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1.
Neurochem Res ; 46(3): 611-623, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534060

RESUMO

Diabetes-associated cognitive dysfunction (DACD) characterized by hippocampal injury increases the risk of major cerebrovascular events and death. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and synaptic dysfunction play vital roles in the pathological process. At present, no specific treatment exists for the prevention and/or the therapy of DACD. We have recently reported that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exhibits therapeutic potential for DACD, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) has been shown to play a role in regulating the progression of diabetes and is also indispensable for memory formation and cognitive performance. Hence, the present study was performed to explore whether SIRT1 mediates the protective effect of H2S on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced cognitive deficits, an in vivo rat model of DACD, via inhibiting hippocampal ER stress and synaptic dysfunction. The results showed that administration of NaHS (an exogenous H2S donor) increased the expression of SIRT1 in the hippocampus of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Then, results proved that sirtinol, a special blocker of SIRT1, abrogated the inhibition of NaHS on STZ-induced cognitive deficits, as appraised by Morris water maze test, Y-maze test, and Novel object recognition behavioral test. In addition, administration of NaHS eliminated STZ-induced ER stress as evidenced by the decreases in the expressions of ER stress-related proteins including glucose-regulated protein 78, C/EBP homologous protein, and cleaved caspase-12 in the hippocampus, while these effects of NaHS were also reverted by sirtinol. Furthermore, the NaHS-induced up-regulation of hippocampal synapse-related protein (synapsin-1, SYN1) expression in STZ-induced diabetic rats was also abolished by sirtinol. Taken together, these results demonstrated that SIRT1 mediates the protection of H2S against cognitive dysfunction in STZ-diabetic rats partly via inhibiting hippocampal ER stress and synaptic dysfunction.

2.
Liver Int ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: About 20% of patients receiving nucleos(t)ide analogues treatment experienced low-level viraemia (LLV), which is associated with progression of liver fibrosis and high risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of switching from entecavir (ETV) to tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF) in ETV-treated patients with LLV. METHODS: In this prospective study, ETV-treated patients with LLV, presented to our hospital from December 2018 to October 2019, were enrolled. Switching to TAF or continuing ETV was given. The primary effectiveness endpoint was complete virological response (CVR) at 24 weeks, and the safety endpoint was the first occurrence of any clinical adverse event during the treatment. RESULTS: Totally, 211 patients were recruited and propensity score matching (PSM) generated 75 patients in either TAF or ETV group. After PSM, baseline characteristics were balanced in two groups. After 24-week treatment, the CVR and ALT normalization in TAF group were 62.7% and 47.6%, which were higher than 9.3% and 10.5% in ETV group (OR 16.4, 95% CI 6.6-40.0, P < .001) respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that switching to TAF achieved favours CVR regardless of the status of sex, age, CHB family history, HBV DNA, HBeAg and cirrhosis, whereas alcohol consumption and diabetes mellitus might compromise the CVR of switching to TAF. Both therapies were well tolerated and had satisfying renal safety. CONCLUSIONS: For ETV-treated patients with LLV, switching to TAF is safe enough and superior compared with continuing ETV monotherapy regarding both virological and biochemical benefits.

3.
Toxicology ; : 152650, 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259821

RESUMO

The mechanisms underlying formaldehyde (FA)-induced neurotoxicity have not yet been fully clarified. Ferroptosis is a novel regulatory cell death and the Warburg effect is involved in regulating neural function. In this study, we investigated whether FA-induced neurotoxicity is implicated in neuronal ferroptosis and determined whether the Warburg effect mediates FA-induced neuronal ferroptosis. We found that FA (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mM, 6 h) induced cell death in HT22 cells (a cell line of mouse hippocampal neuron), as evidenced by a decrease in cell viability and an increase in cell mortality; enhanced oxidative stress, as evidenced by a decrease in glutathione (GSH) and increases in malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS); increased the iron content; and upregulated the ferroptosis-associated genes, including Ptgs2 (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2), GLS2 (glutaminase 2), solute carrier family 1 member 5 (SLC1A5), and solute carrier family 38 member 1 (SLC38A1) in HT22 cells, indicating the inductive role of FA in the ferroptosis of HT22 cells. Meanwhile, we found that FA (0.1, 1, 10 µmol) decreased the cross-sectional of mitochondria, increased the level of lipid ROS and iron content in primary hippocampal cells. We showed that FA (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mM, 6 h) upregulated the Warburg effect in HT22 cells, as evidenced by up-regulations of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1(PDK-1), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDHA) proteins; down-regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH); and an increase in lactate production. Also, we found that FA (0.1, 1, 10 µmol, 7 d) upregulated the Warburg effect in hippocampal tissue, as evidenced by up-regulations of PKM2, PDK-1, and LDHA proteins; down-regulation of PDH. Furthermore, the inhibition of the Warburg effect by dichloroacetate (DCA) protected HT22 cells against FA-induced ferroptosis and cell death. Collectively, these data indicated that FA induces ferroptosis in hippocampal neuronal cells by upregulation of the Warburg effect.

4.
JAMA Intern Med ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910179

RESUMO

Importance: Lymphopenia is common and correlates with poor clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Objective: To determine whether a therapy that increases peripheral blood leukocyte and lymphocyte cell counts leads to clinical improvement in patients with COVID-19. Design, Setting and Participants: Between February 18 and April 10, 2020, we conducted an open-label, multicenter, randomized clinical trial at 3 participating centers in China. The main eligibility criteria were pneumonia, a blood lymphocyte cell count of 800 per µL (to convert to ×109/L, multiply by 0.001) or lower, and no comorbidities. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection was confirmed with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction testing. Exposures: Usual care alone, or usual care plus 3 doses of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF, 5 µg/kg, subcutaneously at days 0-2). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the time from randomization to improvement of at least 1 point on a 7-category disease severity score. Results: Of 200 participants, 112 (56%) were men and the median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 45 (40-55) years. There was random assignment of 100 patients (50%) to the rhG-CSF group and 100 (50%) to the usual care group. Time to clinical improvement was similar between groups (rhG-CSF group median of 12 days (IQR, 10-16 days) vs usual care group median of 13 days (IQR, 11-17 days); hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.95-1.71; P = .06). For secondary end points, the proportion of patients progressing to acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, or septic shock was lower in the rhG-CSF group (rhG-CSF group, 2% vs usual care group, 15%; difference, -13%; 95%CI, -21.4% to -5.4%). At 21 days, 2 patients (2%) had died in the rhG-CSF group compared with 10 patients (10%) in the usual care group (hazard ratio, 0.19; 95%CI, 0.04-0.88). At day 5, the lymphocyte cell count was higher in the rhG-CSF group (rhG-CSF group median of 1050/µL vs usual care group median of 620/µL; Hodges-Lehmann estimate of the difference in medians, 440; 95% CI, 380-490). Serious adverse events, such as sepsis or septic shock, respiratory failure, and acute respiratory distress syndrome, occurred in 29 patients (14.5%) in the rhG-CSF group and 42 patients (21%) in the usual care group. Conclusion and Relevance: In preliminary findings from a randomized clinical trial, rhG-CSF treatment for patients with COVID-19 with lymphopenia but no comorbidities did not accelerate clinical improvement, but the number of patients developing critical illness or dying may have been reduced. Larger studies that include a broader range of patients with COVID-19 should be conducted. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2000030007.

5.
Redox Biol ; 36: 101672, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828017

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is an important pathogenic manifestation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that contributes to synaptic dysfunction, which precedes Aß accumulation and neurofibrillary tangle formation. However, the molecular machineries that govern the decline of antioxidative defence in AD remains to be elucidated, and effective candidate for AD treatment is limited. Here, we showed that the decreases in the inhibitor of apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (iASPP) was associated with the vulnerability to oxidative stress in the amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin 1 (PS1) mouse brain. Treatment with an antioxidant, syringin, could ameliorate AD-related pathologic and behavioural impairments. Interestingly, syringin treatment resulted in an upregulation of iASPP and the increase in the interaction of iASPP with Kelchlike ECH-associating protein 1 (Keap1). Syringin reduced neuronal apoptosis independently of p53. We confirmed that syringin-induced enhancement of antioxidant defenses involved the stabilization of Nrf2 in overexpressing human Swedish mutant APP (APPswe) cells in vitro. Syringin-mediated Nrf2 nuclear translocation facilitated the activation of the Nrf2 downstream genes via iASPP/Nrf2 axis. Our results demonstrate that syringin-mediated increases of iASPP-Keap1 interaction restore cellular redox balance. Further study on the syringin-iASPP interactions may help in understanding the regulatory mechanism and designing novel potent modulators for AD treatment.

6.
Chronic Dis Transl Med ; 6(2): 87-97, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363045

RESUMO

Since December 2019, increasing attention has been paid to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic in Wuhan, China. SARS-CoV-2 primarily invades the respiratory tract and lungs, leading to pneumonia and other systemic disorders. The effect of SARS-CoV-2 in transplant recipients has raised significant concerns, especially because there is a large population of transplant recipients in China. Based on the current epidemic situation, this study reviewed publications on this virus and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), analyzed common features of respiratory viral pneumonias, and presented the currently reported clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in transplant recipients to improve strategies regarding the diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 in this special population.

7.
Plant Dis ; 104(6): 1694-1700, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310719

RESUMO

Esteya vermicola has been used as an effective biocontrol agent for the management of the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Tools for monitoring the colonization and parasitism patterns of E. vermicola are required for the development of highly effective biocontrol strategies. Because the TaqMan PCR technique is effective for quantification of species in environmental samples, a real-time PCR-based methodology was developed for absolute quantification of E. vermicola via internal standard addition and extrapolation of DNA quantity to hyphal length. Primers and a probe for the 28S ribosomal RNA gene of E. vermicola were designed, and nested TaqMan real-time PCR-based quantification was performed. In addition, internal standard-based yield measurement was correlated to the absolute quantity of target genomic DNA. Moreover, an extrapolation curve obtained by optical microscopy and image analysis of the mycelia was constructed for the measurement of fungal hyphal length. The absolute quantification method developed in the present study provides a sensitive and accurate technique to quantify fungal density in either wood or other substrate samples and can be used as an effective tool for future studies of biocontrol agents.


Assuntos
Ophiostomatales , Hifas , Micélio , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Madeira
8.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(8): 2854-2864, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the causal agent of pine wilt disease, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a serious pathogen of forest pine trees. Esteya vermicola is a nematophagous fungus of B. xylophilus and exhibits great potential as a biological control agent. However, the in vivo infection mechanism of E. vermicola on B. xylophilus is unclear. Experiments were conducted to study the colonization of host plant and infection of B. xylophilus by E. vermicola inside pine tree xylem. RESULTS: A green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged E. vermicola transformant was constructed as a biomarker to study the in vivo colonization and infection of B. xylophilus in pine trees. The in vitro infection of B. xylophilus by E. vermicola was observed through GFP expression. The bacilloid conidia produced by trophic hyphae in the body of the nematode are described. Additionally, the monitoring of in vivo colonization by GFP-tagged E. vermicola showed the germination and hyphal extension of this fungus after inoculation. Moreover, B. xylophilus infected by this biocontrol agent were extracted from healthy seedlings and observed in the xylem of trees that were wilting due to pine wilt disease. CONCLUSION: Evidence of fungal colonization and infection of B. xylophilus by E. vermicola is provided to improve our understanding of the in vivo infection mechanisms used by this nematophagous fungus against B. xylophilus. The infection of B. xylophilus by E. vermicola was inferred to begin with the implantation of propagules, and this inference will require future investigation. The colonization of Esteya vermicola in host pine tree xylem and the in vivo infection of pinewood nematode by E. vermicola were investigated using the green fluorescence protein transformant. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ophiostomatales , Pinus , Animais , Rabditídios , Esporos Fúngicos
9.
Front Neurosci ; 14: 169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218719

RESUMO

Sleep deprivation (SD) induces hippocampal damage. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a neuronal protective factor. Silence information regulating factor 1 (Sirt1) plays an important role in neuroprotection. Therefore, this study was aimed at exploring whether H2S meliorates SD-induced hippocampal damage and whether Sirt1 mediates this protective role of H2S. We found that sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a donor of H2S) alleviated SD-generated hippocampal oxidative stress, including increases in the activation of SOD and the level of GSH as well as a decrease in the level of MDA. Meanwhile, we found that NaHS reduced SD-exerted hippocampal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Stress, including downregulations of GRP78, CHOP, and cleaved-caspase-12 expression. Moreover, NaHS reduced the apoptosis in the SD-exposed hippocampus, and this included decreases in the number of apoptotic cells and the activation of caspase-3, downregulation of Bax expression, and upregulation of Bcl-2 expression. NaHS upregulated the expression of Sirt1 in the hippocampus of SD-exposed rats. Furthermore, Sirtinol, the inhibitor of Sirt1, abrogated the protection of NaHS against SD-exerted hippocampal oxidative stress, ER stress, and apoptosis. These results suggested that H2S alleviates SD-induced hippocampal damage by upregulation of hippocampal Sirt1.

10.
J Lipid Res ; 61(1): 45-53, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604806

RESUMO

Elevated circulating levels of ceramides (Cers) are associated with increased risk of cardiometabolic diseases, and Cers may play a causative role in metabolic dysfunction that precedes cardiac events, such as mortality as a result of coronary artery disease. Although the mechanisms involved are likely complex, these associations suggest that lowering circulating Cer levels could be protective against cardiovascular diseases. Conversely, dietary fibers, such as inulin, have been reported to promote cardiovascular and metabolic health. However, the mechanisms involved in these protective processes also are not well understood. We studied the effects of inulin on lipid metabolism with a model of atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice using lipidomics and transcriptomics. Plasma and tissues were collected at 10 days and/or 12 weeks after feeding mice an atherogenic diet supplemented with inulin or cellulose (control). Compared with controls, inulin-fed mice displayed a decreased C16:0/C24:0 plasma Cer ratio and lower levels of circulating Cers associated with VLDL and LDL. Liver transcriptomic analysis revealed that Smpd3, a gene that encodes neutral SMase (NSMase), was downregulated by 2-fold in inulin-fed mice. Hepatic NSMase activity was 3-fold lower in inulin-fed mice than in controls. Furthermore, liver redox status and compositions of phosphatidylserine and FFA species, the major factors that determine NSMase activity, were also modified by inulin. Taken together, these results showed that, in mice, inulin can decrease plasma Cer levels through reductions in NSMase expression and activity, suggesting a mechanism by which fiber could reduce cardiometabolic disease risk.

11.
Insect Sci ; 27(2): 212-223, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397994

RESUMO

Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS), an enzyme that hydrolyzes two glucose molecules to yield trehalose, plays a pivotal role in various physiological processes. In this study, we cloned the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene (HvTPS) and investigated its expression patterns in various tissues and developmental stages in Heortia vitessoides Moore (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). HvTPS was highly expressed in the fat body and after pupation or before molting. We knocked down TPS in H. vitessoides by RNA interference and found that 3.0 µg of dsHvTPS resulted in optimal interference at 24 h and 36 h post-injection and caused a sharp decline in the survival rate during the 5th instar larval-pupal stage and obviously abnormal or lethal phenotypes. Additionally, compared to the controls, TPS activity and trehalose contents were significantly lower and the glucose content was significantly higher 24 h or 36 h after injection with 3.0 µg of dsHvTPS. Furthermore, the silencing of HvTPS suppressed the expression of six key genes in the chitin biosynthesis pathway and one key gene related to lipid catabolism. The expression levels of two genes associated with lipid biosynthesis were upregulated. These results strongly suggest that HvTPS is essential for the normal growth and development of H. vitessoides and provide a reference for further studies of the utility of key genes involved in chitin and lipid biosynthesis for controlling insect development.


Assuntos
Glucosiltransferases/genética , Mariposas/enzimologia , Animais , Quitina/biossíntese , Larva/metabolismo , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Mariposas/genética , Interferência de RNA , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol ; 47(2): 302-312, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660632

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) plays antidepressant-like roles in diabetic rats. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophic factor, plays important regulatory roles in depression by its high-affinity tropomysin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor. Autophagy also is implicated in modulation of depression. Previous work confirmed the modulatory roles of H2 S in BDNF protein expression and autophagy. Thus, in this study, we explored whether the BDNF-TrkB pathway mediates the antidepressant-like effects of H2 S in diabetic rats and whether this process is achieved via promoting hippocampal autophagy. We demonstrated that H2 S upregulated the expressions of BDNF and p-TrkB proteins in the hippocampus of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. K252a (an inhibitor of BDNF-TrkB pathway) reversed the antidepressant-like roles of H2 S, as evidenced by the tail suspension, forced swimming, novelty suppressed feeding, and elevated plus-maze tests. Furthermore, K252a abolished H2 S-promoted hippocampal autophagy in diabetic rats, as evidenced by a decrease in the number of autolysosome, downregulation of Beclin-1 (a regulator of autophagy in the early stage of the formation of autophagosomal membranes and its level is positively correlated with autophagic activity) expression, and upregulation of P62 (a substrate of autophagic degradation and its level is inversely correlated with autophagic activity) expression, in the hippocampus of rats co-treated with NaHS and STZ. Taken together, these data indicated that the BDNF-TrkB pathway mediates the antidepressant-like roles of H2 S in diabetic rats by enhancing hippocampal autophagy.

13.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 11: 316, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849636

RESUMO

The degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) is related to inflammation and oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory agents could reduce the risk or slow the progression of PD. Catalpol, an iridoid glycoside extracted from the roots of Rehmannia radix, has been reported to reduce the release of inflammatory factors and exert neuroprotective effects. 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mice were used as the PD model and the roles of catalpol on DA neurons and its potential mechanism were investigated in this study. We found that catalpol administration mitigated the loss of DA neurons induced by MPTP and increased exploratory behavior along with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, which was accompanied by astrocyte and microglia activation. Importantly, catalpol administration significantly inhibited MPTP-triggered oxidative stress, restored growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. Further, we found that catalpol suppressed the activation of MKK4/JNK/c-Jun signaling, and reduced the pro-inflammatory factors and inflammasome in the mouse model of PD. Our results suggest that catalpol relieves MPTP-triggered oxidative stress, which may benefit to avoid the occurrence of chronic inflammatory reaction. Catalpol alleviates MPTP-triggered oxidative stress and thereby prevents neurodegenerative diseases-related inflammatory reaction, highlighting its therapeutic potential for the management of PD symptoms.

14.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(10): 3596-3604, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621248

RESUMO

Mycorrhizae, formed through the colonization of soil mycorrhizal fungi into the roots of host plants, are common symbiosis in the terrestrial ecosystems. The establishment of mycorrhizae is mainly based on the bidirectional nutrient exchanges between the symbiotic partners. Mycorrhizal fungi can absorb mineral nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, from soil and transport them to the host plants for their growth. As an exchange, host plants supply mycorrhizal fungi with the carbohydrates in the form of lipids or sugars, which are essential for fungal growth. In recent years, the mechanism of nutrient exchange between the mycorrhizal fungi and host plants has been a hot research topic. Important progresses have been achieved in mechanisms of host plants nutrient uptake and transport mediated by the mycorrhizal fungi. In this review, recent advances in nutrient exchange between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, ectomycorrhizal fungi and host plants were summarized, especially in the absorption and bidirectional transfer mechanisms of important nutrients, such as carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus. The potential regulatory effects of nutrient exchange in the mycorrhizal development were also reviewed. In addition, key problems and prospects of related researches were analyzed. This paper would be meaningful for the establishment of mycorrhizal model and the optimization of mycorrhizal effects.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Ecossistema , Fungos , Nutrientes , Raízes de Plantas , Plantas , Simbiose
15.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 12: 194, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481873

RESUMO

Hyperglycemia, a key characteristic and risk factor for diabetes mellitus (DM), causes neuronal senescence. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a novel neuroprotectant. The present work was to investigate the potential effect of H2S on hyperglycemia-induced neuronal senescence and the underlying mechanisms. We found that NaHS, a donor of H2S, inhibited high glucose (HG)-induced cellular senescence in HT22 cells (an immortalized mouse hippocampal cell line), as evidenced by a decrease in the number of senescence associated-ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-gal) positive cells, increase in the growth of cells, and down-regulations of senescence mark proteins, p16INK4a and p21CIP1. NaHS improved the autophagic flux, which is judged by a decrease in the amount of intracellular autophagosome as well as up-regulations of LC3II/I and P62 in HG-exposed HT22 cells. Furthermore, blocked autophagic flux by chloroquine (CQ) significantly abolished NaHS-exerted improvement in the autophagic flux and suppression in the cellular senescence of GH-exposed HT22 cells, which indicated that H2S antagonizes HG-induced neuronal senescence by promoting autophagic flux. We also found that NaHS up-regulated the expression of silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1), an important anti-aging protein, in HG-exposed HT22 cells. Furthermore, inhibition of SIRT1 by sirtinol reversed the protection of H2S against HG-induced autophagic flux blockade and cellular senescence in HT22 cells. These data indicated that H2S protects HT22 cells against HG-induced neuronal senescence by improving autophagic flux via up-regulation of SIRT1, suggesting H2S as a potential treatment strategy for hyperglycemia-induced neuronal senescence and neurotoxicity.

16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16682, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393368

RESUMO

Some patients have poor response to adult-onset Still disease (AOSD) traditional treatment, which easily recurs during the reduction of prednisone. We observed the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab combined with methotrexate (MTX) in the treatment of refractory AOSD, and to explore the possibility of reducing the dosage of tocilizumab after disease control.A total of 28 refractory AOSD cases who had an inadequate response to corticosteroids combined with at least 1 traditional immunosuppressive agent, and even large-dose prednisone could not relieve their conditions after recurrence, were selected in this study. They were treated with tocilizumab (intravenous 8 mg/kg) combined with MTX (oral 12.5 mg once a week). In detail, tocilizumab was firstly given every 4 weeks and after 6-month remission, it was then given every 8 weeks. Some items including body temperature, skin rash, joint swelling and pain, hepatosplenomegaly, blood routine, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum ferritin, and dosage of prednisone were observed before treatment as well as 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks after treatment. The adverse reactions occurring during the treatment were recorded.The body temperature was normal, the skin rash as well as joint swelling and pain disappeared, and laboratory indexes including CRP, ESR, white blood cell, neutrophilic granulocyte, platelet, hemoglobin, and ferritin were significantly improved after 8-week treatment (all P < .05). The clinical symptoms and laboratory indexes above mentioned were continuously improved 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks after treatment. The mean dosage of prednisone was reduced from 71.4 ±â€Š20.7 mg/day to 55.0 ±â€Š11.1 mg/day after 2-week treatment, and to 3.3 ±â€Š2.1 mg/day after 48-week treatment (all P < .05). Prednisone was discontinued in 5 cases after 36-week treatment and in 7 cases after 48-week treatment. No serious adverse reactions occurred during the treatment.Tocilizumab can rapidly and markedly improve the clinical symptoms and laboratory indexes and contribute to reduction and discontinuation of prednisone in refractory AOSD. The patients' conditions are stable after reduction or discontinuation of prednisone and the tocilizumab possesses good safety.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Metotrexato/administração & dosagem , Doença de Still de Início Tardio/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Metotrexato/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisona/administração & dosagem , Prednisona/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454682

RESUMO

Heortia vitessoides Moore is a notorious defoliator of Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg trees. Chitin deacetylases (CDAs) catalyze the N-deacetylation of chitin, which is a crucial process for chitin modification. Here, we identified and characterized HvCDA1 and HvCDA2 from H. vitessoides. HvCDA1 and HvCDA2 possess typical domain structures of CDAs and belong to the Group I CDAs. HvCDA1 and HvCDA2 were highly expressed before and after the larval-larval molt. In addition, both exhibited relatively high mRNA expression levels during the larval-pupal molt, the pupal stage, and the pupal-adult molt. HvCDA1 and HvCDA2 transcript expression levels were highest in the body wall and relatively high in the larval head. Significant increases in the HvCDA1 and HvCDA2 transcript expression levels were observed in the larvae upon exposure to 20-hydroxyecdysone. RNA interference-mediated HvCDA1 and HvCDA2 silencing significantly inhibited HvCDA1 and HvCDA2 expression, with abnormal or nonviable phenotypes being observed. Post injection survival rates of the larvae injected with dsHvCDA1 and dsHvCDA2 were 66.7% and 46.7% (larval-pupal) during development and 23.0% and 6.7% (pupal-adult), respectively. These rates were significantly lower than those of the control group insects. Our results suggest that HvCDA1 and HvCDA2 play important roles in the larval-pupal and pupal-adult transitions and represent potential targets for the management of H. vitessoides.


Assuntos
Amidoidrolases/metabolismo , Pupa/enzimologia , Amidoidrolases/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/enzimologia , Muda/genética , Muda/fisiologia , Mariposas/enzimologia , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interferência de RNA
18.
Aging Dis ; 10(4): 756-769, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440382

RESUMO

Evidence has been accumulating that zinc ions can trigger ß-amyloid (Aß) deposition and senile plaque formation in the brain, a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Chelating zinc inhibits Aß aggregation and may hold promise as a therapeutic strategy for AD. S100A6 is an acidic Ca2+/Zn2+-binding protein found only in a small number of astrocytes in the normal brain. However, in the AD brain, S100A6 is highly expressed in astrocytes around Aß plaques. The role of the astrocytic S100A6 upregulation in AD is unknown. In the present study, we examined the effects of S100A6 on Aß plaques and intracellular zinc levels in a mouse model of AD. Chronic exposure to zinc increased Aß deposition and S100A6 expression, both reversible by the zinc chelator clioquinol, in the brains of amyloid precursor protein/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice. To examine whether exogenous S100A6 could induce Aß plaque disaggregation through competition for zinc in vitro, we incubated APP/PS1 mouse brain sections with recombinant human S100A6 protein or co-incubated them with human S100A6-expressing cells. Both treatments efficiently reduced the Aß plaque burden in situ. In addition, treatment with exogenous S100A6 protected cultured COS-7 cells against zinc toxicity. Our results show for the first time that increased S100A6 levels correlate with both Aß disaggregation and decrease of Aß plaque-associated zinc contents in brain sections with AD-like pathology. Astrocytic S100A6 in AD may protect from Aß deposition through zinc sequestration.

19.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 57(10): 500-505, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426902

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-dose rituximab in the treatment of hematologic abnormalities in patients with connective tissue disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 13 patients with connective tissue disease who did not respond to prednisolone and multiple immunosuppressive agents, or their disease recurred after treatment, were given 100 mg of rituximab only combined with prednisolone once a week for 4 weeks. Then, the therapeutic effects and adverse reactions were respectively observed in the 13 patients. RESULTS: Rituximab showed good and rapid efficacy in the treatment of refractory thrombocytopenia and autoimmune hemolytic anemia caused by systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, and mixed connective tissue disease. Only 1 patient had urinary tract infection. During 24-month follow-up, disease recurred in 7 patients who still responded to azathioprine/Tripterygium wilfordii. CONCLUSION: Low-dose rituximab has good efficacy and safety in the treatment of hematologic abnormalities in patients with connective tissue disease.


Assuntos
Doenças do Tecido Conjuntivo/tratamento farmacológico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia Hemolítica Autoimune/etiologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Murinos , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/complicações , Síndrome de Sjogren/complicações , Trombocitopenia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombocitopenia/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
World J Clin Cases ; 7(10): 1200-1205, 2019 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Licorice-induced severe hypokalemic rhabdomyolysis is clinically rare. Gitelman syndrome (GS) is the most common inherited renal tubular disease, while diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases in the world. Recently, some studies have found that GS patients had higher diabetic morbidity. However, the coexistence of these three diseases has yet to be reported. CASE SUMMARY: We report the case of a 62-year-old Chinese man who was admitted with weakness in the extremities, muscle pain, and dark-colored urine. He had consumed liquorice water daily for seven days prior to admission. The laboratory tests revealed a serum potassium level of 1.84 mmol/L, magnesium 0.68 mmol/L, creatinine phosphokinase (CK) 10117 IU/L, and marked hemoglobinuria. Fractional chloride excretion and fractional magnesium excretion were increased. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration were within the normal ranges. Sequence analysis of the SLC12A3 gene revealed that he had compound heterozygous mutations. The diagnosis of liquorice-induced severe hypokalemic rhabdomyolysis with GS and diabetes was thus genetically confirmed. Serum potassium and CK quickly improved with potassium replacement therapy, hydration, and discontinuation of liquorice ingestion. Upon follow-up at 3 mo, the levels of CK, myoglobin, and potassium remained normal, and magnesium was above 0.6 mmol/L. CONCLUSION: This case emphasizes that liquorice consumption and GS should be considered causes of hypokalemia and that the diabetic status of GS patients should be noted in the clinic.

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