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1.
Respirology ; 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Circulating fibrocytes act as precursors of myofibroblasts, contribute to airway remodelling in chronic asthma and migrate to injured tissues by expressing CXCR4 and CCR7. Anti-IgE therapy improves severe allergic asthma (SAA) control and airway remodelling in T2-high SAA. The effects of anti-IgE therapy on fibrocyte activities were investigated in this study. METHODS: The expression of CCR7, CXCR4, ST2 and α-SMA (α-smooth muscle actin) in both circulating and cultured fibrocytes from all patients with asthma was measured, and was repeated after omalizumab treatment in SAA. Fibrocytes recruitment, proliferation and transformation were also measured in response to anti-IgE therapy. RESULTS: Omalizumab effectively improved asthma control and pulmonary function in T2-high SAA, associated with a decline in serum levels of IL-33 and IL-13. Omalizumab down-regulates CXCR4 and CCR7 expression of fibrocytes, which could suppress fibrocyte recruitment into the lungs. Omalizumab also suppressed the increased number of fibrocytes and α-SMA+ fibrocytes within the cultured non-adherent non-T (NANT) cells after 3-7 days of culture. The decrease in serum levels of IL-33 by omalizumab contributed to the effectiveness in inhibiting fibrocyte recruitment, proliferation and myofibroblast transformation through IL-33/ST2 axis. The elevated IL-13 expression in SAA patients potentiated the effects of IL-33 by increasing ST2 expression. CONCLUSION: Omalizumab reduced the number of circulating fibrocytes, cell and number of fibrocytes as well as α-SMA+ fibrocytes after 3-7 days of culture in SAA patients. IL-33 and IL-13 may be implicated in the effectiveness of omalizumab in inhibiting fibrocyte activation contributing partly to the clinical benefits in reducing lamina propria and basement membrane thickening.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247074, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647031

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the feasibility of use of radiomic features extracted from axillary lymph nodes for diagnosis of their metastatic status in patients with breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 176 axillary lymph nodes of patients with breast cancer, consisting of 87 metastatic axillary lymph nodes (ALNM) and 89 negative axillary lymph nodes proven by surgery, were retrospectively reviewed from the database of our cancer center. For each selected axillary lymph node, 106 radiomic features based on preoperative pharmacokinetic modeling dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (PK-DCE-MRI) and 5 conventional image features were obtained. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression was used to select useful radiomic features. Logistic regression was used to develop diagnostic models for ALNM. Delong test was used to compare the diagnostic performance of different models. RESULTS: The 106 radiomic features were reduced to 4 ALNM diagnosis-related features by LASSO. Four diagnostic models including conventional model, pharmacokinetic model, radiomic model, and a combined model (integrating the Rad-score in the radiomic model with the conventional image features) were developed and validated. Delong test showed that the combined model had the best diagnostic performance: area under the curve (AUC), 0.972 (95% CI [0.947-0.997]) in the training cohort and 0.979 (95% CI [0.952-1]) in the validation cohort. The diagnostic performance of the combined model and the radiomic model were better than that of pharmacokinetic model and conventional model (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Radiomic features extracted from PK-DCE-MRI images of axillary lymph nodes showed promising application for diagnosis of ALNM in patients with breast cancer.

3.
J Surg Oncol ; 123(8): 1699-1707, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (CA72-4) is widely used and has been associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer (GC), but the prognostic significance of elevated preoperative CA72-4 that normalizes after resection remains unknown. METHODS: This retrospective cohort analysis was conducted at the Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center (SYSUCC). Consecutive patients (n = 1179) with GC who had undergone curative resection for stage Ⅰto Ⅲ gastric adenocarcinoma. The patients were grouped into three cohorts: normal preoperative CA72-4 (C1), elevated preoperative but normalized postoperative CA72-4 (C2), and elevated preoperative and postoperative CA72-4 (C3). RESULTS: In total, 1179 patients were identified. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with normal preoperative CA72-4 had a longer overall survival (OS) (p < .001) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) (p < .001) than those with elevated preoperative CA72-4. Patients with C1 had a longer OS and RFS than those with C2 or C3. Moreover, patients with C3 had the lowest OS, but had similar RFS to patients with C2. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that elevated pre- or postoperative CA72-4 was independently associated with shorter OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.273; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.026-1.580; p = .029) and RFS (HR = 1.333; 95% CI, 1.064-1.668; p = .012). CONCLUSIONS: Both elevated preoperative and postoperative CA72-4 can well predict the poor prognosis of patients with GC. Therefore, routine measurement of both postoperative and preoperative CA72-4 is warranted.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/sangue , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Antígenos Glicosídicos Associados a Tumores/sangue , Gastrectomia , Neoplasias Gástricas/sangue , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(2)2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing 6 (CMTM6), a programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) regulator, is widely expressed in various tumors and regulates the immune microenvironment. However, its prognostic value remains controversial, and the roles of CMTM6 in colorectal cancer (CRC) are still unknown. In this study, we aimed to elaborate the expression patterns of CMTM6 and PD-L1 in CRC and investigate their relationship with the infiltration of T cells and the prognosis of patients with CRC. METHODS: Analysis of CMTM6 mRNA levels, gene ontology enrichment analysis and single-sample gene set enrichment analysis were performed in a The Cancer Genome Atlas colon cancer cohort. The expression of CMTM6 and PD-L1 and the infiltration of T cells in tumor tissues from our cohort containing 156 patients with CRC receiving adjuvant chemotherapy and 77 patients with CRC without chemotherapy were examined by immunohistochemistry assay. RESULTS: CMTM6 expression was upregulated in CRC compared with normal colon tissues, and CMTM6 levels were lower in advanced tumors than in early-stage tumors. High expression of CMTM6 correlated with lower pT stage and more CD4+/CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and predicted a favorable prognosis in CRC. PD-L1 was expressed in CRC tissues at a low level, and PD-L1 positivity in tumor stroma (PD-L1(TS)), but not PD-L1 positivity in cancer cells (PD-L1(CC)), was associated with an increased density of CD4+ TILs and a favorable prognosis. The coexpression status of CMTM6 and PD-L1(TS) divided patients with CRC into three groups with low, moderate and high risks of progression and death, and patients with CMTM6High/PD-L1(TS)+ status had the longest survival. Moreover, the prognostic value of CMTM6/PD-L1 expression was more significant in patients with CRC treated with adjuvant chemotherapy than in those not treated with chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: CMTM6 has a critical impact on the immune microenvironment and can be used as an independent prognostic factor for CRC. The coexpression status of CMTM6 and PD-L1 can be used as a new classification to stratify the risk of progression and death for patients with CRC, especially for patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. These findings may provide insights into improving responses to immunotherapy-included comprehensive treatment for CRC in the future.

5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(50): e23440, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327274

RESUMO

Second primary cancer is prevalent in patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancer, for which lung cancer is the most common and associated with high lethality. Image screening for lung cancer was proved to be effective in early diagnosis and lower mortality. However, trials of screen for lung cancer generally excluded patients with a previous diagnosis of malignancy. The study aimed to investigate the outcome of second primary lung cancer and the factor that improve survival in patients with hepato-GI cancer.A total of 276 patients with secondary lung cancer were found among 3723 newly-diagnosed lung cancer patients diagnosed in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, between 2010 and 2014. Patients' clinical characteristics, stages and survival were recorded and analyzed. The patients were separated into 2 groups: Group I was defined as lung cancer detected in original primary cancer clinic and group II patients defined as lung cancer detected in other medical places.Sixty-nine cases with primary GI-hepatic and secondary lung cancer were diagnosed (42 (60.8%) in Group I and 27 (39.1%) in Group II). Although both groups had comparable primary cancer stages and treatment, more patients in Group I than Group II were diagnosed as early stage lung cancer (stage I-II: 40.5% vs 11.1%; P = .023). Group II had larger lung tumor sizes than Group I (4.7 vs 3.5 cm; P = .025). Group I showed better 5-year overall survival than Group II (P = .014, median survival: 27 vs 10 months). Among Group II, only 37% had received image follow up in clinic compared with 67% of Group I cases (P = .025). Patients with chest image follow up in clinics also had better 5-year overall survival (P = .043).GI-hepatic cancer was the most common primary malignancy in the lung cancer cohort. Patients had better survival outcome when secondary lung cancer was diagnosed in original primary cancer clinic. Chest image screening strategy may contribute better survival in secondary lung cancer due to detection at an earlier stage.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/mortalidade , Vigilância da População , Idoso , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
6.
J Asthma Allergy ; 13: 625-632, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235473

RESUMO

Introduction: Most patients with asthma, either allergic or non-allergic, usually exhibit some level of concurrent rhinitis. Treatments for rhinitis and asthma can affect both conditions. Objective: The present study aimed to examine asthma-specific outcomes in patients with chronic rhinitis (CR) and asthma after surgery for nasal obstruction, and to identify the patient group most likely to experience improved asthma control after surgery. Methods: Asthmatic patients with CR and nasal obstruction were prospectively recruited for evaluations of nasal and asthma-specific outcomes before and after surgery for nasal obstruction. Results: Twenty-eight participants were enrolled. There was a significant association between the Asthma Control Test (ACT) and the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 scores, both at the preoperative and 3-month postoperative assessments. Patients demonstrating ACT improvement after nasal surgery had worse preoperative ACT scores and predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s. Conclusion: Nasal symptom severity was closely associated with the extent of asthma control in asthmatic patients with CR and nasal obstruction. Assessment of CR and nasal obstruction in patients with poorly controlled asthma should be considered an essential approach to improve the response to treatment and patients' quality of life.

7.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(20): 4986-4992, 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33195671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anastomosing hemangioma (AH) is a rare subtype of benign hemangioma that is most commonly found in the genitourinary tract. Due to the lack of specific clinical and radiologic manifestations, it is easily misdiagnosed preoperatively. Here, we report a case of AH arising from the left renal vein that was discovered incidentally and confirmed pathologically, and then describe its imaging characteristics from a radiologic point of view and review its clinicopathologic features and treatment. CASE SUMMARY: A 74-year-old woman was admitted to our department for a left retroperitoneal neoplasm measuring 2.6 cm × 2.0 cm. Her laboratory data showed no significant abnormalities. A non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan showed a heterogeneous density in the neoplasm. Non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a heterogeneous hypointensity on T1-weighed images and a heterogeneous hyperintensity on T2-weighed images. On contrast-enhanced CT and MRI scans, the neoplasm presented marked septal enhancement in the arterial phase and persistent enhancement in the portal phase, and its boundary with the left renal vein was ill-defined. Based on these clinical and radiological manifestations, the neoplasm was initially considered to be a neurogenic neoplasm in the left retroperitoneum. Finally, the neoplasm was completely resected and pathologically diagnosed as AH. CONCLUSION: AH is an uncommon benign hemangioma. Preoperative misdiagnoses are common not only because of a lack of specific clinical and radiologic manifestations but also because clinicians lack vigilance and diagnostic experience in identifying AH. AH is not exclusive to the urogenital parenchyma. We report the first case of this neoplasm in the left renal vein. Recognition of this entity in the left renal vein can be helpful in its diagnosis and distinction from other neoplasms.

8.
Onco Targets Ther ; 13: 9991-10000, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116584

RESUMO

Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for more than 90% of liver cancers and is ranked as the fifth most common malignancy. Androgen receptor (AR) may promote the progression of HCC at an early stage of the disease. However, this study identified miR-135b-5p as an AR upstream regulator can suppress AR protein expression and inhibit HCC proliferation, consistent with the idea that AR expression is negatively correlated with HCC progression. Methods: The target microRNAs were predicted using online databases (TargetScan, miRDB, and MicroCosm Targets). Cell proliferation ability was measured by MTT and colony formation assay. Western blot was performed to analyze the expression levels of AR, HIF-2α, c-Myc, and p27, which are related to HCC proliferation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay and luciferase reporter assay were carried out to investigate the mechanism by which miR-135b-5p decreases AR expression. Results: miR-135b-5p suppresses HCC cell proliferation and AR expression. Downregulation of AR expression by miR-135b-5p may in turn transcriptionally modulate HIF-2α expression via direct binding of AR to the androgen response element (ARE) in the HIF-2α promoter. Further dissection of the mechanism revealed that AR-modulated HIF-2α could suppress c-Myc expression resulting in increased p27 expression that likely contributes to the suppression of proliferation in HCC cells. Conclusion: miR-135b-5p suppresses HCC cell proliferation via targeting AR-modulated HIF-2α/c-Myc/p27 signals, which may help to develop more effective therapies to prevent HCC progression.

9.
J Asthma Allergy ; 13: 453-461, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116653

RESUMO

Background: The efficacy of antifungal therapy in fungal-associated severe asthma remains controversial. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the differences in the clinical presentation and response to antifungal therapy between severe asthmatics with fungal sensitization and positive fungal isolates. Methods: This retrospective study included 73 patients with severe asthma from January 2004 to December 2017. We examined the presentation, medication, exacerbations, pulmonary function, serum IgE, blood eosinophils, and sputum culture results. Follow-up care was provided to each patient for minimum 3 years. Results: We classified the patients into four groups: group 1, neither fungal sensitization nor fungal isolates in the sputum (n=16); group 2, positive fungal sensitization (n=16); group 3, positive fungal isolates (n=31); and group 4, concomitant positive fungal sensitization and positive fungal isolates (n=10). There were four participants in group 2, 15 in group 3, and 6 in group 4 had received itraconazole therapy for 3 months. Patients in group 3 presented with lower serum IgE level than those in groups 2 and 4. Antifungal therapy significantly improved ACT score during the first year in groups 3 (from 18 [15-22] to 24 [23-24], p=0.0004) and resulted in a long-lasting ACT improvement till the third year in group 3 (from 18 [15-22] to 24 [22-24], p=0.0013). Conclusion: Antifungal therapy could effectively control the symptoms in patients with severe asthma with positive fungal isolates, contrary to those with merely fungal sensitization; therefore, highlighting the need for a more precise treatment strategy in future for fungal-associated severe asthma.

10.
Pathol Res Pract ; 216(11): 153153, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver is a major metabolic organ containing many metabolic enzymes. Disorders of liver-specific enzymes can cause liver dysfunction and tumorigenesis. Previous studies indicated that 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPD) plays an essential role in catalyzing the tyrosinolytic metabolism of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate to homogeneous acids in liver tissues. However, the clinical significance of HPD in HCC has not been obtained. Here in our study, we aimed to identify the expression and the clinical significance of HPD in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Western Blotting and qRT-PCR were employed to evaluate the level of HPD in HCC cell lines and fresh samples. The expression of HPD was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using a tissue microarray (TMA) cohort with a total of 778 HCC patients. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of HPD in HCC was evaluated from TCGA and GEO public databases. Kaplan-Meier analysis and univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to determine the correlation between HPD expression with clinicopathological variables and survival rate of HCC patients. The cellular behaviors of transfected cells were respectively examined by CCK8 and Migration assay. RESULTS: The expression of HPD is restricted in liver compared with other cancer types. HPD mRNA and protein expression was dramatically reduced in HCC cell lines and fresh tissue samples. IHC staining in HCC TMA further showed that the decreased of HPD in paraffin-imbedded HCC samples was linked to an adverse overall postoperative survival (p < 0.001). Clinicopathologically, low expression of HPD was correlated with larger tumor size, advanced TNM staging and poor differentiaion. In addition, multivariate analyses indicated that HPD was an independent predictive factor of HCC survival. Our study pioneering validates that knockdown of HPD increases HCC cell cell growth and cell motility. CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that HPD may serve as a valuable prognostic marker, a tumor suppressor, and a potential therapeutic target for HCC patients.

11.
Cell Biochem Biophys ; 78(4): 483-494, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918681

RESUMO

Tazarotene-induced gene 1 (TIG1) is a retinoid acid receptor-responsive gene involved in cell differentiation and tumorigenesis. Aberrant methylation of CpG islands in the TIG1 promoter is found in multiple cancers. Currently, the exact mechanism underlying the anticancer effect of TIG1 is unknown. Here, we show that TIG1 interacts with cathepsin V (CTSV), which reduces CTSV stability and subsequently affects the production of activated urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), an epithelial-mesenchymal transition-associated protein. Ectopic expression of CTSV increased the expression of activated uPA and the number of migrated and invaded cells, whereas ectopic TIG1 expression reversed the effects of CTSV on the uPA signaling pathway. Similar patterns in the production of activated uPA and number of migrated and invaded cells were also observed in TIG1-expressing and CTSV-knockdown cells. The results suggest that CTSV may participate in TIG1-regulated uPA activity and the associated downstream signaling pathway.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770259

RESUMO

The "macrotrabecular-massive" (MTM) pattern of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been suggested to represent a distinct HCC subtype and is associated with specific molecular features. Since the immune microenvironment is heterogenous in HCC, it is important to evaluate the immune microenvironment of this novel variant. CMTM6, a key regulator of PD-L1, is an important immunocheckpoint inhibitor. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic effect of CMTM6/PD-L1 coexpression and its relationship with inflammatory cells in HCC. We analyzed 619 HCC patients and tumors were classified into MTM and non-MTM HCC subtypes. The expression levels of CMTM6 and PD-L1 in tumor and inflammatory cells were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The density of inflammatory cells in the cancer cell nest was calculated. Tumoral PD-L1 expression and inflammatory cell density were higher in the MTM type than in the non-MTM type. CMTM6-high expression was significantly associated with shorter OS and DFS than CMTM6-low expression in the whole HCC patient population and the MTM HCC patient population. Moreover, MTM HCC patients with CMTM6/PD-L1 coexpression experienced a higher risk of HCC progression and death. In addition, CMTM6/PD-L1 coexpression was shown to be related to a high density of inflammatory cells. Notably, a new immune classification, based on CMTM6/PD-L1 coexpression and inflammatory cells, successfully stratified OS and DFS in MTM HCC. CMTM6/PD-L1 coexpression has an adverse effect on the prognosis of HCC patients, especially MTM HCC patients. Our study provides evidence for the combination of immune status assessment with anti-CMTM6 and anti-PD-L1 therapy in MTM HCC patients.

13.
Eur J Med Chem ; 198: 112366, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371335

RESUMO

NF-κB is a key signaling pathway molecule linking hepatoma and chronic inflammation. Inhibition of NF-κB activation can alleviate inflammation, and promote hepatoma cell apoptosis. In this study, a series of fluoro-substituted 1,4,5,6,7,8-hexahydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidines (PPMs, 31-57) were synthesized from 3,5-bis(arylidene)-4-piperidones (BAPs, 4-30) based on scaffold hopping. We successfully discovered the most potent 43 substituted by electron-withdrawing substitutes (3-F and 4-CF3) exhibited less toxicity and higher anti-inflammatory activity. Preliminary mechanistic studies revealed that 43 induced dose-dependent cell apoptosis at cell and protein level, while inhibited NF-κB activation by suppressing LPS-induced phosphorylation levels of p65, IκBα and Akt, and by indirectly suppressing MAPK signaling, and by inhibiting the nuclear translocation of NF-κB induced by TNF-α or LPS. Docking analysis verified simulated 43 could reasonably bind to the active site of Bcl-2, p65 and p38 proteins. This compound, as a novel NF-κB inhibitor, also demonstrated both anti-inflammatory and anti-hepatoma activities, warranting its further development as a potential multifunctional agent for the clinical treatment of liver cancers and inflammatory diseases.

14.
Am J Transl Res ; 12(3): 773-786, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer metastasis is the major reason for cancer-related deaths, but the mechanism of cancer metastasis still unclear. Adrenomedullin (ADM), a peptide hormone, functions as a local paracrine and autocrine mediator with multiple biological activities, such as angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and anti-inflammation. However, the expression and potential function of ADM in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remain unclear. METHODS: Real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were performed to examine the expression of ADM in TNBC tissues and cell lines. A total of 458 TNBC tissue samples and adjacent nontumor tissue samples were detected by immunochemistry to determine the correlation between ADM expression and clinicopathological characteristics. We determined the role and mechanistic pathways of ADM in tumor metastasis in cell lines. RESULTS: Our data showed that ADM expression was noticeably decreased in TNBC samples and cell lines. Low expression levels correlate with an increased risk of recurrence and metastasis. Furthermore, low ADM expression was associated with poor prognosis and was an independent marker for TNBC. In vitro, ADM may decrease cancer cell invasion, which is likely the result of its effect on the cancer cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that ADM is a valuable biomarker for TNBC prognosis and an anti-metastasis candidate therapeutic target in triple-negative breast cancer.

15.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 45, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic infectious respiratory disease with diverse causes and ethnic or geographic differences. However, few large-scale studies of its etiology have been conducted in Asia. This study aimed to determine the etiology and clinical features of bronchiectasis in Taiwan. METHODS: This longitudinal cohort study investigated the etiology and clinical features of newly diagnosed non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis patients from January 2002 to December 2016. The clinical, functional and microbiological data of patients were retrieved from the Chang Gung Research Database, which includes seven medical facilities throughout Taiwan. The index date was the date of the first bronchiectasis diagnosis. Known diseases that were diagnosed before the index date were regarded as etiologies of bronchiectasis. RESULTS: The cohort comprised 15,729 adult patients with bronchiectasis. Idiopathic (32%) was the most common cause, followed by post-pneumonia (24%). Other causes included post-tuberculosis (12%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (14%), asthma (10%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (2%) and rheumatic diseases (2%). At diagnosis, 8487 patients had sputum culture. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.3%) was the most common bacteria, followed by non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (3.6%), Haemophilus influenzae (3.4%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (3.1%), but 6155 (72.1%) had negative sputum cultures. Patients with post-tuberculosis had a higher sputum isolation rate of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria than P. aeruginosa. Patients with post-tuberculosis and post-pneumonia bronchiectasis had a higher frequency of chronic lung infection than other groups (p < 0.05). Clinical characteristics, such as gender, lung function, comorbidities and microbiology, were significantly different between idiopathic and known etiologies. CONCLUSIONS: Idiopathic, post-infection and tuberculosis constitute major bronchiectasis etiologies in Taiwan. Clinical characteristics and sputum microbiology were distinct among separate etiology phenotypes.


Assuntos
Bronquiectasia/etiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asma/complicações , Bronquiectasia/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Previsões , Infecções por Haemophilus/complicações , Infecções por Haemophilus/microbiologia , Haemophilus influenzae/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Infecções por Klebsiella/complicações , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Pseudomonas/complicações , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Infecções Respiratórias/complicações , Escarro/microbiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
16.
Neural Regen Res ; 15(5): 936-943, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719260

RESUMO

Hippocampal neurons undergo various forms of cell death after status epilepticus. Necrostatin-1 specifically inhibits necroptosis mediated by receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1) and RIP3 receptors. However, there are no reports of necroptosis in mouse models of status epilepticus. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of necrostatin-1 on hippocampal neurons in mice with status epilepticus, and, furthermore, we tested different amounts of the compound to identify the optimal concentration for inhibiting necroptosis and apoptosis. A mouse model of status epilepticus was produced by intraperitoneal injection of kainic acid, 12 mg/kg. Different concentrations of necrostatin-1 (10, 20, 40, and 80 µM) were administered into the lateral ventricle 15 minutes before kainic acid injection. Hippocampal damage was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining 24 hours after the model was successfully produced. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining, western blot assay and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the expression of apoptosis-related and necroptosis-related proteins. Necrostatin-1 alleviated damage to hippocampal tissue in the mouse model of epilepsy. The 40 µM concentration of necrostatin-1 significantly decreased the number of apoptotic cells in the hippocampal CA1 region. Furthermore, necrostatin-1 significantly downregulated necroptosis-related proteins (MLKL, RIP1, and RIP3) and apoptosis-related proteins (cleaved-Caspase-3, Bax), and it upregulated the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Taken together, our findings show that necrostatin-1 effectively inhibits necroptosis and apoptosis in mice with status epilepticus, with the 40 µM concentration of the compound having an optimal effect. The experiments were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Fujian Medical University, China (approval No. 2016-032) on November 9, 2016.

17.
Bioorg Chem ; 94: 103350, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640933

RESUMO

One new polycyclic furanobutenolide-derived norcembranoid, xiguscabrolide H (1), together with eleven known related norditerpenoids 2-12 were isolated from South China Sea soft corals Sinularia scabra and S. polydactyla, respectively. Among them, compounds 1, 6, 8, and 12 were discovered from the former species, while compounds 2-5, 7, and 9-11 were obtained from the latter species. The structure of new compound 1 was elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and by the comparison with the reported data. With the assistance of time-dependent density functional theory electronic circular dichroism (TDDFT-ECD) calculations, its absolute configuration was determined. Moreover, the absolute stereostructures of the known compounds 3, 4, and 9-12, of which only relative configurations were assigned, were established for the first time by X-Ray diffraction analysis and TDDFT-ECD calculations, respectively. In bioassay, several isolates exhibited potent inhibitory effects on the ConA-induced T lymphocytes and/or LPS-induced B lymphocytes proliferation.

18.
Mol Oncol ; 14(2): 373-386, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670863

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), with its ineffective therapeutic options and poor prognosis, represents a global threat. In the present study, we show that RAD52 motif 1 (RDM1), a key regulator of DNA double-strand break repair and recombination, is downregulated in HCC tissues and suppresses tumor growth. In clinical HCC samples, low expression of RDM1 correlates with larger tumor size, poor tumor differentiation, and unfavorable survival. In vitro and in vivo data demonstrate that knockdown of RDM1 increases HCC cell proliferation, colony formation, and cell population at G2/M phase, whereas RDM1 overexpression results in the opposite phenotypes. Mechanistically, RDM1 binds to the tumor suppressor p53 and enhances its protein stability. In the presence of p53, RDM1 suppresses the phosphorylation of Raf and ERK. Overexpression of p53 or treatment with ERK inhibitor significantly abolishes cell proliferation induced by the depletion of RDM1. In addition, overexpression of methyltransferase-like 3 markedly induces N6-methyladenosine modification of RDM1 mRNA and represses its expression. Taken together, our study indicates that RDM1 functions as a tumor suppressor and may be a potential prognostic and therapeutic factor for HCC.

19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 6171065, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886233

RESUMO

Tazarotene-induced gene 1 (TIG1) encodes a protein that is a retinoid-regulated tumor suppressor. TIG1 is expressed in most normal tissues, and downregulation of TIG1 expression in multiple cancers is caused by promoter hypermethylation. Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor-2 (SPINK2) is a serine protease inhibitor, and the SPINK protein family has been shown to inhibit the expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). In addition, increased levels of uPA and the uPA receptor were observed in testicular cancer tissues. This study demonstrated that TIG1 interacts with SPINK2 in NT2/D1 testicular carcinoma cells. TIG1 and SPINK2 were highly expressed in normal testis tissues, while low expression levels of TIG1 and SPINK2 were found in testicular cancer tissues. TIG1 inhibited cell invasion, migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of NT2/D1 cells. SPINK2 enhanced TIG1-regulated uPA activity and EMT suppression, while silencing SPINK2 alleviated TIG1-mediated EMT regulation, cell migration, and invasion. Therefore, the results suggest that the interaction between TIG1 and SPINK2 plays an important role in the inhibition of testicular cancer cell EMT, and suppression is mediated through downregulation of the uPA/uPAR signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas , Proteínas de Membrana , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Inibidores de Serinopeptidase do Tipo Kazal , Neoplasias Testiculares/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Inativação Gênica , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Inibidores de Serinopeptidase do Tipo Kazal/genética , Inibidores de Serinopeptidase do Tipo Kazal/metabolismo , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética
20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19839, 2019 12 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882693

RESUMO

Streptococcus pneumonia, one of the major colonizers in nasopharyngeal adenoids, has been the predominant pathogen causing acute otitis media (AOM) in children. Recent evidence suggests an association between IL-17A-mediated immune response and the clearance of pneumococcal colonization in nasopharyngeal adenoids. Here, we evaluated the expressions of IL-17A and associated genes in hypertrophic adenoid tissues of children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and otitis media with effusion (OME) and their association with pneumococcal carriage. Sixty-six pediatric patients with adenoid hypertrophy were enrolled. During adenoidectomy, nasopharyngeal swab and adenoid tissues were used to determine pneumococcal carriage and IL-17A expression. Our results revealed significantly higher levels of IL-17A and IL-17A:IL-10 mRNA in the SDB patients positive for nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage than those negative. However, these differences were not significant in the OME group. These results suggested, in OME patients, prolonged or chronic pneumococcal carriage may occur because of insufficient IL-17A-mediated mucosal clearance, and could further lead to AOM and OME development.


Assuntos
Tonsila Faríngea/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/genética , Nasofaringe/metabolismo , Otite Média com Derrame/genética , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/genética , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/genética , Tonsila Faríngea/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Masculino , Nasofaringe/microbiologia , Nasofaringe/patologia , Otite Média com Derrame/metabolismo , Otite Média com Derrame/microbiologia , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/metabolismo , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/metabolismo , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/microbiologia , Streptococcus pneumoniae/fisiologia
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