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1.
Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol ; 2019: 6456321, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485283

RESUMO

Background and Objective: Haemophilus influenzae (HI) is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children. In many countries, HI strains are increasingly resistant to ampicillin and other commonly prescribed antibiotics, posing a challenge for effective clinical treatment. This study was undertaken to determine the antibiotic resistance profiles of HI isolates from Chinese children and to provide guidelines for clinical treatment. Methods: Our Infectious Disease Surveillance of Pediatrics (ISPED) collaboration group includes six children's hospitals in different regions of China. The same protocols and guidelines were used by all collaborators for the culture and identification of HI. The Kirby-Bauer method was used to test antibiotic susceptibility, and a cefinase disc was used to detect ß-lactamase activity. Results: We isolated 2073 HI strains in 2016: 83.9% from the respiratory tract, 11.1% from vaginal secretions, and 0.5% from blood. Patients with respiratory isolates were significantly younger than nonrespiratory patients (P < 0.001). Of all 2073 strains, 50.3% were positive for ß-lactamase and 58.1% were resistant to ampicillin; 9.3% were ß-lactamase-negative and ampicillin-resistant. The resistance rates of the HI isolates to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, azithromycin, cefuroxime, ampicillin-sulbactam, cefotaxime, and meropenem were 71.1%, 32.0%, 31.2%, 17.6%, 5.9%, and 0.2%, respectively. Conclusions: More than half of the HI strains isolated from Chinese children were resistant to ampicillin, primarily due to the production of ß-lactamase. Cefotaxime and other third-generation cephalosporins could be the first choice for the treatment of ampicillin-resistant HI infections.

2.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 21(7): 644-649, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315762

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical characteristics, drug sensitivity of isolated strains, and risk factors of drug resistance in children with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). METHODS: The clinical characteristics and drug sensitivity of the isolated strains of 246 hospitalized children with IPD in nine grade A tertiary children's hospitals from January 2016 to June 2018 were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 246 children with IPD, there were 122 males and 124 females. Their ages ranged from 1 day to 14 years, and among them, 68 (27.6%) patients were less than 1 year old, 54 (22.0%) patients were 1 to 2 years old, 97 (39.4%) patients were 2 to 5 years old, and 27 (11.0%) patients were 5 to 14 years old. Pneumonia with sepsis was the most common infection type (58.5%, 144/246), followed by bloodstream infection without focus (19.9%, 49/246) and meningitis (15.0%, 37/246). Forty-nine (19.9%) patients had underlying diseases, and 160 (65.0%) had various risk factors for drug resistance. The isolated Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were 100% sensitive to vancomycin, linezolid, moxifloxacin, and levofloxacin, 90% sensitive to ertapenem, ofloxacin, and ceftriaxone, but had a low sensitivity to erythromycin (4.2%), clindamycin (7.9%), and tetracycline (6.3%). CONCLUSIONS: IPD is more common in children under 5 years old, especially in those under 2 years old. Some children with IPD have underlying diseases, and most of the patients have various risk factors for drug resistance. Pneumonia with sepsis is the most common infection type. The isolated Streptococcus pneumoniae strains are highly sensitive to vancomycin, linezolid, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, ertapenem, and ceftriaxone in children with IPD.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas , Antibacterianos , Ceftriaxona , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Streptococcus pneumoniae
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(24): e15942, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192930

RESUMO

Emergent resistance to antibiotics among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates is a severe problem worldwide. Antibiotic resistance profiles for S pneumoniae isolates identified from pediatric patients in mainland China remains to be established.The clinical features, antimicrobial resistance, and multidrug resistance patterns of S pneumoniae were retrospectively analyzed at 10 children's hospitals in mainland China in 2016.Among the collected 6132 S pneumoniae isolates, pneumococcal diseases mainly occurred in children younger than 5 years old (85.1%). The resistance rate of S pneumoniae to clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was 95.8%, 95.2%, 93.6%, and 66.7%, respectively. The resistance rates of S pneumoniae to penicillin were 86.9% and 1.4% in non-meningitis and meningitis isolates, while the proportions of ceftriaxone resistance were 8.2% and 18.1%, respectively. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was administered to only 4.1% of patients. Penicillin and ceftriaxone resistance, underling diseases, antibiotic resistant risk factors, and poor prognosis appeared more frequently in invasive pneumococcal diseases. The incidence of multidrug resistance (MDR) was 46.1% in patients with invasive pneumococcal disease which was more than in patients with non-invasive pneumococcal disease (18.3%). Patients with invasive pneumococcal disease usually have several MDR coexistence.S pneumoniae isolates showed high resistance to common antibiotics in mainland China. Penicillin and ceftriaxone resistance rate of invasive streptococcal pneumonia patients were significantly higher than that of non-invasive S pneumoniae patients. Alarmingly, 46.1% of invasive clinical isolates were multidrug resistant, so it is important to continued monitor the resistance of S pneumoniae when protein conjugate vaccine (PCV13) is coming in mainland China.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Ceftriaxona/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Eritromicina/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Penicilinas/farmacologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/farmacologia
4.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 181, 2019 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive S. pyogenes diseases are uncommon, serious infections with high case fatality rates (CFR). There are few publications on this subject in the field of pediatrics. This study aimed at characterizing clinical and laboratory aspects of this disease in Chinese children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted and pediatric in-patients with S. pyogenes infection identified by cultures from normally sterile sites were included, who were diagnosed and treated in 9 tertiary hospitals during 2010-2017. RESULTS: A total of 66 cases were identified, in which 37 (56.1%) were male. The median age of these patients, including 11 neonates, was 3.0 y. Fifty-nine (89.4%) isolates were determined from blood. Fever was the major symptom (60/66, 90.9%) and sepsis was the most frequent presentation (64/66, 97.0%, including 42.4% with skin or soft tissue infections and 25.8% with pneumonia. The mean duration of the chief complaint was (3.8 ± 3.2) d. Only 18 (27.3%) patients had been given antibiotics prior to the hospitalization. Among all patients, 15 (22.7%) developed streptococcal toxin shock syndrome (STSS). No S. pyogenes strain was resistant to penicillin, ceftriaxone, or vancomycin, while 88.9% (56/63) and 81.4% (48/59) of the tested isolates were resistant to clindamycin and erythromycin respectively. Most of the patients were treated with ß-lactams antibiotics and 36.4% had been treated with meropenem or imipenem. Thirteen (19.7%) cases died from infection, in which 9 (13.6%) had complication with STSS. CONCLUSIONS: Invasive S. pyogenes infections often developed from skin or soft tissue infection and STSS was the main cause of death in Chinese children. Ongoing surveillance is required to gain a greater understanding of this disease.

6.
World J Pediatr ; 14(4): 335-343, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30062648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children as a population have high antimicrobial prescribing rates which may lead to high resistance of bacteria according to data from some single-center surveys of antibiotic prescribing rates in China. The acquirement of baseline data of antibiotic prescribing is the basis of developing intervention strategies on inappropriate antimicrobial prescriptions. Few studies show clearly the pattern and detailed information on classes of antibiotics and distribution of indications of antibiotic prescriptions in children in China. This study aims to assess the antibiotic prescribing patterns among children and neonates hospitalized in 18 hospitals in China. METHODS: A 24-hour point prevalence survey on antimicrobial prescribing was conducted in hospitalized neonates and children in China from December 1st, 2016 to February 28th, 2017. Information on the antibiotic use of patients under 18 years of age who were administered one or more on-going antibiotics in the selected wards over a 24-hour period was collected. These data were submitted to the GARPEC (Global Antimicrobial Resistance, Prescribing and Efficacy in Children and Neonates) web-based application ( https://pidrg-database.sgul.ac.uk/redcap/ ). For statistical analysis, Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS 22.0 were used. RESULTS: The antibiotic data were collected in 35 wards in 18 hospitals from 9 provinces. In total, 67.76% (975/1439) of the patients (n = 1439) were given at least one antibiotic, including 58.1% (173/298) of neonates (n = 298) and 70.3% (802/1141) of children (n = 1141). In neonates, the three most frequently prescribed antibiotics were third-generation cephalosporins (41.7%), penicillins plus enzyme inhibitor (23.8%), and carbapenems (11.2%). In children, the three most frequently prescribed antibiotics were third-generation cephalosporins (35.5%), macrolides (23.2%), and penicillins plus enzyme inhibitors (15.9%). The most common indication for antibiotics was proven or probable bacterial lower respiratory tract infection (30.9% in neonates and 66.6% in children). CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotics are commonly prescribed in the Chinese children population. It is likely that the third-generation cephalosporins and macrolides are currently overused in Chinese children. Efforts must be made to ensure safe and appropriate antibiotic prescribing to reduce and prevent the future development of antibiotic resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Prescrição Inadequada/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Medição de Risco
7.
Vet Microbiol ; 203: 136-142, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28619135

RESUMO

Gallibacterium anatis (G. anatis) has been suggested to have a causal role in salpingitis and peritonitis in egg-laying chickens, leading to decreased egg production and increased mortality worldwide. Adherence and invasion of epithelial cells are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of G. anatis infection. The purpose of this article was to study adherence and invasion of G. anatis using two G. anatis strains of different virulence (Yu-PDS-RZ-1-SLG strain, highly virulent and F149T strain, non-virulent) via infection of the primary chicken oviduct epithelial cells (PCOECs).The results showed that Yu-PDS-RZ-1 -SLG strain was able to attach to PCOECs at higher levels than that of F149T strain, but no invasion was observed with either strain. However, cell debris and cell apoptosis were observed after being exposed to G. anatis Yu-PDS-RZ-1-SLG for 90min, whereas G. anatis F149T did not cause cell damage, and adherence was prevented by trypsin treatment of bacterial cells. Cytokines were detected by ELISA after infection, and the results showed that the expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels was higher in virulent strain infection than that of the avirulent group. Results also indicated that the highly virulent strain G. anatis displayed an increased level of adherence. Changes in cytokine profiles in this study suggested that the production of cytokines might influence the microenvironment of oviduct and promote adherence, serving as a possible mechanism inducing cell damage.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/veterinária , Pasteurellaceae/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Oviductos/microbiologia , Óvulo/microbiologia , Infecções por Pasteurellaceae/microbiologia , Virulência
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 96(50): e9260, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29390368

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Pyogenic hepatic abscess in children is a rare clinical condition. Hepatic abscesses caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus are extremely rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 6-year-old boy was referred to a tertiary children's hospital for a 6-day history of right lower abdominal pain and fever. Radiographic findings showed hepatic abscesses and soft tissue abscesses around the left femur. DIAGNOSES: Bacteriology of blood, hepatic abscesses, and soft tissue abscesses showed methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. INTERVENTIONS: Our patient received adequate drainage of MRSA abscesses and a complete course of antibiotics. OUTCOMES: The hepatic abscesses were healed and no recurrence has been founded until now. LESSONS: This report describes an extremely rare case of hepatic abscesses with soft tissue infection caused by MRSA. Adequate drainage and appropriate systemic antibiotics should be considered as a standard treatment of MRSA abscesses in order to reduce the mortality rate and improve the quality of life.


Assuntos
Abscesso Hepático Piogênico/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Terapia Combinada , Drenagem , Humanos , Abscesso Hepático Piogênico/terapia , Masculino , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/terapia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia
9.
Res Vet Sci ; 104: 83-5, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26850542

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been considerable interest in using adenoviruses as live vectors to develop recombinant vaccines. Previous studies have demonstrated the safety and effectiveness of HIV/SIV and influenza vaccine candidates based on human adenovirus type 4 (Ad4) replication-competent vectors in rhesus macaque and human model. To explore the possibility of human Ad4 vaccine strain used as a vector in developing porcine vaccines, the growth properties of replication-competent human Ad4 vaccine strain recombinant encoding EGFP in different porcine cell lines were investigated. All tested cell lines are permissive for Ad4 vaccine strain vector with varied replication efficiency. Thus, human Ad4 based vectors would be promising supplement to adenovirus vectors as a delivery vehicle for recombinant vaccines in swine industry.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Vacinas contra Adenovirus/imunologia , Adenovírus Humanos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adenovírus Humanos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
10.
Protein Expr Purif ; 119: 51-6, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26616099

RESUMO

Previous research showed that a lectin from the mushroom Laetiporus sulphureus, designed LSL, bound to Sepharose and could be eluted by lactose. In this study, by taking advantage of the strong affinity of LSL-tag for Sepharose, we developed a single-step purification method for LSL-tagged fusion proteins. We utilized unmodified Sepharose-4B as a specific adsorbent and 0.2 M lactose solution as an elution buffer. Fusion proteins of LSL-tag and porcine circovirus capsid protein, designated LSL-Cap was recovered with purity of 90 ± 4%, and yield of 87 ± 3% from crude extract of recombinant Escherichia coli. To enable the remove of LSL-tag, tobacco etch virus (TEV) protease recognition sequence was placed downstream of LSL-tag in the expression vector, and LSL-tagged TEV protease, designated LSL-TEV, was also expressed in E. coli., and was recovered with purity of 82 ± 5%, and yield of 85 ± 2% from crude extract of recombinant E. coli. After digestion of LSL-tagged recombinant proteins with LSL-TEV, the LSL tag and LSL-TEV can be easily removed by passing the digested products through the Sepharose column. It is of worthy noting that the Sepharose can be reused after washing with PBS. The LSL affinity purification method enables rapid and inexpensive purification of LSL-tagged fusion proteins and scale-up production of native proteins.


Assuntos
Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/isolamento & purificação , Agaricales/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Cromatografia de Afinidade/economia , Endopeptidases/química , Escherichia coli , Lectinas/química , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proteólise , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Sefarose/química
11.
Genome Announc ; 3(4)2015 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26159524

RESUMO

A novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) strain with 393 nucleotide deletions in the nonstructural protein 2 (Nsp2) region was examined in this study. Results will help improve our understanding of the epidemiology and genetic diversity of the North American-type PRRSV in China.

12.
Am J Infect Control ; 43(3): 275-9, 2015 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25728154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few data are available on central-line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in Chinese neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The aims of this study were to characterize CLABSIs among neonates in a Chinese NICU and evaluate the impact of a multifaceted evidence-based practice for improving quality program to decrease CLABSI. METHODS: We conducted a prospective before-after intervention study with a 1-year follow-up among patients with central lines at the NICU of the Children's Hospital of Fudan University between January 2008 and December 2010. The study was conducted in 3 phases: before, during, and after the intervention. A multifaceted infection control program was introduced in phase 2 with successive surveillance. CLABSIs were prospectively monitored and compared. RESULTS: A total of 171 patients with central lines (CLs) were observed; 29 of them developed CLABSI corresponding to 7.35 per 1,000 catheter days, with a CL utilization ratio of 37.9%. Overall CLABSI rate decreased gradually from 16.7 per 1,000 CL days in phase 1 to 7.6 per 1,000 CL days in phase 2 (P = .08) to 5.2 per 1,000 CL days in phase 3 (P < .01). Gram-negative bacterium (54.5%) was the predominant pathogen in CLABSIs. CONCLUSION: A multifaceted infection control program is effective in reducing the CLABSI rate among neonates. Such interventions could be extended to other resource-limited countries.


Assuntos
Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Cateterismo Venoso Central/efeitos adversos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Sepse/prevenção & controle , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/epidemiologia
13.
Bing Du Xue Bao ; 30(4): 353-8, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25272586

RESUMO

This study aimed to understand the dynamic distribution of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) Jin-13 strain in SPF chickens. Ninety-day-old SPF chickens were inoculated with Jin-13, a virulent strain, and dissected at day 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28 or 35 post-inoculation (dpi). Samples of heart, liver, spleen, lung, trachea, kidney and duodenum were collected and the N gene was detected by Sybr Green I real-time quantitative RT-PCR assays. The established method had a good linear correlation from 7.77 x 10(8) to 10(0) copies/microL. SPF chickens developed typical clinical signs of IBV at the 4th dpi, and the IBV viral concentration of tissues and organs gradually increased with a peak of up to 7.13 x 10(4) copies/microL. The viral concentration of most organs decreased by the 10th dpi, but those of the kidney, trachea and lung remained positive for IBV at 28 dpi and the heart was still positive for IBV at > 35 dpi. The results of this study, showed that the Jin-13 strain can cause prolonged virus excertion in chickens with severe renal damage.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Galinhas , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/fisiologia , Pulmão/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Traqueia/virologia , Virulência
14.
Bing Du Xue Bao ; 30(4): 375-81, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25272589

RESUMO

Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a natural epidemic zoonotic pathogen. However, no reports have been published regarding the isolation, identification and full-length genome of EMCV from a local aardvark population. In present study, an EMCV isolate HNXX13 was isolated from aardvarks named Huainan-pig in Henan Province. The systematic identification, full-length genome sequencing and molecular characteristic analysis of the isolate HNXX13 were conducted. The result showed that the isolate was spherical with a diameter of 24-30 nm, neither heat- nor acid-resistant, sensitive to trypsin, insensitive to chloroform, not protected by bivalent cationic, and the specific fluorescence was observed in the cytoplasm of BHK-21 cells infected with the isolate by using indirect fluorescence assay. The full-length genome of EMCV HNXX13 generated a 7 725bp sequence (GenBank: F771002), with 81.0%-99.9% nucleotide identity to reference strains from different animals, and 99.5% with a Chinese reference strain isolated earlier from a commercial pig herd. The phylogenetic tree based on the full-length genome and ORF sequences identified that all EMCV strains were divided into three groups G1, G2 and G3, and strain HNXX13 belonging to the G1 group with other Chinese reference strains. The result also identified that this EMCV infection could cause severe clinical signs in a local aardvark population, and enriches the molecular epidemiological data of EMCV in China. Regional differences exist in EMCV genome and transmission is limited within a certain area. However, the cross-infection and transmission of EMCV between aardvark and mice appears most likely. Mutations have occurred in some amino acids of EMCV strain HNXX13 during the transmission in local aardvark herd and these mutations might make the virus easier to infect the aardvark.


Assuntos
Infecções por Cardiovirus/veterinária , Vírus da Encefalomiocardite/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Viral , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Infecções por Cardiovirus/virologia , China , Vírus da Encefalomiocardite/classificação , Vírus da Encefalomiocardite/genética , Camundongos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia
15.
Bing Du Xue Bao ; 30(4): 441-9, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25272601

RESUMO

In early 2011, the serious outbreak of porcine pseudorabies virus (PRV) infection suddenly recurred in Henan and neighboring Provinces. To investigate the etiology of massive infection with PRV, 16 800 serum samples, 905 porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) back-feeding tissues, and 56 PR gene deleted live vaccines were colleted from January 2011 to May 2013 to detect PRV field infection using a PRV gE antibody test kit. The gE and TK genes of 11 new epidemic PRV strains were sequenced by PCR, and their molecular characteristics were analyzed. Moreover, virus titer determination, protective test against PRV, and vaccine potency testing were performed. The results showed that the detection rate of PRV field infection-positive pig farms was 68.06%, and the overall positive rate of PRV field infection in serum was 38.47%; the positive rates in breeding sows, breeding boars, reserve pigs, and commercial pigs were 40.12%, 30.88%, 54.67%, and 26.52%, respectively. The new epidemic strains were in the same evolutionary branch and belonged to the virulent strain group. Compared with the classical PRV strain, the virulence of new epidemic strains changed a little. The length of gE gene was 1 787 bp, and the length of TK gene was 963 bp. The nucleotide homologies of gE and TK genes to Chinese reference strains were 98.2%-99.8% and 98.90%-99.6%, respectively, and the amino acid homologies were 97.1%-99.8% and 97.5%-99.4%, respectively. Commercial vaccine had a 100% protective effect against the new epidemic strains. The positive rate of PRV field infection was 0% in vaccine and 40.44% in back-feeding tissues. The results confirmed that PRV field infection rates were rising sharply among pigs in Henan and neighboring Provinces after 2011. The main virulence genes of new epidemic PRV strains did not change significantly over the years. PR gene deleted live vaccines had no PRV field infection and could completely resist the attack of new strains. The virus carriage of breeding boars and reserve pigs and the serious PRV field infection in PEDV back-feeding tissues were the main causative factors for massive infection with PRV and epidemic outbreak in Henan and neighboring Provinces from 2011 to 2013.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Suídeo 1/isolamento & purificação , Pseudorraiva/epidemiologia , Pseudorraiva/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/virologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Feminino , Herpesvirus Suídeo 1/química , Herpesvirus Suídeo 1/classificação , Herpesvirus Suídeo 1/genética , Masculino , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética
16.
PLoS One ; 9(6): e100264, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24949637

RESUMO

Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Shigella/patogenicidade , Animais , Células HeLa , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Shigella/isolamento & purificação , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Virulência
17.
J Vet Sci ; 15(3): 399-407, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24675838

RESUMO

A recombinant replication-defective adenovirus expressing the major epitopes of porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2) capsid protein (rAd/Cap/518) was previously constructed and shown to induce mucosal immunity in mice following intranasal delivery. In the present study, immune responses induced by intranasal immunization with a combination of rAd/Cap/518 and cytosine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) were evaluated in mice. The levels of PCV-2-specific IgG in serum and IgA in saliva, lung, and intestinal fluids were significantly higher in the group immunized with rAd/Cap/518 and CpG ODN than animals immunized with rAd/Cap/518 alone. The frequencies of IL-2-secreting CD4⁺ T cells and IFN-γ-producing CD8⁺ T cells were significantly higher in the combined immunization group than mice immunized with rAd/Cap/518 alone. The frequencies of CD3⁺, CD3⁺CD4⁺CD8⁻, and CD3⁺CD4⁻CD8⁺ T cells in the combined immunization group were similar to that treated with CpG ODN alone, but significantly higher than mice that did not receive CpG ODN. PCV-2 load after challenge in the combined immunization group was significantly lower than that in the phosphate-buffered saline placebo group and approximately 7-fold lower in the group treated with CpG ODN alone. These results indicate that rAd/Cap/518 combined with CpG ODN can enhance systemic and local mucosal immunity in mice, and represent a promising synergetic mucosal vaccine against PCV-2.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Infecções por Circoviridae/imunologia , Circovirus/genética , Vacinas Virais/genética , Adenoviridae/genética , Adenoviridae/imunologia , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Circovirus/imunologia , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Feminino , Imunidade nas Mucosas/imunologia , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
18.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 47(2): 122-9, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23932367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE(S): We aimed to determine the variations in serum apolipoprotein E (ApoE) levels in pediatric patients with a variety of infectious diseases, and to investigate the potential mechanism of elevated ApoE serum levels during infection. METHODS: A total of 279 pediatric patients with a variety of infections and 58 normal controls were enrolled in this study. Serum ApoE levels were detected using an immunoturbidimetric assay. A mouse sepsis model was established to evaluate the expression of ApoE and its receptors by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. RESULTS: Serum ApoE was markedly increased in cases with bacterial infections including sepsis, bacterial meningitis, and bacterial pneumonia, compared to healthy controls. No significantly elevated serum ApoE levels were observed in aseptic meningitis patients or mycoplasma pneumonia patients. The mice sepsis models showed a similar pattern of increased serum ApoE levels in the early stage of infections. We found reduced expression of ApoE and its receptors in the liver tissues in these mice models. CONCLUSION: Serum ApoE may represent a novel indicator for diagnosis of bacterial infections, especially sepsis, in pediatric patients. The decreased expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), LDL receptor-related protein (LRP), and heparin sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) syndecan-1 (SDC1) may contribute to reduced ApoE clearance and accumulation in the blood.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/sangue , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/patologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Animais , Western Blotting , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nefelometria e Turbidimetria , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sepse/patologia , Soro/química
19.
J Pept Sci ; 19(12): 745-50, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24243597

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein E (apoE) mimetic peptides derived from the low-density lipoprotein receptor-binding region of apoE with both activities against multidrug-resistant bacteria and immunomodulatory effects have not previously been reported. We identified an apoE mimetic peptide analogue of the receptor-binding region of apoE (abbreviated as apoE23) with the sequence of LRKLRKRLVRLASHLRKLRKRLL, which exhibited high antibacterial effects. The minimal inhibitory concentration of apoE23 against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii was 6 µg/ml. The antimicrobial activity of apoE23 depended on its amphipathic α-helical conformation. Moreover, apoE23 downregulated the expression of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 in lipopolysaccharide-induced THP-1 cells. ApoE23 exhibits potential in future clinical applications.


Assuntos
Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Apolipoproteínas E/química , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Linhagem Celular , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mimetismo Molecular , Peptídeos/química , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
20.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 51(7): 512-7, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24267132

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in children. METHOD: A total of 37 MRSA strains were isolated from hospitalized patients in Children's Hospital of Fudan University from March 2009 to November 2011. The clinical characteristics were investigated by a cohort study. Furthermore, the mecA, Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) genes were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the genotypes of SCCmec were determined by multiplex PCR. RESULT: (1) Among the 37 MRSA isolates, infections with 21 were acquired from hospital (HA-MRSA), and 16 isolates were acquired from community (CA-MRSA). (2) In the study, MRSA frequently caused respiratory tract infection, and most of the strains were isolated from intensive care unit (ICU). (3) CA-MRSA was most frequently associated with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), suppurative tonsillitis, even pneumonia and septicemia. HA-MRSA infection was more aggressive, most frequently associated with pneumonia, septicemia, and central nervous system (CNS) infections, such as meningitis. In children with fever caused by HA-MRSA or CA-MRSA infection, HA-MRSA showed a longer duration of fever, for 10.5 days. C-reactive protein (CRP) level caused by HA-MRSA (63.00 mg/L) was higher than CA-MRSA (9.50 mg/L) , and there were statistically significant differences between the groups (t = 2.5670, P < 0.05). However, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in white blood cell count (WBC) or procalcitonin (PCT) level. (4) Among 37 MRSA isolates, the whole isolates were mecA gene positive (100%). SCCmec genotyping results showed that the most frequent SCCmec types were type III, 17 isolates, the others including type IV 8 isolates, type II1 isolates, nontypable 11 isolates, type I and type V were not found in this group. Therein, among 21 HA-MRSA isolates, SCCmec III was the most common, 15 isolates, type IV 1 isolates, nontypable 5 isolates; among 16 CA-MRSA isolates, SCCmec type IV was the most common, 7 isolates, type III 2 isolates, type II 1 isolate, nontypable 6 isolates. (5) Among the 37 MRSA isolates, 28 were PVL gene positive; and among 21 HA-MRSA isolates, 17 were PVL gene positive; Among 16 CA-MRSA isolates, 11 were PVL gene positive; There were no statistically significant differences between the groups (χ(2) = 0.735, P > 0.05) . CONCLUSION: Compared with CA-MRSA, HA-MRSA infection was more aggressive, and induced higher C reactive protein; the dominant epidemic strains of CA-MRSA was SCCmec type IV, and HA-MRSA was SCCmec type III; the positive rate of PVL gene was high.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Meticilina/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Adolescente , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Resistência a Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Ligação às Penicilinas , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia
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