition, the same direct and specific indirect factors at baseline CKD status analysis contributed to the risk of CKD at the 12-month follow-up. The final model could explain 31% of the variability in the risk of CKD at the 12-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This study investigates associations between factors obtained from real-world daily practice and CKD status simultaneously and delineates the potential pathways and inter-relationships of the risk factors that contribute to the development of CKD in patients with T2DM.

5.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(2): 142-146, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455131

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the clinical value of ambulatory urodynamics monitoring (AUM) in the diagnosis and treatment of children with refractory monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (RMNE) by comparing the urodynamic parameters of AUM with those of conventional urodynamics (CUD). Methods: A total of 40 children (22 males and 18 females) diagnosed with RMNE in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from May 2017 to September 2019 were collected. They were aged 9-16 years, and their frequency of nocturnal bed-wetting was≥2 times per week. CUD and one sleep cycle AUM were performed, respectively. Then, the urodynamic parameters were recorded and analyzed. Results: Five of the 40 children dropped out of the study because of the poor compliance. The age of children with RMNE was(12.6±2.1)years old, the ratio of male to female was 19∶16, and the severity of enuresis (enuresis frequency) was(4.2±1.7) times per week. Compared to the CUD group, the bladder compliance (BC) [(28.4±7.7) ml/cmH2O vs (23.6±6.1) ml/cmH2O(1 cmH2O=0.098 kPa)] and maximum detrusor pressure (Pmax.det) [(44.6±9.1) cmH2O vs (36.8±8.3) cmH2O] in the AUM group were significantly higher (P<0.05). The maximum flow rate (Qmax) [(19.6±7.2) ml/s vs (20.9±5.4) ml/s] and post void residual (PVR) [(9.5±5.7) ml vs (10.9±5.3) ml] between the two groups showed no statistically significant differences (P>0.05). Detrusor overactivity (DO) was detected in 27 cases (77.1%) during AUM and in 16 cases (45.7%) during CUD; the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Among them, 15 cases (42.9%) with DO were detected both in CUD and AUM, while 12 (34.3%) with DO were not detected in CUD. For the 15 cases with DO detected by both CUD and AUM, the frequency [(3.1±1.0) times/h vs (2.4±0.8) times/h] and maximum value of DO [(22.9±4.5) cmH2O vs (19.2±4.0) cmH2O] in the AUM group were both higher than those in the CUD group (P<0.05). Conclusions: Bladder dysfunction can be diagnosed in children with RMNE using AUM. Furthermore, AUM is more accurate than CUD in evaluating BC, Pmax.det, DO, and other parameters. For children with RMNE and with unsatisfactory CUD results, further AUM examination is recommended to clarify the etiology.

6.
Cancer Radiother ; 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455874

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A meta-analysis aimed to systematically evaluate the safety and efficiency of I125 irradiation stent placement for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) combined with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Cochrane library, PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, CNKI, Wanfang Data and CQVIP were systematically screened out from the earliest to December 2019. The qualities of all included studies were assessed. The primary endpoints were the 6-month, 12-month stent cumulative patency rate and 6-month, 12-month, 24-month overall survival rate while the secondary endpoints were the objective response rate of PVTT, main portal venous pressure changes and treatment-related adverse events. Our meta-analysis was conducted using Stata 12.0 software. RESULTS: Totally seven studies with 1018 patients were included in the final analysis, in which 602 patients received TACE and I125 irradiation stent placement, and 416 patients in control group underwent TACE and stent placement without endovascular brachytherapy (EVBT). Meta-analysis showed that the I125 irradiation stent improved the cumulative stent patency rates in 6months [OR=1.65, 95% CI (1.32-2.05), P<0.001] and 12months [OR=2.55, 95% CI (1.90-3.42), P<0.001] and the survival rates in 6months [OR=1.77, 95% CI (1.41-2.22), P<0.001], 12months [OR=3.14, 95% CI (2.24-4.40), P<0.001] and 24months [OR=7.39, 95% CI (3.55-15.41), P<0.001]. However, there was no difference in the objective response rate of PVTT [OR=1.13, 95% CI (0.87-1.48), P=0.365], main portal venous pressure and the occurrence adverse event [OR=0.88, CI=0.72-1.08, P=0.212] between two groups. CONCLUSION: I125 irradiation stent seems to be more effective in treating hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombosis. The usage of portal vein stent combined endovascular brachytherapy has the potential to act as an alternative therapy for HCC with PVTT. On account of the limitation of studies included, more studies with high-level evidence, such as RCTs, are requisite to support the above promising results.

7.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 59(1): 20-26, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396999

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the efficacy of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in children with acute respiratory failure. Methods: A prospective study was conducted. A total of 153 patients aged from 1 to 14 years with acute respiratory failure were enrolled, who were admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of Shanghai Children's Hospital from January 2018 to December 2019. HFNC success was defined as no need for invasive mechanical ventilation and successfully withdrawn from HFNC, while HFNC failure was defined as need for invasive mechanical ventilation. HFNC at a flow rate of 2 L/(kg·min) (maximum ≤ 60 L/min) with inhaled oxygen concentration (FiO2) between 0.30 and 1.00 was applied to maintain percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) of 0.94-0.97. Parameters including arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), partial pressure of carbon dioxide in artery (PaCO2), SpO2 and PaO2/FiO2 were collected before and during the application of HFNC at 1 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h, as well as over 48 h after HFNC withdrawn. Comparison between the groups was performed by student t test, Mann-Whitney U test or chi-square test. The sensitivity and specificity of the above parameters in predicting HFNC success were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: A total of 153 children (70 males and 83 females) were enrolled. Among them, 131 (85.6%) cases were successfully weaned off from HFNC and 22 (14.4%) failed. The duration of HFNC was 57 (38, 95) hours in the successful group, and the PaO2/FiO2 before HFNC application and after HFNC was withdrawn were 187 (170, 212) mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) and 280 (262, 292) mmHg, respectively. The duration of HFNC in the failure group was 19 (9, 49) hours, and the PaO2/FiO2 before HFNC application and after HFNC withdrawn were 176 (171, 189) mmHg and 159 (156, 161) mmHg, respectively. The values of PaO2/FiO2 were significantly higher in the successful group than those in the failed group at using HFNC initially 1 h (196 (182, 211) vs. 174 (160, 178) mmHg, Z =-5.105, P<0.01), 6 h (213 (203, 220) vs. 168 (157, 170) mmHg, Z =-6.772, P<0.01), 12 h (226 (180, 261) vs. 165 (161, 170) mmHg, Z =-4.308, P<0.01), 24 h (229 (195, 259) vs. 165 (161, 170) mmHg, Z=-4.609, P<0.01) and 48 h (249 (216, 273) vs. 163 (158, 169) mmHg, Z =-4.628, P<0.01) after the HFNC application, and over 48 h after HFNC was withdrawn (277 (268, 283) vs. 157 (154, 158) mmHg, Z=-3.512, P<0.01). Moreover, the PaO2 levels were significantly higher in the successful group than those in the failed group using HFNC initially at 1 h (73.7 (71.0, 76.7) vs. 70.0 (66.2, 71.2) mmHg, Z=-4.587, P<0.01) and 6 h (79.0 (75.0, 82.0) vs. 71.0 (62.0, 72.0) mmHg, Z=-5.954, P<0.01) after HFNC application. Also, the SpO2 levels showed the same differences at 1 h (0.96 (0.95, 0.96) vs. 0.94 (0.92, 0.94), Z =-4.812, P<0.01) and 6 h (0.96 (0.95, 0.97) vs. 0.94(0.91, 0.95), Z=-5.024, P<0.01) after HFNC application. Forty eight hours after HFNC was withdrawn, the PaO2 (88.0 (81.7, 95.0) vs. 63.7 (63.3, 66.0) mmHg, Z =-3.032, P<0.01) and SpO2 (0.96 (0.94, 0.98) vs. 0.91 (0.90, 0.92), Z=-3.957, P<0.01) were also significantly higher in the successful group. Regarding the HFNC complications, there was one case with atelectasis and one with pneumothorax in the failure group. HFNC was used as sequential oxygen therapy after extubation in 79 children, successful in all. ROC curve showed that the area under curve of PaO2/FiO2 in predicting HFNC success was 0.990, and the optimal cut-off value was 232 mmHg with the 95%CI of 0.970-1.000 (P<0.01). Conclusions: HFNC could be used as a respiratory support strategy for children with mild to moderate respiratory failure and as a sequential oxygen therapy after extubation. The PaO2/FiO2 when HFNC withdrow is the optimal index to evaluate the success of HFNC application.

9.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 60(1): 29-34, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397018

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the distribution of uric acid in different occupation, age and gender groups, and changes of prevalence of hyperuricemia (HUA) and its influencing factors in healthy adults who receiving physical examination in Nanjing. Methods: The study was conducted in 107 478 subjects who received physical examination from 2012 to 2016. The prevalence of HUA in different genders and different years was compared. Subjects were divided into non-HUA and HUA groups according to serum uric acid. The differences in metabolic indicators and ages between two groups were analyzed. Uric acid levels among different occupations were evaluated. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) of HUA. Results: The total HUA prevalence was 14.9%, in which the prevalence of HUA in men was significantly higher than that in women [20.5%(15217/74339)vs. 2.5%(818/33139), P<0.01]. The prevalence of HUA in men sustained at a high level, while that in women trended to decrease during the five years. The prevalence of HUA increased with age in women (1.0%, 0.7%, 0.9%, 2.7%, 3.8% and 9.6% in subjects within 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and ≥70 age groups, respectively, P for trend<0.01). The percentages of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes, and body mass index (BMI) in both men and women were significantly higher in HUA group than those in non-HUA group (P≤0.01). Among all occupations, subjects in health care had the lowest levels of uric acid (298±91 µmol/L) and prevalence of HUA (10.4%), while, those in public security had the highest levels of uric acid [(342±82) µmol/L] and prevalence (16.5%). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that males, high triacylglycerol, high cholesterol, obesity and certain occupation were significantly associated with HUA. Conclusions: The prevalence of HUA in men is significantly higher than that in women. It increased with ages in women. Subjects in health occupations had the lowest levels of uric acid and HUA prevalence, while, those in public security had the highest levels among the six occupations. Obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, occupations and males are positively associated with HUA.

10.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 60(1): 60-63, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397025
11.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-22, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413702

RESUMO

To investigate the influences of dietary riboflavin (RF) addition on nutrient digestion and rumen fermentation, eight rumen cannulated Holstein bulls were randomly allocated into four treatments in a repeated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Daily addition level of RF for each bull in control, low-RF, medium-RF and high-RF was 0, 300, 600 and 900 mg, respectively. Increasing the addition level of RF, dry matter (DM) intake was not affected, average daily gain tended to be increased linearly and feed conversion ratio decreased linearly. Total-tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) increased linearly. Rumen pH decreased quadratically and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) increased quadratically. Acetate molar percentage and acetate to propionate ratio increased linearly, but propionate molar percentage and ammonia-N content decreased linearly. Rumen effective degradability of DM increased linearly, NDF increased quadratically but CP was unaltered. Activity of cellulase and populations of total bacteria, protozoa, fungi, dominant cellulolytic bacteria, Prevotella ruminicola and Ruminobacter amylophilus increased linearly. Linear increase was observed for urinary total purine derivatives excretion. The data suggested that dietary RF addition was essential for rumen microbial growth, and no further increase in performance and rumen total VFA concentration were observed when increasing RF level from 600 to 900 mg/d in dairy bulls.

12.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 46(1): 74-81, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic, severely pruritic, eczematous skin disease that seriously deteriorates the quality of life of patients. Scratching is a cardinal symptom of AD. Although the vicious itch-scratch cycle continues and aggravates skin barrier dysfunction in AD, how scratching induces skin barrier dysfunction through tight junctions remains unclear. AIM: To study the effect of scratching on tight junctions in the itch-scratch cycle. METHODS: Scratching behaviour and skin barrier dysfunction on the neck and back in an AD mouse model were assessed. The expression of tight junction proteins was compared between the neck and back mice, and the mechanisms underlying the involvement of Akt/CLDN1 pathways in this process were explored. RESULTS: We used oxazolone to induce AD on the neck or back of mice. There was significantly more scratching behaviour and more pronounced skin barrier dysfunction with the neck than with the back. Downregulation of claudin-1 (CLDN1) and upregulation of Akt phosphorylation in skin were well correlated with scratching behaviour in this AD model. Furthermore, SC79, an agonist of Akt phosphorylation, could downregulate CLDN1 expression in HaCaT cells. An antagonist of Akt phosphorylation (LY294002) was used to treat the AD mice; this treatment rescued CLDN1 expression through inhibiting Akt phosphorylation in skin, and importantly, also inhibited the scratching behaviour induced by AD. CONCLUSION: The results reveal the underlying mechanism of tight junction damage promoted by scratching in the itch-scratch cycle of AD, and opens a new avenue to pruritus management in AD, through Akt antagonists.

14.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(1): 70-73, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252268

RESUMO

Recent preregistered studies and analyses have suggested that links between aggressive video games (AVGs) and aggression-related outcomes may have been exaggerated in previous literature. However, concerns about AVGs remain. Although the impact of aggressive games on aggressive behaviors has been the subject of approximately a dozen preregistered studies, the potential impact of aggressive games on the player's mental health symptoms has not been the subject of similar preregistered analyses. In the current study, a sample of more than 3000 youth from Singapore were examined by using preregistered analyses to determine whether early exposure to aggressive games was predictive of anxiety, depression, somatic symptoms, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder 2 years later. Analyses suggested that exposure to AVGs is not a risk factor for later mental health symptoms.

15.
Br J Nutr ; 125(3): 251-259, 2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718368

RESUMO

Coated copper sulphate (CCS) could be used as a Cu supplement in cows. To investigate the influences of copper sulphate (CS) and CCS on milk performance, nutrient digestion and rumen fermentation, fifty Holstein dairy cows were arranged in a randomised block design to five groups: control, CS addition (7·5 mg Cu/kg DM from CS) or CCS addition (5, 7·5 and 10 mg Cu/kg DM from CCS, respectively). When comparing Cu source at equal inclusion rates (7·5 mg/kg DM), cows receiving CCS addition had higher yields of fat-corrected milk, milk fat and protein; digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM) and neutral-detergent fibre (NDF); ruminal total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration; activities of carboxymethyl cellulase, cellobiase, pectinase and α-amylase; populations of Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes; and liver Cu content than cows receiving CS addition. Increasing CCS addition, DM intake was unchanged, yields of milk, milk fat and protein; feed efficiency; digestibility of DM, OM, NDF and acid-detergent fibre; ruminal total VFA concentration; acetate:propionate ratio; activity of cellulolytic enzyme; populations of total bacteria, protozoa and dominant cellulolytic bacteria; and concentrations of Cu in serum and liver increased linearly, but ruminal propionate percentage, ammonia-N concentration, α-amylase activity and populations of Prevotella ruminicola and Ruminobacter amylophilus decreased linearly. The results indicated that supplement of CS could be substituted with CCS and addition of CCS improved milk performance and nutrient digestion in dairy cows.

16.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) ; 61(1): e12-e15, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919923

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed unprecedented challenges for nations worldwide, among which medication shortages can cause a devastatingly negative impact on global health. Using Taiwan as an example, this report describes the sources of potential medication shortages, discusses the preparedness and contingency strategies to address medication shortages, and outlines the evidence-based recommendations on ensuring a stable medication supply and improving the quality and security of medicines. Many drug shortages have focused on shortfalls of overseas manufacturing, but the effect of the COVID-19 crisis on misallocation of medications within the nation's internal supply chains is also a great concern. A wide range of stakeholders are involved in pharmaceutical supply chains, including government regulators, health care insurers, pharmaceutical companies, frontline physicians and pharmacists, patients and families, professional and patient associations or unions, and even individuals who acquire medications from abroad. Collaborative inputs and efforts from all these interdependent stakeholders are critical for establishing transparent preparedness and contingency plans to address drug shortages affected by disruptions of overseas manufacturing or stockouts in pharmacies owing to medication misallocation. Strategies have been documented and recommended in Taiwan and the United States to mitigate drug shortages and ensure the long-term quality and security of medicines. Barriers to accessing medicines are nothing new, but the COVID-19 pandemic poses urgent and even novel challenges to the stability and integrity of medication supply, which urges for a need to reconsider and reinforce effective management strategies for pharmaceuticals. Active management, transparent information, and timely communications are essential to ensure a stable supply of key therapeutic medications, especially during a pandemic.

17.
Zhonghua Yi Shi Za Zhi ; 50(5): 283-285, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287495

RESUMO

Suoquan pill is composed of combined spicebush root, sharp-leaf glangal fruit and common yam rhizome. This recipe comes from Wei Shi Jia Cang Fang (, Wei's Family Stored Formulae) with an original name called "Gu Zhen Dan" (). In Wei Shi Jia Cang Fang, there is a note: take this medicine with some salt soup or salt wine. Before or after that chew dozens of fennel fruits. However, later ancient books were often confused with another prescription of the same name in the process of transmission. The most of editions of Fang Ji Xue(, Prescriptions of Chinese Materia Medica) follow the previous mistakes, most of which mist that "chew dozens of fennel fruits" . The investigations in this research have demonstrated that fennel fruits can be used to enhance the effect of reducing the amount of urine. It is suggested that when reprinting the textbook of Fang Ji Xue, "chew dozens of fennel fruits" should be indicated in the taking method following the original version of ancient books.

18.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 42(11): 903-906, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256299

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer, with the characteristics of insidious onset, easy metastasis, chemotherapy resistance and poor prognosis, is a common malignant tumor of the digestive system. Early diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer is one of the major problems in modern medicine, and there is an urgent need to find new diagnostic, prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA which can regulate the expression of various genes. miRNAs have wide abnormal expressions in pancreatic cancer, and are closely related to the occurrence and development of pancreatic cancer. Thereby, miRNAs have the potential to become new diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers and therapeutic targets of pancreatic cancer. Many studies have initially shown that miRNAs have the application value in the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis evaluation of pancreatic cancer, but there are still some difficulties in the practical application and promotion. The mechanisms of miRNAs in pancreatic cancer remain to be further studied.

19.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 59(12): 960-967, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256337

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of Changsulin® with Lantus® in treating patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: This was a phase Ⅲ, multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, active-controlled clinical trial. A total of 578 participants with T2DM inadequately controlled on oral hypoglycemic agents were randomized 3∶1 to Changsulin® or Lantus® treatment for 24 weeks. The efficacy measures included changes in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2h postprandial plasma glucose (2hPG), 8-point self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) profiles from baseline, and proportions of subjects achieving targets of HbA1c and FPG. The safety outcomes included rates of hypoglycemia, adverse events (AEs) and anti-insulin glargine antibody. Results: After 24 weeks of treatment, mean HbAlc decreased 1.16% and 1.25%, FPG decreased 3.05 mmol/L and 2.90 mmol/L, 2hPG decreased 2.49 mmol/L and 2.38 mmol/L in Changsulin® and in Lantus®, respectively. No significant differences could be viewed in above parameters between the two groups (all P>0.05). There were also no significant differences between Changsulin® and Lantus® in 8-point SMBG profiles from baseline and proportions of subjects achieving the targets of HbA1c and FPG (all P>0.05). The rates of total hypoglycemia (38.00% and 39.01% for Changsulin® and Lantus®, respectively) and nocturnal hypoglycemia (17.25% and 16.31% for Changsulin® and Lantus®, respectively) were similar between the two groups (all P>0.05). Most of the hypoglycemia events were asymptomatic, and no severe hypoglycemia were found in both groups. No differences were observed in rates of AEs (61.77% vs.52.48%) and anti-insulin glargine antibody (after 24 weeks of treatment, 6.91% vs.3.65%) between the two groups (all P>0.05). Conclusions: Changsulin® shows similar efficacy and safety profiles compared with Lantus® and Changsulin® treatment was well tolerated in patients with T2DM.

20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(22): 11496-11508, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275216

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the connections between hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) during the development of the C57BL/6 mouse inner ear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The specimens of C57BL/6 mouse inner ear, from E15 (embryo day 15) to adult mouse, were collected; immunohistochemistry was employed to explore the frozen sections of specimens. RESULTS: The development of cochlea starts sequentially from the basal turn to the apex turn. Morphological development of SGNs occurs mainly from E16 to P12 (postnatal day 12). Hair cells appear from E18 to P12, and inner hair cells (IHCs) develop earlier than outer hair cells (OHCs). The connections between hair cells and SGNs begin to develop during E18-P1, morphologically resemble mature synapses during P8-P12, and completely mature in adult mice. CONCLUSIONS: The genesis of auditory ribbon synapse occurs from E18 to P1. Synchronized with the development of SGNs and hair cells, the functional filaments remain connected to hair cells, while the spare ones get disconnected from the surface of hair cells. Connections between SGN nerve filaments and IHCs occur earlier than those between SGN nerve filaments and OHCs.

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