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1.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118384, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34673155

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) have elicited increasing concerns in freshwater systems worldwide. However, little information is available on the MP pollution in the Songhua River, the third largest river in China. And the understanding of the sources and pathways of MPs is limited. In this study, MPs were sampled from river water and wastewater treatment plants in five cities along the Songhua River to investigate the occurrence, spatial distribution, characteristics, and potential sources of MPs. Polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene accounted for more than 95% of the total MPs. MP pollution was determined to be spatially heterogeneous. The concentration of MPs in the urban center was always considerably higher than that in the upper reach, and irregular variation was observed from the urban center to the lower reach for each city. Urbanization was one of the primary driving forces of spatial variability. Statistically significant positive correlations (p-value < 0.05) were noted between the average concentration of MPs in river water and population density (p = 0.0023) and number of industrial enterprises above designated size (p = 0.0042) of each city. Line and fiber were the major shapes, and white was the most dominant color. Large (1-5 mm) and small (≤ 1 mm) MP particles accounted for 50% each. Multiple correspondence analysis as a new methodological approach was conducted to elucidate the sources of MPs for the first time. The potential sources of MPs included daily use, fishing, agricultural, and industrial productions. This work provides information about MP contamination for future studies on freshwater systems and new insights into the source apportionment of MPs.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Plásticos , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131520, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298294

RESUMO

The remediation of oil spills and treatment of oily wastewater remains challenging to cope with nowadays. This has caused a surge in demand on adsorbent materials with multi-functionalities to effectively separate oils and nonpolar solvents from water. A superhydrophobic composite aerogel prepared from industrial waste-derived leached carbon black waste (LCBW) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was developed in this work via conventional freeze-casting followed by surface coating. The composite aerogel was ultralight and porous with porosity >85% and tunable density ranging between 0.015 and 0.065 g/cm3. It was found that the embedded LCBW in the PVA network is crucial to impart superhydrophobicity and superoleophilicity to the aerogel as it enhances the surface roughness. Wettability test showed that composite aerogel prepared from 0.5 wt% PVA at PVA/LCBW ratio of 1 exhibited the highest water contact angle (156.7 ± 2.9°). LCBW also improved the thermal stability of the composite aerogel. With its superior selectivity, PVA/LCBW aerogel was used as selective adsorbent for a variety of oils and organic solvents. The adsorption test showed that the composite aerogel exhibited an adsorption capacity up to 35 times its original weight and could be reused repeatedly and easily recovered through a simple drying method.


Assuntos
Álcool de Polivinil , Água , Géis , Óleos , Óleos Vegetais , Fuligem , Molhabilidade
3.
Cancer Lett ; 524: 151-160, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655667

RESUMO

Members of the PI3K signaling pathway, especially PIK3CA, the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of the PI3K complex, are highly mutated and amplified in various cancer types, including non-small cell lung cancer. Although PI3K inhibitors have been used in clinics for follicular lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, no agents targeting PI3K aberrations in lung cancer have been approved by the FDA so far. In this study, we observed that PIK3CA-E545K, the most common mutation in lung cancer, harbored a modest induction of stem-like properties in lung epithelial cells, and drove development of adenocarcinoma autochthonously when paired with p53 loss in a murine mouse model. We also found that PIK3CA-mutant of amplified lung cancer cells were sensitive to EZH2 inhibition. EZH2 inhibition synergized with PI3K inhibition in human cancer cells in vitro and worked together efficiently in vivo. Mechanistically, EZH2 inhibition cooperated with PI3K inhibition to produce a more potent suppression of phospho-AKT downstream of PI3K. This study suggests a promising combination therapy to combat lung cancers with PIK3CA mutation or amplification. Both copanlisib, the PI3K inhibitor, and tazemetostat, the EZH2 inhibitor, are FDA-approved, which should enhance the clinical translation of this work.

4.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 4949-4955, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858035

RESUMO

Background: Antibiotic combination is commonly used to treat multidrug-resistant pathogens. Reports have indicated that tigecycline use is associated with hypofibrinogenemia. However, whether the bleeding risk of tigecycline is higher than that of other antibiotics remains unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the bleeding risk between colistin-tigecycline and colistin-carbapenem treatment. Methods: This retrospective cohort study enrolled adult patients treated with colistin along with tigecycline or carbapenems (doripenem, imipenem-cilastatin, or meropenem) for ˃72 hours during hospitalization. The primary outcome was major bleeding events, which were determined by a hemoglobin drop of ≥2 g/d and receipt of blood transfusions with whole blood or packed red blood cells. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to determine risk factors for bleeding events. Results: In total, 106 and 268 patients in the colistin-tigecycline and colistin-carbapenem groups met the criteria for analysis, respectively. The two groups did not differ significantly in demographic data, except for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum creatinine (SCr) and ulcer disease. The colistin-tigecycline group had a higher ALT, SCr and a lower proportion of ulcer disease. Major bleeding events did not differ significantly between the colistin-tigecycline and colistin-carbapenem groups (12.26% vs 9.33%, P = 0.40). Antibiotic duration [OR = 1.06 (1.02-1.11), P=0.007)] and anticoagulant use [OR = 2.16 (1.05-4.42), P=0.04] were associated with major bleeding events. Conclusion: Colistin-tigecycline treatment was not associated with a higher bleeding risk. Antibiotic duration and concurrent use of anticoagulant were the risk factors of bleeding events.

5.
J Control Release ; 341: 80-94, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793918

RESUMO

In recent times, 3D printing has been gaining traction as a fabrication platform for customizable drug dosages as a form of personalized medicine. While this has been recently demonstrated as oral dosages, there is potential to provide the same customizability and personalization as topical applications for wound healing. In this paper, the application of 3D printing to fabricate hydrogel wound dressings with customizable architectures and drug dosages was investigated. Chitosan methacrylate was synthesized and mixed with Lidocaine Hydrochloride and Levofloxacin respectively along with a photoinitiator before being used to print wound dressings of various designs. These designs were then investigated for their effect on drug release rates and profiles. Our results show the ability of 3D printing to customize drug dosages and drug release rates through co-loading different drugs at various positions and varying the thickness of drug-free layers over drug-loaded layers in the wound dressing respectively. Two scale-up approaches were also investigated for their effects on drug release rates from the wound dressing. The influence that each wound dressing design has on the release profile of drugs was also shown by fitting them with drug release kinetic models. This study thus shows the feasibility of utilizing 3D printing to fabricate wound dressings with customizable shapes, drug dosage and drug release rates that can be tuned according to the patient's requirements.

6.
J Neurooncol ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hematological adverse events (HAEs) are common during treatment for glioblastoma (GBM), usually associated with temozolomide (TMZ). Their clinical value is uncertain, as few investigations have focused on outcomes for HAEs during GBM treatment. METHODS: We combined data from two randomized clinical trials, RTOG 0525 and RTOG 0825, to analyze HAEs during treatment for GBM. We investigated differences between chemoradiation and adjuvant therapy, and by regimen received during adjuvant treatment. RESULTS: 1454 patients participated in these trials, of which 1154 (79.4%) developed HAEs. During chemoradiation, 44.4% of patients developed HAEs (54% involving more than one cell line), and were most commonly lymphopenia (50.6%), and thrombocytopenia (47.5%). During adjuvant treatment, 45% of patients presented HAEs (78.6% involving more than one cell line), and were more commonly leukopenia (62.7%), and thrombocytopenia (62.3%). Median overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) were longer in patients with HAEs (OS 19.4 months and PFS 9.9 months) compared to those with other or no adverse events (OS 14.1 months and PFS 5.9 months). There was no significant difference in survival between grade 1 and/or 2 versus grade 3 and/or 4 HAEs. History of HAEs during chemoradiation was a protective factor for presentation of HAEs during adjuvant therapy. CONCLUSION: HAEs are common during GBM treatment, and often involve more than one cell line (more likely during adjuvant therapy). HAEs may be associated with prolonged OS and PFS, particularly during adjuvant therapy. HAEs during chemoradiation was a protective factor for HAEs during adjuvant therapy.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34806795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) have been linked to offspring allergic disorders. However, associations observed in previous studies were inconsistent and might be confounded by unmeasured familial factors. We aimed to examine the associations of maternal weight with offspring allergic disorders by using paternal BMI as a negative control exposure. METHODS: We included the data of 10,522 children from the Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study, 2012-2017. Data on maternal weight were obtained from questionnaires and obstetric records, and paternal weight was collected from questionnaires. Atopic dermatitis (AD) and wheezing at the age of 1 year were defined according to parent-reported physician diagnosis. Risk ratios (RRs) were estimated by log-binominal regression with mutual adjustment for maternal and paternal weight status. RESULTS: By the age of 1 year, 16.2% and 7.9% of children were diagnosed with AD and wheezing, respectively. While maternal pre-pregnancy BMI as a continuous variable was not associated with offspring AD, infants of pre-pregnancy overweight/obese women had a higher risk of AD than those born to normal weight women; no such associations were observed for paternal BMI. Both maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and paternal BMI were positively associated with the risk of offspring wheezing. Maternal GWG was not associated with AD or wheezing. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that maternal pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity might increase the risk of infant AD via intrauterine mechanisms, whereas the association with wheezing might be confounded by uncontrolled familial factors. These findings may be valuable in early-life prevention for offspring allergic diseases.

8.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34828460

RESUMO

Little is known about the effects of seamless hospital discharge planning on long-term care (LTC) costs and effectiveness. This study evaluates the cost and effectiveness of the recently implemented policy from hospital to LTC between patients discharged under seamless transition and standard transition. A total of 49 elderly patients in the standard transition cohort and 119 in the seamless transition cohort were recruited from November 2016 to February 2018. Data collected from medical records included the Multimorbidity Frailty Index, Activities of Daily Living Scale, and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool during hospitalization. Multiple linear regression and Cox regression models were used to explore risk factors for medical resource utilization and medical outcomes. After adjustment for effective predictors, the seamless cohort had lower direct medical costs, a shorter length of stay, a higher survival rate, and a lower unplanned readmission rate compared to the standard cohort. However, only mean total direct medical costs during hospitalization and 6 months after discharge were significantly (p < 0.001) lower in the seamless cohort (USD 6192) compared to the standard cohort (USD 8361). Additionally, the annual per-patient economic burden in the seamless cohort approximated USD 2.9-3.3 billion. Analysis of the economic burden of disability in the elderly population in Taiwan indicates that seamless transition planning can save approximately USD 3 billion in annual healthcare costs. Implementing this policy would achieve continuous improvement in LTC quality and reduce the financial burden of healthcare on the Taiwanese government.

9.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34828514

RESUMO

Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA) is recommended to mitigate the risk of diabetes. This study explored the PA of adults at risk for diabetes in rural Indonesia and determined the requirements for meeting the recommended PA level. In total, 842 adults were screened using a diabetes risk test in a rural health centre; among them, 342 were at risk of diabetes. The level of PA was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, whereas the associated factors underlying the three domains -individual, support, and environment-were determined by the Influences on Physical Activity Instrument. The data analysis included a three-step multiple linear regression (MLR) and logistic regression (LR). Overall, 40.6% of the participants met the recommended PA. According to the MLR analysis, among males, individuals who gave PA a higher priority and had enough time to perform PA were predicted to have a higher activity energy expenditure (MET-minutes per week). According to the LR analysis, men were more likely to meet the recommended PA, and people who gave PA a lower priority and had less access to space for PA were less likely to meet the recommended PA level. Strategies for promoting PA in rural Indonesia include focusing on women, people who prioritize PA less, and those who have less time and space in which to be physically active.

10.
Am J Cancer Res ; 11(10): 4900-4918, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34765299

RESUMO

Paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (PITX2) is well known to play an essential role in normal embryonic development. Emerging evidence suggests that PITX2 may be involved in human tumorigenesis, but the role of PITX2 in tumour progression remains largely unclear. The expression levels of PITX2 in lung cancer cells were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments were conducted to investigate the biological roles of PITX2 in the phenotype of lung cancer cells. Immunofluorescence staining and transmission electron microscopy were used to observe autophagy. The expression level and clinical significance of PITX2 were determined in a Taiwanese cohort and the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, respectively. Here, we show that PITX2B is the most abundant isoform of the bicoid homeodomain family in lung cancer cells. The enforced expression of PITX2B promoted lung cancer tumorigenesis and progression in vitro and in vivo. The mechanistic analysis revealed that the nuclear localization of PITX2B is correlated with its oncogenic functions and two important nuclear localization signals. In addition, PITX2B knockdown in lung cancer cells caused a marked increase in autophagy and apoptosis, suggesting that PITX2B plays an important role in lung cancer cell survival. Moreover, a high expression of PITX2B was associated with a poor overall survival (P<0.05) in both Taiwanese non-small-cell lung cancer patients and GEO lung cancer cohorts. These results provide new insight into the contribution of PITX2B to lung cancer progression, implicate PITX2B as an important component of cell survival signals and further establish PITX2B as a therapeutic target for lung cancer treatment.

11.
Vet Microbiol ; 264: 109277, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34826648

RESUMO

Avian reoviruses (ARVs) are important pathogens that cause considerable economic losses in poultry farming. To date, host factors that control stabilization of ARV proteins remain largely unknown. In this work we determined that the eukaryotic chaperonin T-complex protein-1 (TCP-1) ring complex (TRiC) is essential for avian reovirus (ARV) replication by stabilizing outer-capsid protein σC, inner core protein σA, and the non-structural protein σNS of ARV. TriC serves as a chaperone of viral proteins and prevent their degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Furthermore, reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the association of viral proteins (σA, σC, and σNS) with TRiC. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that the TRiC chaperonins (CCT2 and CCT5) are colocalized with viral proteins σC, σA, and σNS of ARV. In this study, inhibition of TRiC chaperonins (CCT2 and CCT5) by the inhibitor HSF1A or shRNAs significantly reduced expression levels of the σC, σA, and σNS proteins of ARV as well as virus yield, suggesting that the TRiC complex functions in stabilization of viral proteins and virus replication. This study provides novel insights into TRiC chaperonin governing virus replication via stabilization of outer-capsid protein σC, inner core protein σA, and the non-structural protein σNS of ARV.

12.
Virus Res ; 308: 198634, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793873

RESUMO

Avian polyomavirus (APV) is a non-enveloped virus with a circular double-stranded DNA genome approximately 5000 bp in length. APV was first reported in fledgling budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) as the causative agent of budgerigar fledgling disease, resulting in high parrot mortality rates in the 1980s. This disease has been observed worldwide, and APV has a wide host range including budgerigars, cockatoos, lorikeets, lovebirds, and macaws. Twenty APV isolates have been collected from healthy and symptomatic parrots in Taiwan from 2015 to 2019. These isolates were then amplified via polymerase chain reaction, after which the whole genomes of these isolates were sequenced. The overall APV-positive rate was 14.2%, and the full lengths of the APV Taiwan isolates varied from 4971 to 4982 bps. The APV genome contains an early region that encodes two regulatory proteins (the large tumor antigen (Large T-Ag) and the small tumor antigen (Small t-Ag)) and a late region which encodes the capsid proteins VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4. The nucleotide identities of the VP1 and VP4 genes ranged from 98.7 to 100%, whereas the nucleotide sequence of the Large T-Ag gene had the highest identity (99.2-100%) relative to other APV isolates from the GenBank database. A phylogenetic tree based on the whole genome demonstrated that the APV Taiwan isolates were closely related to Japanese and Portuguese isolates. Recombination events were analyzed using the Recombination Detection Program version 4 and APV Taiwan isolate TW-3 was identified as a minor parent of the APV recombinants. In this study, we first reported the characterization of the whole genome sequences of APV Taiwan isolates and their phylogenetic relationships with all APV isolates available in the GenBank database.

13.
Virus Res ; 308: 198647, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838936

RESUMO

This study sought to clone and sequence the interferon-γ (IFN-γ) gene of the Fischer's lovebird parrot (Agapornis fischeri). Raw264.7 cells treated with the expressed IFN-γ protein exhibited an upregulation in inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression and nitric oxide (NO) production coupled with increases in phagocytosis and pinocytosis, as well as an induction of interferon-stimulated genes through the activation of the NF-κB factor, all of which are indicators of the innate immune responses of the activated macrophages. Similar to the IFN-γ protein of other species, the NO production activity of the parrot IFN-γ protein decreased by 80% after exposure at 60 °C for 4 min. Additionally, only half of the NO production activity of the parrot IFN-γ protein remained upon exposure to HCl for 30 min. These findings suggested that the parrot IFN-γ protein was heat-labile and sensitive to acidic conditions. Therefore, all of these effects contributed to the blockage of the uptake of BFDV virus-like particles (VLPs) by cells, the nuclear entry of the Cap protein of BFDV VLPs, and the clearance of the virus from BFDV-infected parrots by the IFN-γ protein of Agapornis fischeri. This study is the first to describe the cloning of the IFN-γ gene of Agapornis fischeri and characterize the anti-beak and feather disease virus activity of the IFN-γ protein of Agapornis fischeri.

14.
Front Genet ; 12: 771435, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759963

RESUMO

Developing a biomedical-explainable and validatable text mining pipeline can help in cancer gene panel discovery. We create a pipeline that can contextualize genes by using text-mined co-occurrence features. We apply Biomedical Natural Language Processing (BioNLP) techniques for literature mining in the cancer gene panel. A literature-derived 4,679 × 4,630 gene term-feature matrix was built. The EGFR L858R and T790M, and BRAF V600E genetic variants are important mutation term features in text mining and are frequently mutated in cancer. We validate the cancer gene panel by the mutational landscape of different cancer types. The cosine similarity of gene frequency between text mining and a statistical result from clinical sequencing data is 80.8%. In different machine learning models, the best accuracy for the prediction of two different gene panels, including MSK-IMPACT (Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets), and Oncomine cancer gene panel, is 0.959, and 0.989, respectively. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis confirmed that the neural net model has a better prediction performance (Area under the ROC curve (AUC) = 0.992). The use of text-mined co-occurrence features can contextualize each gene. We believe the approach is to evaluate several existing gene panels, and show that we can use part of the gene panel set to predict the remaining genes for cancer discovery.

15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27414, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global variation in the incidence and outcomes of colorectal cancer (CRC) is associated with many factors, among which screening policies and early treatment play substantial roles. However, screening programs and intense treatment are expensive and require good health care systems. For CRC, no clear association has yet been established between clinical outcomes and health care disparities. METHOD: We used the mortality-to-incidence ratio (MIR) of CRC as a measure of clinical outcomes for comparison with the Human Development Index (HDI), current health expenditure (CHE), and current health expenditure as a percentage of gross domestic product (CHE/GDP) using linear regression analyses. We included 171 countries based on data from the GLOBOCAN 2018 database. RESULTS: We found that the regions with the lowest MIRs for CRC are Oceania and North America. A significant correlation was observed between incidence, mortality and HDI, CHE, and CHE/GDP among the countries enrolled. Furthermore, lower MIRs of CRC significantly correlated with higher HDI, CHE, and CHE/GDP (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION: : CRC MIRs tend to be most favorable in countries with high health care expenditures and a high HDI.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Saúde Global , Produto Interno Bruto/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Incidência
16.
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731519

RESUMO

Vitiligo is a common, psychologically devastating pigmentary disorder. Surgical graftings are used to treat stable vitiligo when medical treatment fails. An automated epidermal micrograft harvesting (AEMH) system was first designated to treat wounds, and very few studies investigated the application of AEMH in vitiligo. In this study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of the AEMH system in patients with stable segmental and nonsegmental vitiligo. The rate of repigmentation and adverse events was recorded bimonthly for at least 12 months. We analyzed the efficacy based on patient characteristics, vitiligo subtypes, and different anatomical locations. A total of 56 depigmented lesions from 34 patients were included. 95.50% of the automated epidermal micrografts were successfully grafted at the recipient sites. There was a significant improvement in Vitiligo Area Scoring Index (VASI) and Dermatologic Life Quality Index (DLQI) in patients treated with AEMH (p < 0.001). The rate of repigmentation by VASI score improves from 96.25 ± 8.59 to 48.30 ± 28.16 after the treatment (p < 0.001). Treatment outcomes were comparable between the patients of segmental and stable nonsegmental vitiligo. The face and neck region achieved a better outcome, followed by the trunk (chest, abdomen, back, and axilla), limbs, and the worse outcome was found in the acral region (p < 0.014). Conclusively, AEMH is an effective treatment procedure with limited adverse events in patients with stable vitiligo. This harvesting method may be a feasible option for vitiligo surgical treatment.

17.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 714790, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721014

RESUMO

Endometriosis is defined as endometrial tissues found outside the uterine cavity. ProEGCG is a prodrug of Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a potent polyphenol found in green tea. It inhibits the development of endometriotic lesions of mouse model in vivo, with higher efficacy and more remarkable anti-oxidative ability than EGCG. Our study aims to identify the molecular binding targets and pharmacological actions of ProEGCG in treating endometriosis. Protein target interaction study is essential to fully characterize the mechanism of actions, related therapeutic effects, and side effects. We employed a combined approach, starting with an in silico reverse screening of protein targets and molecular docking, followed by in vitro cellular thermal shift assay (CESTA) to assess the stability of protein-small molecule complexes. Then microarray and immunostaining of endometriotic lesions in mice in vivo confirmed the molecular interaction of the selected targets after treatment. Our study identified enzymes nicotinamide nucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNAT)1 and NMNAT3 as protein targets of ProEGCG in silico and in vitro and were overexpressed after ProEGCG treatment in vivo. These findings suggested that participation in nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism potentially regulated the redox status of endometriosis via its antioxidative capacities through binding to the potential therapeutic targets of ProEGCG.

18.
J Clin Nurs ; 2021 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34723423

RESUMO

DESIGN: This study applied a cross-sectional, descriptive correlational design. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between cognitive function and self-reported antihypertensive medication adherence in middle-aged and older hypertensive women. BACKGROUND: Although medication adherence is an essential key for preventing complications from hypertension, poor medication adherence is common among middle-aged and older hypertensive women. Taking medications involves a cognitive process. Little is known about the contribution of cognitive function to adherence to antihypertensive medication in middle-aged and older women. METHODS: This study used a convenience sample of 137 women aged ≥50 years recruited from a medical centre in southern Taiwan. Participants completed a survey of demographic and clinical information and self-reported medication adherence, and received cognitive function tests. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between cognitive function and medication adherence. This study followed the STROBE guidelines. RESULTS: More than one-fourth of the women (27%) reported poor adherence. Women with poor adherence appeared to have a significantly lower memory than women with good adherence. Memory was positively associated with antihypertensive medication adherence after controlling for age, blood pressure and duration of hypertension. Working memory, executive function and psychomotor speed were not significantly related to antihypertensive medication adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced memory function was associated with poorer antihypertensive medication adherence among middle-aged and older women. Middle-aged and older women with hypertension and poor memory performance are at risk of poor medication adherence. Future prospective studies examining the causal relationship between cognitive function and antihypertensive medication adherence are warranted. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Nurses could evaluate the memory of middle-aged and older hypertensive women when assessing antihypertensive medication adherence in clinical practice and provide relevant interventions.

19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(21)2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770534

RESUMO

Positron emission tomography (PET) can provide functional images and identify abnormal metabolic regions of the whole-body to effectively detect tumor presence and distribution. The filtered back-projection (FBP) algorithm is one of the most common images reconstruction methods. However, it will generate strike artifacts on the reconstructed image and affect the clinical diagnosis of lesions. Past studies have shown reduction in strike artifacts and improvement in quality of images by two-dimensional morphological structure operators (2D-MSO). The morphological structure method merely processes the noise distribution of 2D space and never considers the noise distribution of 3D space. This study was designed to develop three-dimensional-morphological structure operators (3D MSO) for nuclear medicine imaging and effectively eliminating strike artifacts without reducing image quality. A parallel operation was also used to calculate the minimum background standard deviation of the images for three-dimensional morphological structure operators with the optimal response curve (3D-MSO/ORC). As a result of Jaszczak phantom and rat verification, 3D-MSO/ORC showed better denoising performance and image quality than the 2D-MSO method. Thus, 3D MSO/ORC with a 3 × 3 × 3 mask can reduce noise efficiently and provide stability in FBP images.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Artefatos , Animais , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagens de Fantasmas , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Ratos
20.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-8, 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence from a meta-analysis indicates that maternal prenatal exposure, single or repeated, to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or non-opioid painkillers, is associated with increased risk of cerebral palsy and cognitive-behavioral disorders in offspring. One potential route of action is interference with the neurulation process and hence early brain development. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of prenatal exposure to common NSAIDs and non-opioid drugs on neurulation using an in vitro whole embryo culture system. METHODS: Mouse embryos from in-bred Institute of Cancer Research albino strain mice were exteriorized on embryonic day 7.5 and cultured for 48 h in either 1 mL heat-inactivated rat serum + 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide ("Control") or 1 mL of rat serum supplemented with six increasing concentrations of laboratory-grade aspirin, paracetamol, and ibuprofen ("Experimental"). After culture, embryo morphological and developmental parameters were documented using standardized scoring systems at each dosage concentration. The assessed concentration in rat serum culture ranged from 1.23 to 13.57 mg/mL for aspirin and 0.06-4.93 mg/mL for paracetamol and ibuprofen. The equivalent respective human dosages were 600-6600 mg and 30-2400 mg. RESULTS: Between-group comparisons ("Control" vs "Experimental") and post-hoc pair-wise tests, adjusted for multiple comparisons, indicating no statistically significant effect on crown-rump length (p > .21), head length (p > .28), somite number (p > .25), incidence of absent hindlimb buds (p > .18), yolk sac circulation score (p > .07) and posterior neuropore closure (p > .35) in the aspirin, paracetamol and ibuprofen experiments. All embryos had forelimb buds, closed anterior neuropores and none had neural tube defects. CONCLUSION: This study has demonstrated that there are no safety concerns regarding high-dose aspirin, ibuprofen, and paracetamol on mice's embryonic development.

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