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1.
Surg Endosc ; 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF) and radiofrequency ablation (Stretta) are representative endoscopic treatments for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), but they have not been directly compared. This systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) evaluated the comparative effects of Stretta, TIF, and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the efficacy of either the Stretta, TIF, or PPIs/sham procedure for GERD treatment. The NMA was conducted using frequentist methods. RESULTS: A total of 516 participants from 10 RCTs were included in this NMA. Both Stretta (mean difference, MD - 9.77, 95% confidence interval, CI - 12.85 to - 6.70) and TIF (MD - 12.22, 95% CI - 15.93 to - 8.52) were significantly superior to PPIs at improving health-related quality of life (HRQL) scores and heartburn scores (Stretta: MD - 1.53, 95% CI - 2.98 to - 0.08; TIF: MD - 9.60, 95% CI - 17.79 to - 1.41). Stretta (MD - 3.77, 95% CI - 6.88 to - 0.65) was less effective at increasing lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure than TIF. Stretta was significantly superior to TIF (MD - 3.25, 95% CI - 5.95 to - 0.56) at improving esophageal acid exposure. Regarding the decrease in PPIs utility and esophagitis incidence, no significant differences were found between TIF and Stretta. CONCLUSION: In terms of short-term reduction of the HRQL score and heartburn score in patients with GERD, TIF and Stretta may be comparable to each other, and both may be more effective than PPIs. TIF may increase the LES pressure in comparison with Stretta and PPIs. PPIs may reduce the percentage of time pH < 4.0 when compared with TIF. This evidence should be interpreted with caution given the small number of included studies and inherent heterogeneity. Registration No. CRD42020188345.

2.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573292

RESUMO

Carbon fiber dispersion has a substantial influence on the properties of amorphous calcium silicate hydrate-based contact-hardening composites. In this study, a mixture of carbon fiber and calcium silicate hydrate powder was compressed into solid composites at 40 MPa for one minute. The mechanical properties and electrical resistivity of the solid materials were measured, and the dispersion of carbon fibers was quantitatively evaluated by digital image processing technology. The Taipalu model was used to build the correlation between the electrical resistivity of the composites and the carbon fiber dispersion. The results of the electrical resistivity showed that the down threshold of carbon fiber content in the contact-hardening composites was 1.0 wt.% and the electrical resistivity was 30,000 Ω·cm. As the fiber content increased to 2.0 wt.%, the electrical resistivity dropped to 2550 Ω·cm, which was attributed to the increase in fiber dispersion uniformity in the solid composites, and the value of the fiber distribution coefficient reached a maximum value of 0.743. A subsequent decrease in the uniformity of the fiber dispersion was observed at a high fiber content. In addition, the carbon fiber content showed a slight influence on the fiber orientation in the contact-hardening composites.

3.
Drug Discov Today ; 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561465

RESUMO

Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is the primary treatment for male testosterone deficiency. This therapy raises concerns over the risk of prostate cancer (PC), because testosterone has historically been considered the fuel for PC. We discuss the re-evaluation of the relationship between androgen and PC, and highlight the safety of TRT in the treatment of symptomatic men with testosterone deficiency who have low-risk disease after treatment for localized PC with surgery or radiation. Furthermore, we review the clinical application and potential mechanisms of bipolar androgen therapy (BAT) in the treatment of castration-resistant PC, emphasizing that much remains to be done before BAT can be broadly applied.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(4): e23616, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530163

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Pediatric femoral shaft combined with ipsilateral femoral neck fractures are very rare but challenging injuries fraught with the development of avascular necrosis, coxa vara, and leg length discrepancy. Majority of the previous reports indicated the neck femur fracture was fixed with cannulated screws or/and pins, femoral shaft fracture was stabilized with a plate and screws. However, we used cannulated screws combined with elastic stable intramedullary nails to minimally invasive procedures treat this type of injury and achieved good follow-up results. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 7-year-old boy (Case 1) was hospitalized due to a traffic accident resulting in swelling and deformity of the right thigh accompanied by limited mobility of hip and knee. A 5-year-old male child (Case 2) presented with pain and swelling in the bilateral lower limb after fall from approximately 12 feet. DIAGNOSES: Physical examination, X-ray film, and computed tomography were performed. Both patients were diagnosed with ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fracture. INTERVENTIONS: The fractures were reduced closed by image-intensifier imaging. Two partially threaded cancellous screws were used to fix femoral neck fracture, and elastic intramedullary nails were performed to stable the femoral shaft fracture. Postoperatively, the patients were immobilized in a one-and-a-half hip spica cast for six weeks. The internal fixations were removed after one year. OUTCOMES: Case one was follow-up at 14 months and the other one was followed up for 3 years. And at the last follow-up showed a normal and painless hip function. No clinical complications were found during follow-up visit, including head penetration, implant failure, fracture nonunion, avascular necrosis and hip varus deformity. LESSONS: Clinician should carefully check and read relevant imaging data to avoid missed diagnosis. And the internal fixation method described in this paper may be more minimally invasive.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Fêmur/cirurgia , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/cirurgia , Colo do Fêmur/lesões , Fixação Intramedular de Fraturas/métodos , Pinos Ortopédicos , Placas Ósseas , Parafusos Ósseos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colo do Fêmur/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino
5.
J Clin Microbiol ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597256

RESUMO

Ante-mortem detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MHP) infection in swine production systems has relied on antibody testing, but the availability of tests based on DNA detection and novel diagnostic specimens, e.g., tracheal swabs and oral fluids, have the potential to improve MHP surveillance. A field study was performed over a 14-week period during which ten pigs in one pen at the center of a room with 1,250 six-week-old pigs housed in 46 pens were intratracheally inoculated with MHP Thereafter, one tracheal sample, four serum samples, and one oral fluid sample, were collected from every pen at two-week intervals. Tracheal and oral fluid samples were tested for MHP DNA and serum samples for MHP antibody. Test results were modeled using a hierarchical Bayesian model based on a latent spatial piecewise exponential survival model to estimate the probability of detection by within-pen prevalence, number of positive pens in the barn, sample allocation, sample size, and specimen over time. Analysis showed that tracheal samples provided the earliest detection, especially at large sample sizes. While serum samples are more commonly collected and cheaper to test, high probability of detection estimates were only obtained 30 days post-exposure at large sample sizes. In all scenarios, probability of detection estimates for oral fluids were significantly lower compared to tracheal and serum samples, within 30 days. Ultimately, the choice of specimen type, sample number, and assay will depend on testing objectives and economics, but the estimates provided herein will assist in the design of MHP surveillance and monitoring programs for different situations.

6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625227

RESUMO

Herein, a silicate-enhanced flow-through electro-Fenton system with a nanoconfined catalyst was rationally designed and demonstrated for the highly efficient, rapid, and selective degradation of antibiotic tetracycline. The key active component of this system is the Fe2O3 nanoparticle filled carbon nanotube (Fe2O3-in-CNT) filter. Under an electric field, this composite filter enabled in situ H2O2 generation, which was converted to reactive oxygen species accompanied by the redox cycling of Fe3+/Fe2+. The presence of the silicate electrolyte significantly boosted the H2O2 yield by preventing the O-O bond dissociation of the adsorbed OOH*. Compared with the surface coated Fe2O3 on the CNT (Fe2O3-out-CNT) filter, the Fe2O3-in-CNT filter demonstrated 1.65 times higher kL value toward the degradation of the antibiotic tetracycline. Electron paramagnetic resonance and radical quenching tests synergistically verified that the dominant radical species was the 1O2 or HO· in the confined Fe2O3-in-CNT or unconfined Fe2O3-out-CNT system, respectively. The flow-through configuration offered improved tetracycline degradation kinetics, which was 5.1 times higher (at flow rate of 1.5 mL min-1) than that of a conventional batch reactor. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry measurements and theoretical calculations suggested reduced toxicity of fragments of tetracycline formed. This study provides a novel strategy by integrating state-of-the-art material science, Fenton chemistry, and microfiltration technology for environmental remediation.

7.
J Food Biochem ; : e13661, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595138

RESUMO

The degraded polysaccharides from Porphyra yezoensis (DPPY) prepared using the H2 O2 -Vc method under optimized conditions were isolated and purified by DEAE Cellulose-52, and Sephadex G-100, providing four pure components, namely, DPPY-0, DPPY-0.1, DPPY-0.3, and DPPY-0.5. Their relative molecular weights were measured to be 10.8, 10.7, 18.7, and 35.5 kDa, respectively. GC-MS analysis revealed that all the four fractions were mainly composed of galactose, together with a small portion of glucose, mannose, xylose, and rhamnose. Structural analysis revealed that the purified polysaccharides mainly possess a backbone of (1 â†’ 3)-ß-D-galactose (1 â†’ 4)-3,6-anhydro-α-L-galactopyranose (G-A) units and (1 â†’ 3)-ß-D-galactose (1 â†’ 4)-α-L-galactose-6-sulfate (G-L6S) units. They were found to promote the proliferation of RAW264.7 macrophages and enhance phagocytosis of the RAW264.7 cells. Antioxidant assays indicated that DPPY-0.5 possessed the most potent reducing power and free radical scavenging ability among the four purified polysaccharides. High sulfate content and proper molecular weight of these fractions are favorable to their immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Porphyra yezoensis, common economic red algae widely distributed in East Asian countries, contains a high content of polysaccharides with a variety of biological activities. However, P. yezoensis polysaccharide (PPY) has not been well utilized due to the relatively low biological activities and lack of understanding of its structure-activity relationship. Thus, it is necessary to improve the bioactivities and elucidate the structure-activity relationship of this polysaccharide for its practical use. In the present work, four purified fractions (DPPY-0, DPPY-0.1, DPPY-0.3, and DPPY-0.5) were isolated from the degraded P. yezoensis polysaccharide, and were investigated for their antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities. The results of the present work will lay a foundation for the application of the degraded P. yezoensis polysaccharide in the food industry as a functional food ingredient.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(5): e24385, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592885

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The transformation of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) to acute mononuclear leukemia during treatment is a rare clinical phenomenon, and no CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBPA) double mutations have been reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 42-year-old male was hospitalized for ecchymosis of the left lower limb for more than 1 month, gingival bleeding, and fatigue for 10 days, with aggravation of symptoms for 2 days. DIAGNOSIS: A diagnosis of APL was based on bone marrow (BM) morphology, immunophenotyping, fusion gene analysis, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. At a 1-year follow-up of maintenance treatment, he developed thrombocytopenia and was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with a CEBPA double mutation by BM morphology, immunotyping, chromosomal analysis, polymerase chain reaction, and next generation sequencing. INTERVENTIONS: Complete remission of APL was achieved after all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide double induction therapy, followed by 2 cycles of mitoxantrone and cytarabine, and 1 cycle of idarubicin and cytarabine. Thereafter, sequential maintenance therapy of arsenic trioxide + all-trans retinoic acid + methotrexate was started. In the fourth cycle of maintenance therapy, APL was transformed into AML with a CEBPA double mutation. After 1 cycle of idarubicin and cytarabine, the patient achieved complete remission and received 3 cycles of idarubicin and cytarabine and three cycles of high-dose cytarabine as consolidation therapy. OUTCOMES: At present, the patient is in continuous remission with minimal residual disease negative for both of APL and AML. CONCLUSION: AML with a CEBPA double mutation after APL treatment is very rare, thus the prognosis of this event will require further observation.


Assuntos
Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/genética , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Mutação
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 386, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452268

RESUMO

Plasmons in two-dimensional (2D) materials beyond graphene have recently gained much attention. However, the experimental investigation is limited due to the lack of suitable materials. Here, we experimentally demonstrate localized plasmons in a correlated 2D charge-density-wave (CDW) material: 2H-TaSe2. The plasmon resonance can cover a broad spectral range from the terahertz (40 µm) to the telecom (1.55 µm) region, which is further tunable by changing thickness and dielectric environments. The plasmon dispersion flattens at large wave vectors, resulted from the universal screening effect of interband transitions. More interestingly, anomalous temperature dependence of plasmon resonances associated with CDW excitations is observed. In the CDW phase, the plasmon peak close to the CDW excitation frequency becomes wider and asymmetric, mimicking two coupled oscillators. Our study not only reveals the universal role of the intrinsic screening on 2D plasmons, but also opens an avenue for tunable plasmons in 2D correlated materials.

11.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 1012-1017, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470826

RESUMO

Neutral titanium-metal carbonyl complexes with the chemical formula Ti(CO)n (n = 4-7) are produced in the gas phase by the reactions of titanium atoms with carbon monoxide in a pulsed laser vaporization-supersonic expansion source. Their infrared absorption spectra in the carbonyl stretching frequency region are measured by infrared plus vacuum ultraviolet (IR+VUV) two-color ionization spectroscopy based on a tunable VUV free electron laser. Infrared spectroscopy in conjunction with quantum chemical calculations confirm that all of these complexes have unexpected titanium ketenylidene OTiCCO(CO)n-2 structures. Bonding analysis indicates that the OTiCCO core structure can be described by the bonding interactions between a TiO+ cation in the doublet ground state and a doublet ground state of CCO-. The results reveal that the C-O bond breaking and C-C bond formation proceed efficiently in the reactions between laser-vaporized titanium atoms and carbon monoxide.

12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(3): 4024-4044, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428592

RESUMO

Colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) is one of the most common gastrointestinal malignant tumors and is characterized by a high mortality rate. Here, we integrated whole-exome and RNA sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and investigated the mutational spectra of COAD-overexpressed genes to define clinically relevant diagnostic/prognostic signatures and to unmask functional relationships with both tumor-infiltrating immune cells and regulatory miRNAs. We identified 24 recurrently mutated genes (frequency > 5%) encoding putative COAD-specific neoantigens. Five of them (NEB, DNAH2, ABCA12, CENPF and CELSR1) had not been previously reported as COAD biomarkers. Through machine learning-based feature selection, four early-stage-related (COL11A1, TG, SOX9, and DNAH2) and four late-stage-related (COL11A1, SOX9, TG and BRCA2) candidate neoantigen-encoding genes were selected as diagnostic signatures. They respectively showed 100% and 97% accuracy in predicting early- and late-stage patients, and an 8-gene signature had excellent prognostic performance predicting disease-free survival (DFS) in COAD patients. We also found significant correlations between the 24 candidate neoantigen genes and the abundance and/or activation status of 22 tumor-infiltrating immune cell types and 56 regulatory miRNAs. Our novel neoantigen-based signatures may improve diagnostic and prognostic accuracy and help design targeted immunotherapies for COAD treatment.

13.
J Hazard Mater ; 408: 124961, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418518

RESUMO

The activation of carbon atoms in biochar is an important approach for realizing the reuse of discarded woody biomass resources. In this work, a strategy for the construction of carbon-based catalysts was proposed with Magnoliaceae root biomass as a carbon source, doped by SnS2 and further decorated with heteropoly acid. The introduction of SnS2 can activate the carbon atom and destroy the electronic inertness of the disordered biochar with 002 planes. In addition, the synergy between the Keggin unit of phosphotungstic acid and biochar/SnS2 can suppress recombination of e--h+ carriers. The adsorption and photocatalysis experiments results showed that the efficiency of removing As(III) by biochar/SnS2/phosphotungstic acid (biochar/SnS2/PTA) systems was 1.5 times that of biochar/SnS2 systems, and the concentration of total arsenic in the biochar/SnS2/PTA composite system gradually decreased during the photocatalysis process. The formation of As-POMs can simultaneously realize As(III) photooxidation and As(V) coprecipitation. The phase transfer of arsenic by As-POMs could significantly increase the As adsorption capacity. Specifically, the composites achieved the conversion of S atoms at the interface of biochar into SO4•- radicals to enhance the As(III) photooxidation performance.

14.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 7467156, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510841

RESUMO

Nephrotoxicity is a common complication of cisplatin chemotherapy and, thus, limits the clinical application of cisplatin. In this work, the effects of catalpol (CAT), a bioactive ingredient extracted from Rehmannia glutinosa, on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and antitumor efficacy were comprehensively investigated. Specifically, the protective effect of CAT on cisplatin-induced injury was explored in mice and HK-2 cells. In vivo, CAT administration strikingly suppressed cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction, morphology damage, apoptosis, and inflammation. In vitro, CAT induced activation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate- (AMP-) activated protein kinase (AMPK), improved mitochondrial function, and decreased generation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to a reduction in inflammation and apoptosis, which ultimately protected from cisplatin-induced injury. However, the beneficial effects of CAT were mostly blocked by coincubation with compound C. Furthermore, molecular docking results indicated that CAT had a higher affinity for AMPK than other AMPK activators such as danthron, phenformin, and metformin. Importantly, CAT possessed the ability to reverse drug resistance without compromising the antitumor properties of cisplatin. These findings suggest that CAT exerts positive effects against cisplatin-induced renal injury through reversing drug resistance via the mitochondrial-dependent pathway without affecting the anticancer activity of cisplatin.

15.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(2): 50, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495877

RESUMO

A controlled method to prepare glutathione-protected bimetallic gold-platinum nanoclusters (Au-PtNCs) has been established. The Au-PtNCs show either strong red (625 nm) or near-infrared (NIR, 805 nm) emission. Further characterizations indicated that the average particle size grows from 1.42 to 1.78 nm, the larger particles being responsible for the redshift of emission. The NIR emitted Au-PtNCs are applied as a novel ratiometric probe of Ag(I), which induces a new emission peak at ~635 nm and quenches the initial emission gradually. The determination shows very high selectivity toward Ag(I) among other metal ions. A limit of determination (10 nM) and the linear range (0.10 to 15 µM) are achieved, which is much lower than the EPA mandate of 0.46 µM for Ag(I) in drinking water. The response mechanism is attributed to the fact that the added Ag(I) has been reduced by the core of Au-PtNCs and deposited on the surface, which induces new fluorescence emission around 635 nm. In addition, the ratiometric method is feasible for Ag(I) determination in serum serum with good recovery (between 98.3% and 102.0%, n = 3), showing very high application potential. The present study provides a controlled method to prepare Au-PtNCs with strong red and NIR emission and supplies a novel NIR ratiometric probe of Ag(I). Schematic presentation of the controlled preparation of glutathione-protected bimetallic gold-platinum nanoclusters (Au-PtNCs) with either red or near-infrared (NIR) emission, and application in ratiometric detection of Ag(I) with high selectivity and sensitivity.

16.
Bioresour Technol ; 323: 124652, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421835

RESUMO

The aim of this present research is to enhance the squalene production in Yarrowia lipolytica using pathway engineering and bioprocess engineering. Firstly, to improve the production of squalene, the endogenous HMG-CoA reductase (HMG1) was overexpressed in Y. lipolytica to yield 208.88 mg/L squalene. Secondly, the HMG1 and diacylglycerol acyltranferase (DGA1) were co-overexpressed, the derived recombinant Y. lipolytica SQ-1 strain produced 439.14 mg/L of squalene. Thirdly, by optimizing the fermentation medium, the improved titer of squalene with 514.34 mg/L was obtained by the engineered strain SQ-1 grown on YPD-80 medium. Finally, by optimizing the addition concentrations of acetate, citrate and terbinafine, the 731.18 mg/L squalene was produced in the engineered strain SQ-1 with the addition of 0.5 mg/L terbinafine. This work describes the highest reported squalene titer in Y. lipolytica to date. This study will provide the foundation for further engineering Y. lipolytica capable of cost-efficiently producing squalene.


Assuntos
Yarrowia , Fermentação , Engenharia Metabólica , Esqualeno , Yarrowia/genética
17.
Food Microbiol ; 94: 103643, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279069

RESUMO

Our purpose was to investigate the main bacterial microbiota and volatile profiles in the Chinese traditional dry-cured product-Jinhua ham during different processing stages and to analyze the role of the main microbiota in the formation of characteristic flavor. We determined the microbiota of Jinhua ham by using 16 S high throughput sequencing, and found that Staphylococcus constituted the predominant microbiota throughout the flavor formation process. Based on the volatile profiles of Jinhua dry-cured products from 11 different processing via SPME-GC-MS analysis, Aldehydes were the main groups of volatiles, with the most abundant ones being hexanal (13.89%) and nonanal (3.96%). To further investigate the relationship between predominant microbiota and the major volatile compounds in Jinhua ham, we screened and isolated genus Staphylococcus with high protease and lipase activities. The main Staphylococcus isolates, S. saprophyticus (53.4%) and S. equorum (31.0%) are related to the yields of aldehydes by producing hexanal, nonanal, benzaldehyde, and phenylacetaldehyde, indicating their contributions on the formation of characteristic flavor substances in Jinhua ham.

18.
J Viral Hepat ; 28(3): 577-578, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382164

RESUMO

We are glad to respond to the concerns of Drs. Levy and Terrault about our articles on the mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in HBeAg-positive mothers. We agree with Drs. Levy and Terrault that antiviral therapy of HBV during pregnancy could effectively decrease the MTCT, and this strategy has been recommended by WHO for pregnant women with a high viral load. However, the long-term influences of the abrupt cessation of antiretroviral drugs in mothers and prenatal exposure to antiviral drugs in newborns are not completely understood and are still under investigation. And not all pregnant mothers would accept this regiment due to the medication availability and individual willingness. It makes sense to study the influential factors on MTCT among mothers with high-risk transmission but not taking antiviral drugs. Despite the relatively large number of subjects included in our cohort (N = 857), post hoc power computation shows that the test efficacy is far from adequate to detect the association between delivery mode or feeding type and HBV MTCT. Therefore, we summarized the relevant studies to reach a relatively reasonable conclusion in HBsAg- and HBeAg-positive pregnant mothers not taking antiviral drugs. We provide an alternative option for HBsAg- and HBeAg-positive pregnant mothers who cannot access or defer to antiviral therapy during pregnancy to reduce the risk of HBV transmission to their offspring.

19.
J Hazard Mater ; 402: 123779, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254790

RESUMO

Developing efficient pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) degradation technologies is of scientifical and practical importance to restrain their discharge into natural water environment. This study fabricated and applied a composite material of amorphous MnO2 nanoparticles in-situ anchored titanate nanotubes (AMnTi) to activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for efficient degradation and mineralization of carbamazepine (CBZ). The degradation pathway and toxicity evolution of CBZ during elimination were deeply evaluated through produced intermediates identification and theoretical calculations. AMnTi with a composition of (0.3MnO2)•(Na1.22H0.78Ti3O7) offered high activation efficiency of PMS, which exhibited 21- and 3-times degradation rate of CBZ compared with the pristine TNTs and MnO2, respectively. The high catalytic activity can be attributed to its unique structure, leading to a lattice shrinkage and small pores to confine the PMS molecule onto the interface. Therefore, efficient charge transfer and catalytic activation through MnOTi linkage occurred, and a MnTi cycle mediating catalytic PMS activation was found. Both hydroxyl and sulfate radicals played key roles in CBZ degradation. Theoretical calculations, i.e., density functional theory (DFT) and computational toxicity calculations, combined with intermediates identification revealed that CBZ degradation pathway was hydroxyl addition and NC cleavage. CBZ degradation in this system was also a toxicity-attenuation process.

20.
Prev Vet Med ; 187: 105233, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373958

RESUMO

In this study, five spatially balanced sampling methods, i.e., generalized random-tessellation stratified (GRTS), local pivotal method (LPM), spatially correlated Poisson sampling (SCPS), local cube method (LCUBE), and balanced acceptance sampling (BAS) were compared to simple random sampling (SRS) based on a livestock disease transmission model on a hypothetical region (195 km × 300 km) populated with 6000 farms in terms of the probability of detection by sample size. Given a fixed sample size, four of the five spatially balanced sampling methods provided better performance than SRS, i.e., higher probabilities of detecting at least one infected farms over a range of regional prevalence evaluated (1%-5%). That is, for any given probability of detection, spatially balanced methods required testing fewer farms than SRS. In an era of pandemics, active regional surveillance for early detection of emerging pathogens becomes urgent, yet shrinking budgets impose intractable constraints. The better performance and higher efficiency of spatially balanced sampling methods suggests a potential improvement in regional livestock disease surveillances and a partial solution to the challenge of affordable surveillance.

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