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1.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 122020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023549

RESUMO

Hepatic steatosis and oxidative stress are considered to be the sequential steps in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We previously found that catalpol, an iridoid glucoside extracted from the root of Romania glutinosa L, protected against diabetes-induced hepatic oxidative stress. Here, we found that the increased expression of p66shc was observed in NAFLD models and catalpol could inhibit p66shc expression to ameliorate NAFLD effectively. However, the underlying mechanisms remained unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the p66shc-targeting miRNAs in regulating oxidative stress and hepatic steatosis, also the mechanisms of catalpol inhibiting NAFLD. We found that the effects of catalpol inhibiting hepatic oxidative stress and steasis are dependent on inhibiting P66Shc expression. In addition, miR-96-5p was able to suppress p66shc/cytochrome C cascade via targeting p66shc mRNA 3'UTR, and catalpol could lead to suppression of NAFLD via upregulating miR-96-5p level. Thus, catalpol was effective in ameliorating NAFLD, and miR-96-5p/p66shc/cytochrome C cascade might be a potential target.

2.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Diclofenac is a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. However, adverse effects in the kidney limit the clinical application of diclofenac. The present study was aimed to evaluate the potential effect of cilastatin on diclofenac-induced acute kidney injury and to clarify the potential roles of renal organic anion transporters (OATs) in the drug-drug interaction between cilastatin and diclofenac. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Effect of cilastatin was evaluated in diclofenac-induced acute kidney injury in mice. Human OAT1/3-transfected HEK293 cells and renal primary proximal tubule cells (RPTCs) were used to investigate OAT1/3-mediated transport and the cytotoxicity of diclofenac. KEY RESULTS: Cilastatin treatment decreased the pathological changes, renal dysfunction, and elevated renal levels of oxidation products, cytokine production, and apoptosis induced by diclofenac in mice. Moreover, cilastatin increased the plasma concentration and decreased the renal distribution of diclofenac and its glucuronide metabolite, diclofenac acyl glucuronide (DLF-AG). Similarly, cilastatin inhibited cytotoxicity and mitochondrial damage in RPTCs but did not change the intracellular accumulation of diclofenac. DLF-AG but not diclofenac exhibited OAT-dependent cytotoxicity and was identified as an OAT1/3 substrate. Cilastatin inhibited the intracellular accumulation and decreased the cytotoxicity of DLF-AG in RPTCs. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Cilastatin alleviated diclofenac-induced acute kidney injury in mice by restoring the redox balance, suppressing inflammation, reducing apoptosis. Cilastatin inhibited Oats and decreased the renal distribution of diclofenac and DLF-AG, which further ameliorated the diclofenac-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Cilastatin can potentially be used in the clinic as a therapeutic agent to alleviate the adverse renal reaction to diclofenac.

4.
Bioorg Chem ; 95: 103542, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918398

RESUMO

JAK3 is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells and has been a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of B-cell lymphoma. In this study, a new class of thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidines harboring acrylamide pharmacophore were synthesized as potent covalent JAK3 inhibitors (IC50 < 10 nM). Among them, 9a and 9 g displayed the strongest inhibitory potency against JAK3 kinase activity, with IC50 values of 1.9 nM and 1.8 nM, respectively. Furthermore, compared with the reference agents, Spebrutinib and Ibrutinib, 9a not only demonstrated enhanced antiproliferative activity against B lymphoma cells, but also showed very weak proliferative inhibition against normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at a concentration of 20 µM. Analysis of the mechanism revealed that 9a could induce the obvious apoptosis in B lymphoma cells and prevent JAK3-STAT3 cascade as well as BTK pathway. Taken together, 9a may be served as a potential new JAK3 inhibitor for the treatment of B-cell lymphoma.

6.
ChemMedChem ; 15(2): 182-187, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755225

RESUMO

A new class of pyrimidine derivatives were identified as potent protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Most of these small-molecule inhibitors displayed strong enzymatic activity against BTK and JAK3 kinases at concentrations lower than 10 nM. The representative compound N-(3-((5-chloro-2-(4-((1-morpholino)acetylamino)phenylamino)-4-pyrimidinyl)amino)phenyl)acrylamide (6 a) also exhibited high inhibitory potency toward both BTK and JAK kinase families, as well as ErbB4, at a concentration of 10 nM, achieving rates of inhibition higher than 57 %. Additionally, in vivo biological evaluations showed that 6 a can remarkably decrease the severity of IPF disease. All these investigations suggested that the multi-PTK inhibitor 6 a may serve as a promising agent for the treatment of IPF.

7.
Bioorg Chem ; 94: 103408, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706682

RESUMO

A new class of pyrimidine derivatives were designed and synthesized as potential dual FAK and EGFRT790M inhibitors using a fragment-based drug design strategy. This effort led to the identification of the two most active inhibitors, namely 9a and 9f, against both FAK (IC50 = 1.03 and 3.05 nM, respectively) and EGFRT790M (IC50 = 3.89 and 7.13 nM, respectively) kinase activity. Moreover, most of these compounds also exhibited strong antiproliferative activity against the three evaluated FAK-overexpressing pancreatic cancer (PC) cells (AsPC-1, BxPC-3, Panc-1) and two drug-resistant cancer cell lines (breast cancer MCF-7/adr cells and lung cancer H1975 cells) at concentrations lower than 6.936 µM. In addition, 9a was also effective in the in vivo assessment conducted in a FAK-driven human AsPC-1 cell xenograft mouse model. Overall, this study offers a new insight into the treatment of hard to treat cancers.

8.
J Viral Hepat ; 27(1): 45-51, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520460

RESUMO

A simple, pangenotypic and effective treatment regimen for patients with a broad range of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections remains an unmet medical need. We conducted a phase 2, randomized, open study involving untreated patients with chronic HCV genotypes 1, 2, 3, or 6 infections. Patients without cirrhosis were randomly assigned in a 1:2 ratio to receive capsules of the NS5A inhibitor coblopasvir at a dose of 30 or 60 mg plus tablets of the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir (400 mg) once daily for 12 weeks. Patients with cirrhosis received 60 mg coblopasvir plus sofosbuvir for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after the end of therapy (SVR12). Of the 110 patients who were enrolled in the study, 59 were male, 62.7% had HCV genotype 1, 24.5% had genotype 2, 6.4% had genotype 3, and 6.4% had genotype 6. The average age was 45.5 years. A total of 10.9% of patients had compensated cirrhosis. The rate of SVR12 was 98.2% in the intention-to-treat (ITT). One genotype 6 patient with cirrhosis experienced virologic relapse. One genotype 2 patient without cirrhosis failed to complete the follow-up and quit the study. Serious adverse events (SAEs) were reported in 2 patients and were not related to coblopasvir and sofosbuvir. Most adverse events (AEs) did not require treatment. Coblopasvir plus sofosbuvir taken once daily for 12 weeks provided high rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) and had a good safety profile among patients with HCV genotypes 1, 2, 3, or 6 infections, including those with compensated cirrhosis.

9.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(4): 3309-3319, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587272

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to explore whether rhein could enhance the effects of pemetrexed (PTX) on the therapy of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to clarify the associated molecular mechanism. Our study shows that rhein in combination with PTX could obviously increase the systemic exposure of PTX in rats, which would be mediated by the inhibition of organic anion transporters (OATs). Furthermore, the toxicity of PTX was significantly raised by rhein in A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Concomitant administration of rhein and PTX-induced cell apoptosis compared with PTX alone in flow cytometry assays, which was further validated by the protein expressions of the apoptotic markers B-cell lymphoma-2/Bcl-2-associated x (Bcl-2/Bax) and Cleaved-Caspase3 (Cl-Caspase3). Meanwhile, the results of monodansylcadaverine (MDC) dyeing experiments showed that PTX-induced autophagy could be enhanced by combination therapy with rhein in A549 cells. Western blot analysis indicated that the synergistic effect of rhein on PTX-mediated autophagy may be interrelated to PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway inhibition and to the enhancement of p-AMPK and light chain 3-II (LC3-II) protein levels. From these findings, it could be surmised that rhein enhanced the antitumor activity of PTX through influencing autophagy and apoptosis by modulating the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway and Bcl-2 family of proteins in A549 cells. Our findings demonstrated that the potential application of rhein as a candidate drug in combination with PTX is promising for treatment of the human lung cancer.

10.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 28(2): 115254, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866272

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a serious and fatal lung disease, with a median survival of only 3-5 years from diagnosis. Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) has a well-established role in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and autoimmune-related pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, through the use of a conformationally-constrained design strategy, a series of thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidines were synthesized as potent JAK3 inhibitors for the treatment of IPF. Among them, the most potent JAK3 inhibitor, namely 8e (IC50 = 1.38 nM), significantly reduced the degree of airsacculitis and fibrosis according to hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining assay for the lung tissue in the bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model. The clear reduction of the lung collagen deposition by the determination of Masson and hydroxyproline (HYP) content also demonstrated its efficacy in the treatment of fibrosis. In addition, 8e also reduced the expression of the inflammatory markers IL-6, IL-17A, TNF-α and malondialdehyde (MDA) in lung tissue, which indicated its higher anti-inflammatory activity compared with that of the reference agents (nintedanib and gefitinib). Furthermore, it possessed low cytotoxicity against normal human bronchial epithelia (HBE) cells (IC50 > 39.0 µM) and C57BL mice. All these evaluated biological properties suggest that 8e may be a potential JAK3 inhibitor for the treatment of IPF.

11.
Pharm Dev Technol ; 25(1): 107-115, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603017

RESUMO

In this study, mixed micelles of Soluplus® and TPGS were developed for co-administering docetaxel (DTX) and piperine (PIP) for exerting the synergistic effect, which increased the cytotoxicity and improved the anti-cancer activity in HepG2 cell lines compared to free DTX. These in vitro (MTT assay, intracellular uptake of micelles) and in vivo (pharmacokinetic study, immunostaining, TUNEL analysis) studies exhibited the advantages of co-delivery of anticancer drugs with Soluplus®/TPGS by mixed micelles and furthermore established that co-delivery of DTX and PIP via the mixed micelles of Soluplus®/TPGS could be a promising strategy for the treatment of liver cancer.

13.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 23(6): 388-394, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634439

RESUMO

Host immunogenetic setting is involved in the regulation of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and development of condyloma acuminatum (CA). We investigated the correlation of two common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (-607C/A and -137G/C) of IL-18 with the susceptibility of CA in a large Chinese cohort. Out of 408 CA patients analyzed, 300 had HPV infection transmitted through sexual contact (SC) and 108 through non-sexual contact (NSC). In addition, 360 healthy volunteers were enrolled as controls. SNPs at positions -607C/A and -137G/C in IL-18 promoter were analyzed. Comparing CA patients to healthy controls, no dominant relevance was found between the IL-18 promoter -607 C/A or -137G/C polymorphisms and the CA disease either identified genotypically (p > 0.05) or by allelically (p > 0.05). However, the IL-18 promoter -137G/C polymorphism genotype and allele frequencies in the NSC CA group, but not between in the SC group, were significantly higher than in the controls. There was no dominant relevance between IL-18-607C/A polymorphism genotype and allele frequencies among SC, NSC CA patients, and controls. Our study demonstrates that polymorphism -137G/C in IL-18 promoter is significantly correlated with risk of CA in NSC patients.

14.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 9(5): 986-996, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649848

RESUMO

Imipenem is a carbapenem antibiotic. However, Imipenem could not be marketed owing to its instability and nephrotoxicity until cilastatin, an inhibitor of renal dehydropeptidase-I (DHP-I), was developed. In present study, the potential roles of renal organic anion transporters (OATs) in alleviating the nephrotoxicity of imipenem by cilastatin were investigated in vitro and in rabbits. Our results indicated that imipenem and cilastatin were substrates of hOAT1 and hOAT3. Cilastatin inhibited hOAT1/3-mediated transport of imipenem with IC50 values comparable to the clinical concentration, suggesting the potential to cause a clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI). Moreover, imipenem exhibited hOAT1/3-dependent cytotoxicity, which was alleviated by cilastatin and probenecid. Furthermore, cilastatin and probenecid ameliorated imipenem-induced rabbit acute kidney injury, and reduced the renal secretion of imipenem. Cilastatin and probenecid inhibited intracellular accumulation of imipenem and sequentially decreased the nephrocyte toxicity in rabbit primary proximal tubule cells. Renal OATs, besides DHP-I, was also the target of interaction between imipenem and cilastatin, and contributed to the nephrotoxicity of imipenem. This therefore gives in part the explanation about the mechanism by which cilastatin protected against imipenem-induced nephrotoxicity. Thus, OATs can potentially be used as a therapeutic target to avoid the renal adverse reaction of imipenem in clinic.

15.
J Sep Sci ; 42(22): 3459-3469, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524319

RESUMO

The herbicides in naked oat (Avena nuda L.) samples were extracted, separated, and determined by using ionic-liquid-based matrix solid-phase dispersion-solvent flotation coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography. The experimental parameters were optimized and evaluated by a univariate method and orthogonal experiment. A good linear relationship was obtained in the range of 5-5000 µg/kg, and the linear correlation coefficient are between 0.9989∼0.9993. The quantification limits for alachlor, metazachlor, propanil, acetochlor, pretilachlor, metolachlor, and butachlor are 5.03, 2.62, 2.73, 4.58, 7.28, 5.05, 5.78 µg/kg, respectively. The average recoveries of the acetanilide herbicides at spiked concentrations of 10, 100, and 500 µg/kg ranged from 92.1 to 104.7%, and relative standard deviations were equal to or lower than 2.9%.

17.
Pharmacol Res ; 148: 104414, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449974

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis (AS) is one of the major causes leading to mortality of dysfunctional cardiovascular events in the menopausal women, which has long-term deficiency of estrogen. At present, the primary treatment for postmenopausal AS is hormone replacement therapy (HRT). However, it can increase the risks of ovarian and uterine cancers with long-term therapy. So seeking for a phytoestrogen which can overcome the disadvantages of HRT is a great mission. Dioscin, a traditional Chinese medicine, extracted from the roots of dioscorea nipponica, has anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and anti-apoptosis activities. Especially, it also has estrogenic activity. Thus, this study aims to investigate the effects of dioscin on postmenopausal AS. Currently, ovariectomy (OVX) is the accepted model for AS associated with estrogen deficiency, and it can mimic the cessation of ovarian function that occurs in postmenopausal women as well. We used the high fat diet and ovariectomy(HFD-OVX)model to induce postmenopausal AS in the low-density lipoprotein receptor- deficient (LDLR-/-) mice. (1) The levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, HDLC, MDA, GSH, MDA and GSH in serum of HFD-OVX induced LDLR-/- mice were measured by colorimetric assay. (2) The artery injury of HFD-OVX induced LDLR-/- mice was detected with Oil Red O staining. (3) The protein expressions of NOX4, P22phox, IκB, p-p65, n-p65, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, caspase-3, caspase-9, bcl-2, PGC-1α, ERα, ERß in the arterial tissue of HFD-OVX induced LDLR-/- mice were detected by Western blot analysis. In vitro, the model of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) (150 µg /ml) was established, and the molecular mechanism of dioscin on atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women was investigated. (1) The levels of MDA, GSH, MDA and GSH in ox-LDL induced HAECs were measured by colorimetric assay. (2) Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) of ox-LDL induced HAEC cells was detected by fluorescence staining. (3) The protein expressions of PGC-1α, ERα, ERß, NOX4, P22phox, IκB, p-p65, n-p65, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, caspase-3, caspase-9, bcl-2 and LC3 in ox-LDL induced HAECs were detected by Western blot analysis. (4) The autophagy level of ox-LDL induced HAECs was measured by transmission electron microscopy. (5) The applications of si-RNA transfection were used to explore whether dioscin could activate PGC-1α/ERα pathway to inhibit postmenopausal atherosclerosis. In vivo, we found that dioscin decreased the level of TG, TC, LDL-C and increased the level of HDLC in serum of HFD-OVX induced LDLR-/- mice, and it has protective effects to maintain the lipid homeostasis; The Oil Red O staining study showed that dioscin could significantly inhibit the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in HFD-OVX-treated LDLR-/- mice; Dioscin decreased the levels of NOX4, P22phox, p-p65, n-p65, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, caspase-3, caspase-9, but increased the levels of HDL-C, GSH, SOD, PGC-1α, ERα, ERß, IκB, Bcl-2 and elevated the autophagy level in arterial tissues of HFD-OVX induced LDLR-/- mice. It is particularly worth mentioning that the up-regulating effect of dioscin on ERα is stronger than ERß in OVX treated mice. In vitro, the results of colorimetric assay showed that dioscin decreased the level of MDA and LDH, increased the level of SOD and GSH in ox-LDL-induced HAEC cells; Dioscin also suppressed the release of ROS in ox-LDL-induced HAECs by fluorescence staining; Dioscin decreased the levels of NOX4, P22phox, p-p65, n-p65, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, caspase-3, caspase-9, but increased the levels of PGC-1α, ERα, ERß, IκB, Bcl-2 and the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I in ox-LDL-induced HAECs; Dioscin significantly elevated the autophagy level of ox-LDL-induced HAECs by transmission electron microscopy analysis; In addition, by si-RNA transfection, we found that the inhibitory effects of dioscin on oxidative stress, inflammatory response and apoptosis might partly through PGC-1α/ERα pathway in ox-LDL induced HAECs. The data of dual-Luciferase reporter assay revealed that dioscin activated ERα at least partly through PGC-1α pathway. Dioscin significantly inhibited oxidative stress, inflammatory response, apoptosis and increased the level of autophagy in vivo and vitro. In addition, dioscin could regulate the balance of lipid metabolism. Moreover, we proved that the effects of dioscin attenuating postmenopausal atherosclerosis by inhibiting oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis were partly dependent on PGC-1α/ERα pathway. Therefore, dioscin, as a phytoestrogen, might become a drug for the treatment of atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women.

18.
Br J Pharmacol ; 176(23): 4558-4573, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Catalpol, a water-soluble active ingredient isolated from Rehmannia glutinosa, exhibits multiple pharmacological activities. However, the mechanism(s) underlying protection against renal injury by catalpol remains unknown. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Adriamycin-induced kidney injury models associated with podocyte damage were employed to investigate the nephroprotective effects of catalpol. In vivo, TUNEL and haematoxylin-eosin staining was used to evaluate the effect of catalpol on kidney injury in mice. In vitro, effects of catalpol on podocyte damage induced by adriamycin was determined by elisa kit, flow cytometry, Hoechst 33342, and TUNEL staining. The mechanism was investigated by siRNA, EX527, and docking simulations. KEY RESULTS: In vivo, catalpol treatment significantly improved adriamycin-induced kidney pathological changes and decreased the number of apoptotic cells. In vitro, catalpol markedly decreased the intracellular accumulation of adriamycin and reduced the calcium ion level in podocytes and then attenuated apoptosis. Importantly, the regulatory effects of catalpol on sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), and the TRPC6 channel were mostly abolished after incubation with SIRT1 siRNA or the SIRT1-specific inhibitor EX527. Furthermore, docking simulations showed that catalpol efficiently oriented itself in the active site of SIRT1, indicating a higher total binding affinity score than that of other SIRT1 activators, such as resveratrol, SRT2104, and quercetin. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Taken together, our results suggest that catalpol exhibits strong protective effects against adriamycin-induced nephropathy by inducing SIRT1-mediated inhibition of TRPC6 expression and enhancing MRP2 expression.

19.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 75: 105833, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450152

RESUMO

Hepatic fibrosis is a reversible would-healing response following chronic liver injury of different aetiologies and represents a major worldwide health problem. Up to date, there is no satisfactory drugs treated for liver fibrosis. The present study was to investigate hepatoprotection of yangonin against liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA) in mice and further to clarify the involvement of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in vivo and in vitro. Yangonin treatment remarkably ameliorated TAA-induced liver injury by reducing relative liver weight, as well as serum ALT and AST activities. Moreover, yangonin alleviated TAA-induced accumulation of bile acids through increasing the expression of bile acid efflux transporters such as Bsep and Mrp2, and reducing hepatic uptake transporter Ntcp expression, all of these are FXR-target genes. The liver sections stained by H&E indicated that the histopathological change induced by TAA was improved by yangonin. Masson and Sirius red staining indicated the obvious anti-fibrotic effect of yangonin. The mechanism of anti-fibrotic effect of yangonin was that yangonin reduced collagen content by regulating the genes involved in hepatic fibrosis including COL1-α1 and TIMP-1. Besides, yangonin inhibited hepatic stellate cell activation by reducing TGF-ß1 and α-SMA expression. In addition, yangonin protected against TAA-induced hepatic inflammation via its inhibition of NF-κB and TNF-α. These hepatoprotective effects of yangonin were abrogated by guggulsterone which is a FXR antagonist. In vitro experiment further demonstrated dose-dependent activation of FXR by yangonin using dual-luciferase reporter assay. In summary, yangonin produces hepatoprotection against TAA-induced liver fibrosis via FXR activation.

20.
J Med Chem ; 62(17): 7708-7721, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393124

RESUMO

The cyclic dipeptides generally present lower affinity toward intestinal oligopeptide transporter 1 (PEPT1) than the linear dipeptides. JBP485 (cyclo(l-Hyp-l-Ser)) is a low-affinity substrate of PEPT1 with poor oral bioavailability. However, JBP923 (l-Hyp-l-Ser) is a high-affinity substrate of PEPT1 with high oral absorption. We hypothesize that the bioactivatable pseudo-tripeptidization prodrug strategy is promising to increase the affinity of cyclic dipeptides toward PEPT1. To test our hypothesis, we design five amino acid ester prodrugs of JBP485. Compared with JBP485, the optimal prodrug (JBP485-3-CH2-O-valine, J3V) demonstrates improved affinity of PEPT1, oral bioavailability in rats and beagle dogs. Moreover, J3V can dose-dependently protect against liver injury. Additionally, J3V is stable in the gastrointestinal tract, beneficial to the PEPT1-mediated membrane transport, and is bioactivated in the enterocytes and hepatic cells, essential to elicit its bioactivity. In summary, the bioactivatable pseudo-tripeptidization strategy shows potential in increasing affinity of PEPT1 to enhance oral bioavailability of cyclic dipeptides.

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