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1.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112227

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: The STOP-Bang questionnaire is a concise and easy screening tool for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Using modified body mass index (BMI), we assessed the diagnostic performance of the STOP-Bang questionnaire in predicting OSA in different ethnic groups undergoing surgery. METHODS: This was a multicentre prospective cohort study involving patients with cardiovascular risk factors undergoing major non-cardiac surgery. Patients underwent home sleep apnea testing. All patients completed the STOP-Bang questionnaire. The predictive parameters of STOP-Bang scores were calculated against apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). RESULTS: 1,205 patients from four ethnic groups (666 Chinese, 161 Indian, 195 Malay, and 183 Caucasian) were included in the study. The mean BMI ranged from 25 ± 4 to 30 ± 6 kg/m² and mean age ranged from 64 ±8 to 71 ±10 years. For the Chinese and Indian, diagnostic parameters were presented using BMI threshold of 27.5 kg/m² with the area under curve (AUC) to predict moderate-to-severe OSA were 0.709 (0.665-0.753) and 0.722 (0.635-0.808) respectively. For the Malay and Caucasian, diagnostic parameters were presented using BMI threshold of 35 kg/m² with the AUC for predicting moderate-to-severe OSA were 0.645 (0.572-0.720) and 0.657 (0.578-0.736) respectively. Balancing the sensitivity and specificity, the optimal STOP-Bang threshold for the Chinese, Indian, Malay and Caucasian were determined to be 4 or greater. CONCLUSIONS: For predicting moderate-to-severe OSA, we recommend BMI threshold of 27.5 kg/m² for Chinese and Indian, and 35 kg/m² for Malay and Caucasian. The optimal STOP-Bang threshold for the Chinese, Indian, Malay and Caucasian is 4 or greater. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov, title: Postoperative Vascular Events in Unrecognised Obstructive Sleep Apnea, identifier: NCT01494181, URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01494181.

2.
Int J Surg ; 82: 192-199, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have reported that general anesthesia (GA), especially volatile agents were associated with higher cancer recurrence rate after cancer resection surgery. However, the effect of supplementary regional anesthesia (RA) in reducing the use of anesthetic agents on oncological outcomes remains unclear. The primary aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the effect of adjunctive use of RA on the cancer recurrence rate in adults undergoing cancer resection surgery. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL were systematically searched for randomized control trials (RCTs) from its inception until April 2020. RESULTS: Six RCTs (n = 3139 patients) were included. In comparison to the GA alone, our meta-analysis demonstrated no significant difference in the cancer recurrence rate in patients who received the adjunctive use of RA in the routine care of GA (3 studies, n = 2380 patients; odds ratio 0.93, 95%CI 0.63-1.39, ρ = 0.73, certainty of evidence = very low). Our review also showed no significant difference in cancer-related mortality (2 studies, n = 545; odds ratio 1.20, 95%CI 0.83-1.74, ρ = 0.33, certainty of evidence = low), all-cause mortality (3 studies, n = 2653; odds ratio 0.98, 95%CI 0.69-1.39, ρ = 0.89, certainty of evidence = low) and duration of cancer-free survival (2 studies, n = 659; mean difference 0.00 years, 95%CI -0.25-0.25, ρ = 1.00, certainty of evidence = high). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis concluded that the adjunctive use of RA in the routine care of GA did not reduce cancer recurrence rate in cancer resection surgery. However, this finding needs to be interpreted with caution due to low level of evidence, substantial heterogeneity and potential risk of bias across the included studies. STUDY REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020171368.

3.
J Clin Anesth ; 67: 110023, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805685

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is growing evidence on the influence of general anaesthesia (GA) in promoting the proliferation of cancer cells. The benefits of regional anaesthesia (RA) on cancer recurrence rate in cancer surgery remains unclear in the literature. The primary objective of this review was to examine the effect of RA on the incidence of post-operative cancer recurrence rate in cancer resection surgery. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline, EMBASE and CENTRAL were systematically searched from its inception until April 2020. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: All randomized control trials and observational studies comparing RA only versus GA in cancer resection surgery were included. Case report, case series and editorials were excluded. RESULTS: Ten retrospective observational studies (n = 9708; 4567 GA vs 5141 RA) were included for qualitative and quantitative meta-analysis. In comparison to GA, RA was not significantly associated with a lower cancer recurrence rate in cancer resection surgery (odds ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.53, p = 0.95, certainty of evidence = very low). However, the trial sequential analysis for cancer recurrence rate was inconclusive. Our analysis demonstrated no significant difference between the RA and GA groups in the overall survival rate (odds ratio 1.51, 95% CI 0.65 to 3.51, p = 0.34, certainty of evidence = very low), time to cancer recurrence (mean difference 1.45 months, 95% CI -8.69 to 11.59, p = 0.78, certainty of evidence = very low), cancer-related mortality (odds ratio 1.79, 95% CI 0.57 to 5.62, p = 0.32, certainty of evidence = very low). CONCLUSIONS: Given the low level of evidence and underpowered trial sequential analysis, our review neither support nor oppose that the use of RA was associated with lower incidence of cancer recurrence rate than GA in cancer resection surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CRD42020163780.

4.
Ann Surg ; 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282377

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Perioperative bleeding remains a major concern to all clinicians caring for perioperative patients. Due to the theoretical risk of thromboembolic events associated with tranexamic acid (TXA) when administered intravenously, topical route of TXA has been extensively studied, but its safety and efficacy profile remain unclear in the literature. The primary aim of this review was to assess the effect of topical TXA on incidence of blood transfusion and mortality in adults undergoing surgery. DATA SOURCES: EMBASE, MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and ISI Web of Science were systematically searched from their inception until May 31, 2019. REVIEW METHODS: Parallel-arm randomized controlled trials were included. RESULTS: Seventy-one trials (7539 participants: orthopedics 5450 vs nonorthopedics 1909) were included for quantitative meta-analysis. In comparison to placebo, topical TXA significantly reduced intraoperative blood loss [mean difference (MD) -36.83 mL, 95% confidence interval (CI) -54.77 to -18.88, P < 0.001], total blood loss (MD -319.55 mL, 95% CI -387.42 to -251.69, P < 0.001), and incidence of blood transfusion [odds ratio (OR) 0.30, 95% CI 0.26-0.34, P < 0.001]. Patients who received topical TXA were associated with a shorter length of hospital stay (MD -0.28 days, 95% CI -0.47 to -0.08, P = 0.006). No adverse events associated with the use of topical TXA were observed, namely mortality (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.45-1.36, P = 0.39), pulmonary embolism (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.27-1.93, P = 0.52), deep vein thrombosis (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.65-1.77, P = 0.79), myocardial infarction (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.21-2.99, P = 0.73), and stroke (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.28-2.57, P = 0.77). Of all included studies, the risk of bias assessment was "low" for 20 studies, "unclear" for 26 studies and "high" for 25 studies. CONCLUSIONS: In the meta-analysis of 71 trials (7539 patients), topical TXA reduced the incidence of blood transfusion without any notable adverse events associated with TXA in adults undergoing surgery. PROSPERO: CRD 42018111762.

5.
J Clin Anesth ; 62: 109731, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31986433

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The repetitive hypoxic and hypercapnia events of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are believed to adversely affect cardiopulmonary function, which make them vulnerable to a higher incidence of postoperative complications. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the association of OSA and the composite endpoints of postoperative cardiac or cerebrovascular complications in adult undergoing non-cardiac surgery. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL were systematically searched from its inception until May 2019. REVIEW METHODS: All observational studies were included. RESULTS: Twenty-two studies (n = 3,033,814; 184,968 OSA vs 2,848,846 non-OSA) were included for quantitative meta-analysis. In non-cardiac surgery, OSA was significantly associated with a higher incidence of the composite endpoints of postoperative cardiac or cerebrovascular complications (odd ratio: 1.44, 95%CI: 1.17 to 1.78, ρ = 0.007, trial sequential analysis = conclusive; certainty of evidence = very low). In comparison to non-OSA, OSA patients were reported to have nearly 2.5-fold risk of developing pulmonary complications (odd ratio: 2.52, 95%CI: 1.92 to 3.31, ρ < 0.001, certainty of evidence = very low), postoperative delirium (odd ratio: 2.45, 95%CI: 1.50 to 4.01, ρ < 0.001, certainty of evidence = low) and acute kidney injury (odd ratio: 2.41, 95%CI: 1.93 to 3.02, ρ < 0.001, certainty of evidence = very low). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis of 22 comparative studies demonstrated that OSA is a potential risk factor to postoperative adverse complications in adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery. However, the conclusions need to be interpreted with caution due to the nature of included observational studies with significant heterogeneity and low quality of evidence. PROSPERO: CRD42019136564.

6.
Eur Heart J ; 41(5): 645-651, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237939

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the 1-year risk of stroke and other adverse outcomes in patients with a new diagnosis of perioperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) after non-cardiac surgery. METHODS AND RESULTS: The PeriOperative ISchemic Evaluation (POISE)-1 trial evaluated the effects of metoprolol vs. placebo in 8351 patients, and POISE-2 compared the effect of aspirin vs. placebo, and clonidine vs. placebo in 10 010 patients. These trials included patients with, or at risk of, cardiovascular disease who were undergoing non-cardiac surgery. For the purpose of this study, we combined the POISE datasets, excluding 244 patients who were in atrial fibrillation (AF) at the time of randomization. Perioperative atrial fibrillation was defined as new AF that occurred within 30 days after surgery. Our primary outcome was the incidence of stroke at 1 year of follow-up; secondary outcomes were mortality and myocardial infarction (MI). We compared outcomes among patients with and without POAF using multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Among 18 117 patients (mean age 69 years, 57.4% male), 404 had POAF (2.2%). The stroke incidence 1 year after surgery was 5.58 vs. 1.54 per 100 patient-years in patients with and without POAF, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 3.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.00-5.90; P < 0.001. Patients with POAF also had an increased risk of death (incidence 31.37 vs. 9.34; aHR 2.51, 95% CI 2.01-3.14; P < 0.001) and MI (incidence 26.20 vs. 8.23; aHR 5.10, 95% CI 3.91-6.64; P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Patients with POAF have a significantly increased risk of stroke, MI, and death at 1 year. Intervention studies are needed to evaluate risk reduction strategies in this high-risk population.

7.
Clin Auton Res ; 30(1): 53-60, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29196938

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Comparison of hemodynamic profiles and pain scores in diabetic patients undergoing diabetic foot surgery receiving peripheral nerve block (PNB) or spinal anesthesia [subarachnoid block (SAB)]. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomised controlled trial. We recruited diabetic patients aged > 18 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists class II-III, who were scheduled for unilateral diabetic foot surgery below the knee. All patients were assessed for autonomic dysfunction using the Survey of Autonomic Symptoms score. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either PNB or SAB for the surgery. Hemodynamic data, including usage of vasopressors, were recorded at 5-min intervals for up to 1 h after the induction of anesthesia. Pain scores were recorded postoperatively, and follow-up was done via telephone 6 months later. RESULTS: Compared to the PNB group, the SAB group had a larger number of patients with significant hypotension (14 vs. 1; p = 0.001) and more patients who required vasopressor boluses (6 vs. 0 patients). Compared to SAB group, the patients in the PNB group had a longer postoperative pain-free duration (9 vs. 4.54 h; p = 0.002) and lower pain scores 1 day after surgery (3.63 vs. 4.69; p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Peripheral nerve block should be considered, whenever possible, as the first option of anesthesia for lower limb surgery in diabetic patients as it provides hemodynamic stability and superior postoperative pain control compared to SAB. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov. ID NCT02727348.

8.
Ann Intern Med ; 172(2): 96-104, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869834

RESUMO

Background: Preliminary data suggest that preoperative N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) may improve risk prediction in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. Objective: To determine whether preoperative NT-proBNP has additional predictive value beyond a clinical risk score for the composite of vascular death and myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) within 30 days after surgery. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: 16 hospitals in 9 countries. Patients: 10 402 patients aged 45 years or older having inpatient noncardiac surgery. Measurements: All patients had NT-proBNP levels measured before surgery and troponin T levels measured daily for up to 3 days after surgery. Results: In multivariable analyses, compared with preoperative NT-proBNP values less than 100 pg/mL (the reference group), those of 100 to less than 200 pg/mL, 200 to less than 1500 pg/mL, and 1500 pg/mL or greater were associated with adjusted hazard ratios of 2.27 (95% CI, 1.90 to 2.70), 3.63 (CI, 3.13 to 4.21), and 5.82 (CI, 4.81 to 7.05) and corresponding incidences of the primary outcome of 12.3% (226 of 1843), 20.8% (542 of 2608), and 37.5% (223 of 595), respectively. Adding NT-proBNP thresholds to clinical stratification (that is, the Revised Cardiac Risk Index [RCRI]) resulted in a net absolute reclassification improvement of 258 per 1000 patients. Preoperative NT-proBNP values were also statistically significantly associated with 30-day all-cause mortality (less than 100 pg/mL [incidence, 0.3%], 100 to less than 200 pg/mL [incidence, 0.7%], 200 to less than 1500 pg/mL [incidence, 1.4%], and 1500 pg/mL or greater [incidence, 4.0%]). Limitation: External validation of the identified NT-proBNP thresholds in other cohorts would reinforce our findings. Conclusion: Preoperative NT-proBNP is strongly associated with vascular death and MINS within 30 days after noncardiac surgery and improves cardiac risk prediction in addition to the RCRI. Primary Funding Source: Canadian Institutes of Health Research.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Período Pré-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Troponina T/sangue
9.
Paediatr Anaesth ; 29(12): 1163-1172, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ketamine is believed to reduce the incidence of emergence agitation in children undergoing surgery or procedure. However, recent randomized controlled trials reported conflicting findings. AIMS: To investigate the effect of ketamine on emergence agitation in children. METHODS: Databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL were systematically searched from their start date until February 2019. Randomized controlled trials comparing intravenous ketamine and placebo in children were sought. The primary outcome was the incidence of emergence agitation. Secondary outcomes included postoperative pain score, duration of discharge time, and the adverse effects associated with the use of ketamine, namely postoperative nausea and vomiting, desaturation, and laryngospasm. RESULTS: Thirteen studies (1125 patients) were included in the quantitative meta-analysis. The incidence of emergence agitation was 14.7% in the ketamine group and 33.3% in the placebo group. Children receiving ketamine had a lower incidence of emergence agitation, with an odds ratio being 0.23 (95% confidence interval: 0.11 to 0.46), certainty of evidence: low. In comparison with the placebo, ketamine group achieved a lower postoperative pain score (odds ratio: -2.42, 95% confidence interval: -4.23 to -0.62, certainty of evidence: very low) and lower pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium scale at 5 minutes after operation (odds ratio: -3.99, 95% confidence interval: -5.03 to -2.95; certainty of evidence: moderate). However, no evidence was observed in terms of incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, desaturation, and laryngospasm. CONCLUSION: In this meta-analysis of 13 randomized controlled trials, high degree of heterogeneity and low certainty of evidence limit the recommendations of ketamine for the prevention of emergence agitation in children undergoing surgery or imaging procedures. However, the use of ketamine is well-tolerated without any notable adverse effects across all the included trials. PROSPERO REGISTRATION: CRD42019131865.

10.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e033150, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551393

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inflammation, dehydration, hypotension and bleeding may all contribute to the development of acute kidney injury (AKI). Accelerated surgery after a hip fracture can decrease the exposure time to such contributors and may reduce the risk of AKI. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Hip fracture Accelerated surgical TreaTment And Care tracK (HIP ATTACK) is a multicentre, international, parallel-group randomised controlled trial (RCT). Patients who suffer a hip fracture are randomly allocated to either accelerated medical assessment and surgical repair with a goal of surgery within 6 hours of diagnosis or standard care where a repair typically occurs 24 to 48 hours after diagnosis. The primary outcome of this substudy is the development of AKI within 7 days of randomisation. We anticipate at least 1998 patients will participate in this substudy. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: We obtained ethics approval for additional serum creatinine recordings in consecutive patients enrolled at 70 participating centres. All patients provide consent before randomisation. We anticipate reporting substudy results by 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02027896; Pre-results.

11.
Korean J Anesthesiol ; 72(6): 606-609, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The laryngeal mask airway (LMAⓇ) ProtectorTM (Teleflex Medical Co., Ireland) is the latest innovation in the second generation of LMA devices. One distinguishing feature of this device is its integrated, color-coded cuff pressure indicator (Cuff PilotTM technology) which enables continuous cuff pressure monitoring and allows adjustments when necessary; this ensures patient safety due to better monitoring. CASE: We report a case of postoperative unilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy after uncomplicated use of the LMA Protector. To the best of our knowledge, this could be the second reported case. CONCLUSIONS: This case demonstrates that anesthetists need to routinely measure cuff pressure and that the Cuff PilotTM technology is not a panacea for potential cranial nerve injury after airway manipulation.

12.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(10): 2685-2694, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31064730

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reducing mortality is a key target in critical care and perioperative medicine. The authors aimed to identify all nonsurgical interventions (drugs, techniques, strategies) shown by randomized trials to increase mortality in these clinical settings. DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process. SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-one physicians from 46 countries. INTERVENTIONS: The authors performed a systematic literature search and identified all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showing a significant increase in unadjusted landmark mortality among surgical or critically ill patients. The authors reviewed such studies during a meeting by a core group of experts. Studies selected after such review advanced to web-based voting by clinicians in relation to agreement, clinical practice, and willingness to include each intervention in international guidelines. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors selected 12 RCTs dealing with 12 interventions increasing mortality: diaspirin-crosslinked hemoglobin (92% of agreement among web voters), overfeeding, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in septic shock, human growth hormone, thyroxin in acute kidney injury, intravenous salbutamol in acute respiratory distress syndrome, plasma-derived protein C concentrate, aprotinin in high-risk cardiac surgery, cysteine prodrug, hypothermia in meningitis, methylprednisolone in traumatic brain injury, and albumin in traumatic brain injury (72% of agreement). Overall, a high consistency (ranging from 80% to 90%) between agreement and clinical practice was observed. CONCLUSION: The authors identified 12 clinical interventions showing increased mortality supported by randomized controlled trials with nonconflicting evidence, and wide agreement upon clinicians on a global scale.

13.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e028537, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048449

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Annually, millions of adults suffer hip fractures. The mortality rate post a hip fracture is 7%-10% at 30 days and 10%-20% at 90 days. Observational data suggest that early surgery can improve these outcomes in hip fracture patients. We designed a clinical trial-HIP fracture Accelerated surgical TreaTment And Care tracK (HIP ATTACK) to determine the effect of accelerated surgery compared with standard care on the 90-day risk of all-cause mortality and major perioperative complications. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: HIP ATTACK is a multicentre, international, parallel group randomised controlled trial (RCT) that will include patients ≥45 years of age and diagnosed with a hip fracture from a low-energy mechanism requiring surgery. Patients are randomised to accelerated medical assessment and surgical repair (goal within 6 h) or standard care. The co-primary outcomes are (1) all-cause mortality and (2) a composite of major perioperative complications (ie, mortality and non-fatal myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, sepsis, stroke, and life-threatening and major bleeding) at 90 days after randomisation. All patients will be followed up for a period of 1 year. We will enrol 3000 patients. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: All centres had ethics approval before randomising patients. Written informed consent is required for all patients before randomisation. HIP ATTACK is the first large international trial designed to examine whether accelerated surgery can improve outcomes in patients with a hip fracture. The dissemination plan includes publishing the results in a policy-influencing journal, conference presentations, engagement of influential medical organisations, and providing public awareness through multimedia resources. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02027896; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Idoso , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Tempo
14.
JAMA ; 321(18): 1788-1798, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087023

RESUMO

Importance: Unrecognized obstructive sleep apnea increases cardiovascular risks in the general population, but whether obstructive sleep apnea poses a similar risk in the perioperative period remains uncertain. Objectives: To determine the association between obstructive sleep apnea and 30-day risk of cardiovascular complications after major noncardiac surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study involving adult at-risk patients without prior diagnosis of sleep apnea and undergoing major noncardiac surgery from 8 hospitals in 5 countries between January 2012 and July 2017, with follow-up until August 2017. Postoperative monitoring included nocturnal pulse oximetry and measurement of cardiac troponin concentrations. Exposures: Obstructive sleep apnea was classified as mild (respiratory event index [REI] 5-14.9 events/h), moderate (REI 15-30), and severe (REI >30), based on preoperative portable sleep monitoring. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of myocardial injury, cardiac death, heart failure, thromboembolism, atrial fibrillation, and stroke within 30 days of surgery. Proportional-hazards analysis was used to determine the association between obstructive sleep apnea and postoperative cardiovascular complications. Results: Among a total of 1364 patients recruited for the study, 1218 patients (mean age, 67 [SD, 9] years; 40.2% women) were included in the analyses. At 30 days after surgery, rates of the primary outcome were 30.1% (41/136) for patients with severe OSA, 22.1% (52/235) for patients with moderate OSA, 19.0% (86/452) for patients with mild OSA, and 14.2% (56/395) for patients with no OSA. OSA was associated with higher risk for the primary outcome (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.49 [95% CI, 1.19-2.01]; P = .01); however, the association was significant only among patients with severe OSA (adjusted HR, 2.23 [95% CI, 1.49-3.34]; P = .001) and not among those with moderate OSA (adjusted HR, 1.47 [95% CI, 0.98-2.09]; P = .07) or mild OSA (adjusted HR, 1.36 [95% CI, 0.97-1.91]; P = .08) (P = .01 for interaction). The mean cumulative duration of oxyhemoglobin desaturation less than 80% during the first 3 postoperative nights in patients with cardiovascular complications (23.1 [95% CI, 15.5-27.7] minutes) was longer than in those without (10.2 [95% CI, 7.8-10.9] minutes) (P < .001). No significant interaction effects on perioperative outcomes were observed with type of anesthesia, use of postoperative opioids, and supplemental oxygen therapy. Conclusions and Relevance: Among at-risk adults undergoing major noncardiac surgery, unrecognized severe obstructive sleep apnea was significantly associated with increased risk of 30-day postoperative cardiovascular complications. Further research would be needed to assess whether interventions can modify this risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/complicações , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Polissonografia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico
15.
N Engl J Med ; 380(13): 1214-1225, 2019 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Volatile (inhaled) anesthetic agents have cardioprotective effects, which might improve clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, multicenter, single-blind, controlled trial at 36 centers in 13 countries. Patients scheduled to undergo elective CABG were randomly assigned to an intraoperative anesthetic regimen that included a volatile anesthetic (desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane) or to total intravenous anesthesia. The primary outcome was death from any cause at 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 5400 patients were randomly assigned: 2709 to the volatile anesthetics group and 2691 to the total intravenous anesthesia group. On-pump CABG was performed in 64% of patients, with a mean duration of cardiopulmonary bypass of 79 minutes. The two groups were similar with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline, the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, and the number of grafts. At the time of the second interim analysis, the data and safety monitoring board advised that the trial should be stopped for futility. No significant difference between the groups with respect to deaths from any cause was seen at 1 year (2.8% in the volatile anesthetics group and 3.0% in the total intravenous anesthesia group; relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 1.29; P = 0.71), with data available for 5353 patients (99.1%), or at 30 days (1.4% and 1.3%, respectively; relative risk, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.76), with data available for 5398 patients (99.9%). There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the secondary outcomes or in the incidence of prespecified adverse events, including myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing elective CABG, anesthesia with a volatile agent did not result in significantly fewer deaths at 1 year than total intravenous anesthesia. (Funded by the Italian Ministry of Health; MYRIAD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02105610.).


Assuntos
Anestesia Intravenosa , Anestésicos Gerais/farmacologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Anestesia Geral , Anestésicos Intravenosos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade , Método Simples-Cego , Volume Sistólico
16.
N. Engl. j. med ; 380(13): 1214-1225, Mar. 2019. gráfico, tabela
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1024163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Volatile (inhaled) anesthetic agents have cardioprotective effects, which might improve clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, multicenter, single-blind, controlled trial at 36 centers in 13 countries. Patients scheduled to undergo elective CABG were randomly assigned to an intraoperative anesthetic regimen that included a volatile anesthetic (desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane) or to total intravenous anesthesia. The primary outcome was death from any cause at 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 5400 patients were randomly assigned: 2709 to the volatile anesthetics group and 2691 to the total intravenous anesthesia group. On-pump CABG was performed in 64% of patients, with a mean duration of cardiopulmonary bypass of 79 minutes. The two groups were similar with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline, the duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, and the number of grafts. At the time of the second interim analysis, the data and safety monitoring board advised that the trial should be stopped for futility. No significant difference between the groups with respect to deaths from any cause was seen at 1 year (2.8% in the volatile anesthetics group and 3.0% in the total intravenous anesthesia group; relative risk, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 1.29; P = 0.71), with data available for 5353 patients (99.1%), or at 30 days (1.4% and 1.3%, respectively; relative risk, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.76), with data available for 5398 patients (99.9%). There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the secondary outcomes or in the incidence of prespecified adverse events, including myocardial infarction. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing elective CABG, anesthesia with a volatile agent did not result in significantly fewer deaths at 1 year than total intravenous anesthesia. (Funded by the Italian Ministry of Health; MYRIAD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02105610.). (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Anestésicos Inalatórios , Anestesia Geral , Anestesia Intravenosa
17.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 33(5): 1430-1439, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600204

RESUMO

The authors aimed to identify interventions documented by randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reduce mortality in adult critically ill and perioperative patients, followed by a survey of clinicians' opinions and routine practices to understand the clinicians' response to such evidence. The authors performed a comprehensive literature review to identify all topics reported to reduce mortality in perioperative and critical care settings according to at least 2 RCTs or to a multicenter RCT or to a single-center RCT plus guidelines. The authors generated position statements that were voted on online by physicians worldwide for agreement, use, and willingness to include in international guidelines. From 262 RCT manuscripts reporting mortality differences in the perioperative and critically ill settings, the authors selected 27 drugs, techniques, and strategies (66 RCTs, most frequently published by the New England Journal of Medicine [13 papers], Lancet [7], and Journal of the American Medical Association [5]) with an agreement ≥67% from over 250 physicians (46 countries). Noninvasive ventilation was the intervention supported by the largest number of RCTs (n = 13). The concordance between agreement and use (a positive answer both to "do you agree" and "do you use") showed differences between Western and other countries and between anesthesiologists and intensive care unit physicians. The authors identified 27 clinical interventions with randomized evidence of survival benefit and strong clinician support in support of their potential life-saving properties in perioperative and critically ill patients with noninvasive ventilation having the highest level of support. However, clinician views appear affected by specialty and geographical location.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Internet , Médicos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cuidados Críticos/tendências , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/tendências , Internet/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Médicos/tendências
18.
J Clin Anesth ; 52: 37-47, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30172838

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Patients with preoperative low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) are known to be associated with high morbidities and mortality in cardiac surgery. The primary aim of this review was to examine the clinical outcomes of levosimendan versus placebo in patients with preoperative low LVEF ≤ 50% undergoing cardiac surgery. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and CENTRAL were searched systematically from their inception until June 2018. REVIEW METHODS: All the randomised clinical trials (RCTs) were included. RESULTS: Twelve trials were eligible (n = 1867) for inclusion in the data synthesis. In comparison to the placebo cohort, the levosimendan cohort showed a significant reduction in mortality (TSA = inconclusive; ρ = 0.002; I2 = 0%; FEM: OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.39, 0.80), especially in the subgroups of preoperative severe low LVEF ≤ 30% (ρ = 0.003; OR 0.33; 95% CI 0.16, 0.69), preoperative administering of levosimendan (ρ = 0.001; OR 0.46; 95% CI 0.29, 0.74) and patients who had bolus followed by infusion of levosimendan (ρ = 0.005; OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.30, 0.81). However, the effect on mortality was not significant in the subgroup analysis of high quality trials (ρ = 0.14; OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.47, 1.12). The levosimendan cohort showed a significantly lower incidence of low-cardiac-output-syndrome (ρ < 0.001; OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.46, 0.74) and lesser need for mechanical support of cardiac assist devices (ρ = 0.02; OR 0.39; 95% CI 0.18, 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: Given the low level of evidence and inconclusive TSA, the results of this meta-analysis neither support nor oppose the use of levosimendan in cardiac patients with preoperative low LVEF ≤ 50%. Therefore, multi-centre, adequately powered, randomised controlled trials are warranted. PROSPERO REGISTRATION: CRD42017067572.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Simendana/uso terapêutico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/complicações , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
19.
BMJ Open ; 8(7): e021521, 2018 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982215

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Covert stroke after non-cardiac surgery may have substantial impact on duration and quality of life. In non-surgical patients, covert stroke is more common than overt stroke and is associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Little is known about covert stroke after non-cardiac surgery.NeuroVISION is a multicentre, international, prospective cohort study that will characterise the association between perioperative acute covert stroke and postoperative cognitive function. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We are recruiting study participants from 12 tertiary care hospitals in 10 countries on 5 continents. PARTICIPANTS: We are enrolling patients ≥65 years of age, requiring hospital admission after non-cardiac surgery, who have an anticipated length of hospital stay of at least 2 days after elective non-cardiac surgery that occurs under general or neuraxial anaesthesia. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients are recruited before elective non-cardiac surgery, and their cognitive function is measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) instrument. After surgery, a brain MRI study is performed between postoperative days 2 and 9 to determine the presence of acute brain infarction. One year after surgery, the MoCA is used to assess postoperative cognitive function. Physicians and patients are blinded to the MRI study results until after the last patient follow-up visit to reduce outcome ascertainment bias.We will undertake a multivariable logistic regression analysis in which the dependent variable is the change in cognitive function 1 year after surgery, and the independent variables are acute perioperative covert stroke as well as other clinical variables that are associated with cognitive dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: The NeuroVISION study will characterise the epidemiology of covert stroke and its clinical consequences. This will be the largest and the most comprehensive study of perioperative stroke after non-cardiac surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01980511; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Período Perioperatório , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Can J Surg ; 61(3): 185-194, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29806816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS) is a mostly asymptomatic condition that is strongly associated with 30-day mortality; however, it remains mostly undetected without systematic troponin T monitoring. We evaluated the cost and consequences of postoperative troponin T monitoring to detect MINS. METHODS: We conducted a model-based cost-consequence analysis to compare the impact of routine troponin T monitoring versus standard care (troponin T measurement triggered by ischemic symptoms) on the incidence of MINS detection. Model inputs were based on Canadian patients enrolled in the Vascular Events in Noncardiac Surgery Patients Cohort Evaluation (VISION) study, which enrolled patients aged 45 years or older undergoing inpatient noncardiac surgery. We conducted probability analyses with 10 000 iterations and extensive sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: The data were based on 6021 patients (48% men, mean age 65 [standard deviation 12] yr). The 30-day mortality rate for MINS was 9.6%. We determined the incremental cost to avoid missing a MINS event as $1632 (2015 Canadian dollars). The cost-effectiveness of troponin monitoring was higher in patient subgroups at higher risk for MINS, e.g., those aged 65 years or more, or with a history of atherosclerosis or diabetes ($1309). CONCLUSION: The costs associated with a troponin T monitoring program to detect MINS were moderate. Based on the estimated incremental cost per health gain, implementation of postoperative troponin T monitoring seems appealing, particularly in patients at high risk for MINS.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Isquemia Miocárdica , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Miocárdica/economia , Isquemia Miocárdica/mortalidade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/economia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/economia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/normas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/economia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Risco
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