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1.
Plant Mol Biol ; 102(4-5): 417-430, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898146

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: We genome-wide identified 28 JmjC domain-containing genes, further spatio-temporal expression profiling and genetic analysis defined them as epigenetic regulators in flowering initiation of Rosa chinensis. The JmjC domain-containing histone demethylases play critical roles in maintaining homeostasis of histone methylations, thus are vital for plant growth and development. Genome-wide identification of the JmjC domain-containing genes have been reported in several species, however, no systematic study has been performed in rose plants. In this paper, we identified 28 JmjC domain-containing genes from the newly published genome database of Rosa chinensis. The JmjC domain-containing proteins in R. chinensis were divided into seven groups, KDM3 was the largest group with 13 members, and JmjC domain-only A and KDM5B were the smallest clades both with only one member. Although all the JmjC domain proteins having a conserved JmjC domain, the gene and protein structure experienced differentiation and specification during the evolution, especially in KDM3 clade, one gene (RcJMJ40) was found carrying site deletions for cofactors Fe (II) and α-KG binding which were crucial for demethylase activities, three genes (RcJMJ41, RcJMJ43 and RcJMJ44) had no intron while two of them had tandem JmjC domains. Spatial expression pattern analysis of these JmjC domain-containing genes in different tissues showed most of them were highly expressed in reproductive tissues such as floral meristem and closed flowers than vegetative tissues, demonstrating their important functions in developmental switch from vegetative to reproductive growth of roses. Temporal expression profiling indicated majority of JmjC domain-containing genes from R. chinensis fluctuated along with floral bud differentiation and development, further proving their essential roles in flower organogenesis. VIGS induced silencing of RcJMJ12 led to delayed flowering time, and decreased the expression levels of flowering integrator such as RcFT, RcSOC1, RcFUL, RcLFY and RcAP1, therefore providing the genetic evidence of RcJMJ12 in flowering initiation. Collectively, spatio-temporal expression profiling and genetic analysis defined the JmjC domain-containing genes as important epigenetic regulators in flower development of R. chinensis.

2.
Chemosphere ; 243: 125290, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759213

RESUMO

The root apex is the most active part for water and ions uptake, however, longitudinal alterations in root characteristics along root apex and consequences for metal uptake in hyperaccumulator are poorly understood. Here, we compared cadmium (Cd)-induced longitudinal alterations in root apex of two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii and assess their effects on Cd uptake. Under Cd treatment, cell death began from epidermis to the stele in non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) over time, and the number of dead cells was significantly higher than that in hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE). Cd-induced the presence of border-like cells (BLCs) surrounding the root tip of NHE prevented Cd from entering roots, however, almost no BLCs were observed in the root tip of in HE. Besides, Cd-treated NHE exhibited 76% and 52% decrease in the proportions of meristematic and elongation zone, respectively, resulting in lower Cd influx and less intensive Cd-fluorescence in these zones, as compared with HE. In the differentiation zone, Cd induced earlier initiation of root hairs (RHs), lower RHs-density, shorter RHs-length, thicker RHs-radius and less trichoblasts in NHE than those in HE. These remarkable variations led to less Cd influx and lower intensity of Cd-fluorescence in RHs of NHE than those of HE. Furthermore, decline in cell wall thickness under Cd exposure resulted in less cell-wall-bond Cd in the cell wall of HE. Therefore, Cd-induced alterations in root characteristics alongside root apex contributed to the difference in Cd uptake and accumulation between two ecotypes of S. alfredii.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 707: 136049, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874396

RESUMO

Soil aggregate stability and soil organic carbon (SOC) physical sequestration is essential to regulation of anthropogenic climate change. However, relative knowledge remains elusive. The total SOC stock, aggregate stability, capacity of physically protected C, structure of macroaggregates and Al/Fe oxides under rice-wheat rotation (RW), rice-vegetable rotation (RV) and afforested land (AL) were analysed. We chose 1-2 mm macroaggregates for low-temperature ashing (LTA) treatment to mimic natural oxidation to assess the capacity of physically protected C. Using scanning electron microscopy, the N adsorption method, and energy dispersive spectroscopy, we explored the internal structure of macroaggregates under different land use types. All land use types could physically protect over 50% of SOC. AL showed the strongest capacity of C sequestration, followed by RW, which preserved 67.1% and 59.6% of SOC, respectively. After 5 h of LTA treatment, the amount of SOC removed from the macropores in cropland (RW and RV) was higher than that in AL. In micropores with further oxidation, AL and RW both lost only 5% of SOC. Fe oxides were more correlated with C dynamics than Al oxides. Free Fe oxides were associated with the easily oxidised organic matter. Soil aggregate stability significantly correlated with Al/Fe oxides (p < 0.05). The RW and AL had a greater soil aggregate stability than the RV owing to the relatively higher content of Al/Fe oxides. In conclusion, the conversion of RW to RV reduced the mechanical stability of soil aggregates and the capacity of C physical sequestration, while the conversion of RW to AL increased these two properties. Land use change affected C physical sequestration mainly via changes in surface area, pore development and the content of Fe oxides in macroaggregates.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; 383: 121177, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648122

RESUMO

Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) involved in heavy metal tolerance, translocation, and accumulation in plants. However, underlying mechanism of LMWOA secretion in metal mobilization and uptake in hyperaccumulator still need to be identified. In this study, a 13C labeling rhizobox was designed to investigate the composition and distribution of LMWOA in the rhizosphere of S. alfredii. The result showed that about 2.30%, 2.25% and 2.35% of the assimilated 13C was incorporated into oxalic acid, malic acid, and tartaric acid in rhizosphere of S. alfredii after 13CO2 assimilation, respectively. Oxalic acid, malic acid, and tartaric acid were the predominant LMWOA in rhizosphere soil solution of hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) S. alfredii, however, almost no tartaric acid was detected for non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). Tartaric acid was identified as the unique root exudate from HE S. alfredii which was mainly distributed within the range of rhizosphere 0-6 mm. Tartaric acid significantly increased the solubility of four Cd minerals. HE S. alfredii treated with tartrate + CdCO3 had higher Cd contents and larger biomass than CdCO3 treatment. Cadmium accumulation in HE S. alfredii was promoted by the exudation of tartaric acid, which was highly efficient in Cd solubilization due to the formation of soluble Cd-tartrate complexes.

5.
Chemosphere ; 245: 125547, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864950

RESUMO

Pot-culture experiments were conducted to investigate the potential of microorganism-saponin assisted phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd) and benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P) co-contaminated soil using Cd-hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii. Results showed that B[a]P-degrading bacterium (Ochrobactrum intermedium B[a]P-16) inoculation significantly increased root (by 22.1-24.1%) and shoot (by 20.5-23.4%) biomass of S. alfredii, whereas the application of saponin had no effect on the growth of S. alfredii. The saponin solution at 2 g L-1 extracted more Cd and B[a]P than water, saponin enhanced Cd and B[a]P bioavailability in soil and thus promoted their uptake and accumulation in S. alfredii. The activity of B[a]P-16, dehydrogenase and polyphenol oxidase in co-contaminated soil was promoted by growing S. alfredii, and the application of B[a]P-16 and saponins caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in both enzyme activities. The maximum B[a]P removal rate (82.0%) and Cd phytoextraction rate (19.5%) were obtained by co-application of S. alfredii with B[a]P-16 and saponin. The B[a]P-16 and plant promoted biodegradation were the predominant contributors towards removal of B[a]P from soil. A significant (P < 0.05) synergistic effect of B[a]P-16 and saponin on B[a]P and Cd removal efficiency was observed in this study. It is suggested that planting S. alfredii with application of B[a]P-16 and saponin would be an effective method for phytoremediation of soil co-contaminated with Cd and PAHs.

6.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 33(11): e4637, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256429

RESUMO

Bletilla striata (Thunb.) Reichb. f. (Orchidaceae), also known as Bai-ji, is a traditional Chinese herb that is widely used in Asia to treat hematemesis, hemoptysis, traumatic bleeding and other similar disorders. Most studies have focused on the pharmacological activities of polysaccharide extracts from B. striata. Our previous studies found that the nonpolysaccharide fraction from B. striata extract also has a hemostatic effect; however, the active constituents responsible for this pharmacological action are unclear. Thus, the metabolic profiles of the nonpolysaccharide fraction were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats and intestinal bacteria models using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry. Mass data were acquired by the MSE method. Eight components including five prototypes and three metabolites were identified in rat biofluids after oral administration of the nonpolysaccharide fraction. The parent compounds underwent various metabolic processes, including hydrolysis, deglucosylation, glycosylation and sulfate conjugation. The results not only reveal the possible metabolic pathway, but also indicate the potential pharmacological components. Further mechanistic studies using nonpolysaccharide compounds of the B. striata extract are required to obtain potential candidate compounds.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Orchidaceae , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Succinatos/metabolismo , Animais , Bile/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
7.
Planta ; 250(4): 1073-1088, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165231

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The 5-leaf-stage rape seedlings were more insensitive to Pi starvation than that of the 3-leaf-stage plants, which may be attributed to the higher expression levels of ethylene signaling and sugar-metabolism genes in more mature seedlings. Traditional suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and RNA-Seq usually screen out thousands of differentially expressed genes. However, identification of the most important regulators has not been performed to date. Here, we employed two methods, namely, a two-round SSH and two-factor transcriptome analysis derived from the two-factor ANOVA that is commonly used in the statistics, to identify development-associated inorganic phosphate (Pi) starvation-induced genes in Brassica napus. Several of these genes are related to ethylene signaling (such as EIN3, ACO3, ACS8, ERF1A, and ERF2) or sugar metabolism (such as ACC2, GH3, LHCB1.4, XTH4, and SUS2). Although sucrose and ethylene may counteract each other at the biosynthetic level, they may also work synergistically on Pi-starvation-induced gene expression (such as PT1, PT2, RNS1, ACP5, AT4, and IPS1) and root acid phosphatase activation. Furthermore, three new transcription factors that are responsive to Pi starvation were identified: the zinc-finger MYND domain-containing protein 15 (MYND), a Magonashi family protein (MAGO), and a B-box zinc-finger family salt-tolerance protein. This study indicates that the two methods are highly efficient for functional gene screening in non-model organisms.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fosfatos/deficiência , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcriptoma , Análise de Variância , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/fisiologia , Etilenos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Técnicas de Hibridização Subtrativa , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
8.
Plant Sci ; 284: 177-184, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084870

RESUMO

Both nitrogen (N) and nitric oxide (NO) postpone plant flowering. However, we still don't know whether N and NO trigger the same signaling pathways leading to flowering delay. Our previous study found that ferredoxin NADP+ oxidoreductase (FNR1) and the blue-light receptor cryptochrome 1 (CRY1) are involved in nitrogen-regulated flowering-time control. However, NO-induced late-flowering does not require FNR1 or CRY1. Sucrose supply counteracts the flowering delay induced by NO. However high-N-induced late-flowering could not be reversed by 5% sucrose supplementation. The high nitrogen condition decreased the amplitudes of all transcripts of the circadian clock. While NO increased the amplitudes of circadian transcripts of CRY1, LHY (LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL), CCA1 (CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED 1) and TOC1 (TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1), but decreased the amplitudes of circadian transcripts of CO (CONSTANS) and GI (GIGANTEA). 5% sucrose supplementation reversed the declines in amplitudes of circadian transcripts of CO and GI after the NO treatment. NO induced S-nitrosation modification on oscillators CO and GI, but not on the other oscillators of the circadian clock. Sucrose supply interestingly reduced S-nitrosation levels of GI and CO proteins. Thus N and NO rely on overlapping but distinct signaling pathways on plant flowering.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óxido Nítrico/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Transdução de Sinais , Sacarose/metabolismo
9.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 464, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057576

RESUMO

Grain protein content (GPC) and yield are of two important traits in wheat, but their negative correlation has hampered their simultaneous improvement in conventional breeding. Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is an important genetic resource for wheat quality improvement. In this study, we report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using 13116 DArT-seq markers to characterize GPC in 161 wheat lines derived from wild emmer. Using a general linear model, we identified 141 markers that were significantly associated with GPC, and grouped into 48 QTL regions. Using both general linear model and mixed linear model, we identified four significant markers that were grouped into two novel QTL regions on chromosomes 2BS (QGpc.cd1-2B.1) and 7BL (QGpc.cd1-7B.2). The two QTLs have no negative effects on thousand kernel weight (TKW) and should be useful for simultaneous improvement of GPC and TKW in wheat breeding. Searches of public databases revealed 61 putative candidate/flanking genes related to GPC. The putative proteins of interest were grouped in four main categories: enzymes, kinase proteins, metal transport-related proteins, and disease resistance proteins. The linked markers and associated candidate genes provide essential information for cloning genes related to high GPC and performing marker-assisted breeding in wheat.

10.
Plant J ; 99(6): 1192-1202, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112314

RESUMO

Seed germination is a fundamental process in the plant life cycle and is regulated by functionally opposing internal and external inputs. Here we explored the role of a negative regulator of photomorphogenesis, a B-box-containing protein (BBX19), as a molecular link between the inhibitory action of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and the promoting role of light in germination. We show that seeds of BBX19-overexpressing lines, in contrast to those of BBX19 RNA interference lines, display ABA hypersensitivity, albeit independently of elongated hypocotyl 5 (HY5). Moreover, we establish that BBX19 functions neither via perturbation of GA signaling, the ABA antagonistic phytohormone, nor through interference with the DELLA protein germination repressors. Rather, BBX19 functions as an inducer of ABA INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5) by binding to the light-responsive GT1 motifs in the gene promoter. In summary, we identify BBX19 as a regulatory checkpoint, directing diverse developmental processes and tailoring adaptive responses to distinct endogenous and exogenous signals.

11.
Sci Total Environ ; 659: 1448-1456, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096355

RESUMO

In situ remediation and assessment of sediments contaminated with both antibiotics and heavy metals remains a technological challenge. In this study, MgCl2-modified biochar (BCM) was obtained at 500 °C through slow pyrolysis of Thalia dealbata and used for remediation of sediments contaminated by sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and Cd. The BCM showed greater surface area (110.6 m2 g-1) than pristine biochar (BC, 7.1 m2 g-1). The SMX sorption data were well described by Freundlich model while Langmuir model was better for the Cd2+ sorption data. The addition of 5.0% BCM significantly increased the sorption of SMX (by 50.8-58.6%) and Cd (by 24.2-25.6%) on sediments in both single and binary systems as compared with 5.0% BC. SMX sorption in sediments was significantly improved by addition of Cd2+, whereas SMX has no influence on Cd sorption on sediments. The addition of BCM distinctly decreased both SMX (by 51.4-87.2%) and Cd concentrations (by 56.2-91.3%) in overlying water, as well as in TCLP extracts (by 55.6-86.1% and 58.2-91.9% for SMX and Cd, respectively), as compared with sediments without biochar. Both germination rate and root length of pakchoi increased with increasing doses of BCM in contaminated sediments, 5.0% BCM showed greater promotion on pakchoi growth than 5.0% BC. Overall, BCM in the sediments does not only decrease the bioavailability of SMX and Cd, but it also diminishes the phytotoxicity, and thereby shows great application potential for in situ remediation of sediments polluted with antibiotics and heavy metals.


Assuntos
Cádmio/química , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Sulfametoxazol/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Cádmio/análise , Carvão Vegetal/química , Magnésio/química , Marantaceae/química , Sulfametoxazol/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 674: 213-222, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004898

RESUMO

Biologically modified biochars derived from digestion residue of corn straw silage at different pyrolysis temperature (300-700 °C) were prepared for removing Cd from water. Compared with the pristine biochar derived from corn straw (CB), transabdominal transformation of corn straw silage (TCB) significantly increased surface area (4.24-56.58 m2 g-1), oxygen-containing functional group (COC, MgO, SiO) and mineral components (CaCO3, KCl). The sorption isotherms could be well described by Langmuir model, the kinetic data was best fitted by the Pseudo second order model. The maximum sorption capacity (Qm) obtained from Langmuir model for TCB700 (175.44 mg g-1) was 3 times of CB700 (56.82 mg g-1). Precipitation with minerals, ion exchange and complexation with oxygen-containing functional groups were the main mechanisms of Cd(II) sorption on TCB. These results imply that biologically modified biochar derived from digestion residue of corn straw silage at ≥600 °C is an effective sorbent for Cd removal from water.


Assuntos
Cádmio/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Cádmio/análise , Carvão Vegetal , Silagem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zea mays
13.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 17(11): 2078-2095, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951245

RESUMO

Flavonoids play critical roles in plant responses to various stresses. Few studies have been reported on what the mechanism of activating flavonoid biosynthesis in plant responses to wounding and oxidation is. In this study, flavonoid metabolites and many MYB transcript factors from Rosa rugosa were verified to be induced by wounding and oxidation. RrMYB5 and RrMYB10, which belong to PA1- and TT2-type MYB TFs, respectively, showed extremely high induction. Overexpression of RrMYB5 and RrMYB10 resulted in an increased accumulation of proanthocyanidins in R. rugosa and tobacco by promoting the expression of flavonoid structural genes. Transcriptomic analysis of the transgenic plants showed that most genes, involved in wounding and oxidation response and ABA signalling modulation, were up-regulated by the overexpression of RrMYB10, which was very much similar to that observed in RrANR and RrDFR overexpression transgenics. RrMYB5 and RrMYB10 physically interacted and mutually activated each other's expressions. They solely or synergistically activated the different sets of flavonoid pathway genes in a bHLH TF EGL3-independent manner. Eventually, the accumulation of proanthocyanidins enhanced plant tolerance to wounding and oxidative stresses. Therefore, RrMYB5 and RrMYB10 regulated flavonoid synthesis in feedback loop responding to wounding and oxidation in R. rugosa. Our study provides new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of flavonoid biosynthesis by MYB TFs and their essential physiological functions in plant responses to wounding and oxidative stresses.

14.
Neurosci Lett ; 696: 212-218, 2019 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597229

RESUMO

Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) responding to acceleration stimuli is originated from the vestibular apparatuses and thus widely used as an in vivo indicator of the vestibular function. We have developed a vestibular function testing (VFT) system that allows to evaluate VOR response with improved efficiency. The previously required surgical procedure has been avoided by using a newly designed animal-immobility setup. The efficacy of our VFT system was demonstrated on the mice with vestibular abnormalities caused by either genetic mutations (Lhfpl5-/- or Cdh23-/-) or applied vestibulotoxicant (3,3'-iminodipropionitrile, IDPN). Daily longitudinal inspection of the VOR response in the IDPN-administered mice gives the first VOR-based daily-progression profile of the vestibular impairment. The capability of VOR in quantifying the severity of toxicant-induced vestibular deficits has been also demonstrated. The acquired VOR-measurement results were validated against the corresponding behavioral-test results. Further validation against immunofluorescence microscopy was applied to the VOR data obtained from the IDPN-administered mice. We conclude that the improved efficiency of our surgery-free VFT system, firstly, enables the characterization of VOR temporal dynamics and quantification of vestibular-impairment severity that may reveal useful information in toxicological and/or pharmaceutical studies; and, secondly, confers our system promising potential to serve as a high-throughput screener for identifying genes and drugs that affect vestibular function.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Reflexo Vestíbulo-Ocular/fisiologia , Doenças Vestibulares/fisiopatologia , Vestíbulo do Labirinto/fisiologia , Animais , Caderinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos Transgênicos , Rotação , Testes de Função Vestibular
15.
Plant Cell Environ ; 42(5): 1425-1440, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577078

RESUMO

Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key phytohormone underlying plant resistance to toxic metals. However, regulatory effects of ABA on apoplastic transport in roots and consequences for uptake of metal ions are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate how ABA regulates development of apoplastic barriers in roots of two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii and assess effects on cadmium (Cd) uptake. Under Cd treatment, increased endogenous ABA level was detected in roots of nonhyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE) due to up-regulated expressions of ABA biosynthesis genes (SaABA2, SaNCED), but no change was observed in hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE). Simultaneously, endodermal Casparian strips (CSs) and suberin lamellae (SL) were deposited closer to root tips of NHE compared with HE. Interestingly, the vessel-to-CSs overlap was identified as an ABA-driven anatomical trait. Results of correlation analyses and exogenous applications of ABA/Abamine indicate that ABA regulates development of both types of apoplastic barriers through promoting activities of phenylalanine ammonialyase, peroxidase, and expressions of suberin-related genes (SaCYP86A1, SaGPAT5, and SaKCS20). Using scanning ion-selected electrode technique and PTS tracer confirmed that ABA-promoted deposition of CSs and SL significantly reduced Cd entrance into root stele. Therefore, maintenance of low ABA levels in HE minimized deposition of apoplastic barriers and allowed maximization of Cd uptake via apoplastic pathway.

16.
Hum Genet ; 137(10): 779-794, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30242501

RESUMO

Most cases of Usher syndrome type II (USH2) are due to mutations in the USH2A gene. There are no effective treatments or ideal animal models for this disease, and the pathological mechanisms of USH2 caused by USH2A mutations are still unknown. Here, we constructed a ush2a knockout (ush2a-/-) zebrafish model using TALEN technology to investigate the molecular pathology of USH2. An early onset auditory disorder and abnormal morphology of inner ear stereocilia were identified in the ush2a-/- zebrafish. Consequently, the disruption of Ush2a in zebrafish led to a hearing impairment, like that in mammals. Electroretinography (ERG) test indicated that deletion of Ush2a affected visual function at an early stage, and histological analysis revealed that the photoreceptors progressively degenerated. Rod degeneration occurred prior to cone degeneration in ush2a-/- zebrafish, which is consistent with the classical description of the progression of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Destruction of the outer segments (OSs) of rods led to the down-regulation of phototransduction cascade proteins at late stage. The expression of Ush1b and Ush1c was up-regulated when Ush2a was null. We also found that disruption of fibronectin assembly at the retinal basement membrane weakened cell adhesion in ush2a-/- mutants. In summary, for the first time, we generated a ush2a knockout zebrafish line with auditory disorder and retinal degeneration which mimicked the symptoms of patients, and revealed that disruption of fibronectin assembly may be one of the factors underlying RP. This model may help us to better understand the pathogenic mechanism and find treatment for USH2 in the future.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Síndromes de Usher , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eletrorretinografia , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Humanos , Síndromes de Usher/genética , Síndromes de Usher/metabolismo , Síndromes de Usher/patologia , Síndromes de Usher/fisiopatologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
17.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 39(7): 3365-3372, 2018 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29962163

RESUMO

Understanding the effects of environmental factors on the profile distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) is a base to accurately modeling the continuous change of SOC in vertical and three-dimensional spatial distributions, as well as precisely estimating SOC storage. Based on 171 soil profiles collected from Chengdu Plain, the effects of environmental factors (including the parent material, soil type, elevation, distance from river, and land use) on the profile distribution of paddy SOC to a depth of 1 m were evaluated through the exponential decay function. The results indicated that SOC was estimated at 19.42, 9.59, 5.99, and 5.20 g·kg-1 at depths of 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, and 60-100cm, respectively, showing a significant decrease with increased depth. Soil organic carbon was mainly concentrated above a 40 cm soil depth, accounting for 72.17% of the total profile, which could be crucial to studying the carbon source/sink of paddy soils in Chengdu Plain. The parameters of the exponential decay function had a similar spatial pattern, indicating their spatial dependence. The nugget coefficients for C and k were 55.400% and 47.671%, respectively, indicating that paddy SOC in the study area was affected by both structural and random factors. Regression analysis implied that the parent material and soil genius were the dominant factors influencing the profile distribution of SOC. Nevertheless, elevation, distance from river, and land use should also be taken into consideration. It has been concluded that the parent material and soil genius should be premeditated when fitting the vertical distribution of SOC, modeling the three-dimensional prediction of soil organic carbon, and estimating soil carbon storage in the paddy soils of Chengdu Plain.

18.
Hortic Res ; 5: 25, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29736250

RESUMO

MIKCC-type MADS-box (MIKCC) genes encode transcription factors that have crucial roles in controlling floral organogenesis and flowering time in plants. Although this gene family has been well characterized in many plant species, its evolutionary and comprehensive functional analysis in rose is lacking. In this study, 58 non-redundant MIKCC uni-transcripts were extensively identified from rose transcriptomes. Phylogenetic analysis placed these genes into 12 clades with their Arabidopsis and strawberry counterparts, and revealed that ABCDE model (including AP1/FUL, AP3/PI, AG, and SEP clades), and SOC1 and AGL6 clade genes have remarkably expanded in Rosa chinensis, whereas genes from the FLC and AGL17 clades were undetectable. Sequence alignments suggest that the AP3/PI clade may contribute to more specific functions in rose due to a high variation of amino acid residues within its MADS-box domains. A comparative analysis of gene expression in specific floral organ differentiation stages and floral organs between R. chinensis cv. Old Blush and the closely related mutant genotype R. chinensis cv. Viridiflora (floral organs mutated into leaf-like structures) further revealed the roles of ABCDE model genes during floral organogenesis in rose. Analysis of co-expression networks provided an overview of the regulatory mechanisms of rose MIKCC genes and shed light on both the prominent roles of AP3/PI clade genes in floral organogenesis and the roles of RcAGL19, RcAGL24, and RcSOC1 in regulating floral transition in rose. Our analyses provide an overall insight of MIKCC genes in rose and their potential roles in floral organogenesis.

19.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 7115, 2017 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28755002

RESUMO

A suitable method and appropriate environmental variables are important for accurately predicting heavy metal distribution in soils. However, the classical methods (e.g., ordinary kriging (OK)) have a smoothing effect that results in a tendency to neglect local variability, and the commonly used environmental variables (e.g., terrain factors) are ineffective for improving predictions across plains. Here, variables were derived from the obvious factors affecting soil cadmium (Cd), such as road traffic, and were used as auxiliary variables for a combined method (HASM_RBFNN) that was developed using high accuracy surface modelling (HASM) and radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) model. This combined method was then used to predict soil Cd distribution in a typical area of Chengdu Plain in China, considering the spatial non-stationarity of the relationships between soil Cd and the derived variables based on 339 surface soil samples. The results showed that HASM_RBFNN had lower prediction errors than OK, regression kriging (RK) and HASM_RBFNNs, which didn't consider the spatial non-stationarity of the soil Cd-derived variables relationships. Furthermore, HASM_RBFNN provided improved detail on local variations. The better performance suggested that the derived environmental variables were effective and HASM_RBFNN was appropriate for improving the prediction of soil Cd distribution across plains.

20.
Plant Cell Environ ; 40(9): 1834-1848, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28556250

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) is extensively involved in various growth processes and stress responses in plants; however, the regulatory mechanism of NO-modulated cellular sugar metabolism is still largely unknown. Here, we report that NO significantly inhibited monosaccharide catabolism by modulating sugar metabolic enzymes through S-nitrosylation (mainly by oxidizing dihydrolipoamide, a cofactor of pyruvate dehydrogenase). These S-nitrosylation modifications led to a decrease in cellular glycolysis enzymes and ATP synthase activities as well as declines in the content of acetyl coenzyme A, ATP, ADP-glucose and UDP-glucose, which eventually caused polysaccharide-biosynthesis inhibition and monosaccharide accumulation. Plant developmental defects that were caused by high levels of NO included delayed flowering time, retarded root growth and reduced starch granule formation. These phenotypic defects could be mediated by sucrose supplementation, suggesting an essential role of NO-sugar cross-talks in plant growth and development. Our findings suggest that molecular manipulations could be used to improve fruit and vegetable sweetness.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Monossacarídeos/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Complexos de ATP Sintetase/metabolismo , Adenosina Difosfato Glucose/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação/genética , Nitrosação , Oxirredução , Fenótipo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Complexo Piruvato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Solubilidade , Amido/metabolismo , Sacarose/farmacologia , Ácido Tióctico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Tióctico/metabolismo , Uridina Difosfato Glucose/metabolismo
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