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1.
J Affect Disord ; 296: 233-240, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have provided strong evidence of abnormal regional spontaneous brain activities among anxiety-disordered patients. However, the evidence has been divergent and inconclusive. Therefore, it is necessary to perform a meta-analysis identifying a common pattern of altered regional spontaneous brain activity for anxiety disorders. METHOD: Corresponding research of anxiety disorders, namely, whole-brain rs-fMRI studies that measured differences in regional homogeneity, amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations, or fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations, were analyzed in this study. Overall, seven studies with 235 anxiety-disordered patients and 241 healthy controls were ultimately included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis was processed by seed-based d mapping. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls, patients with anxiety disorders showed significantly decreased regional spontaneous brain activities in the right putamen, the right orbital inferior frontal gyrus, and the right temporal pole. No increases in regional spontaneous brain activities were detected in patients relative to the controls. LIMITATION: Limited number of available studies, only Asian samples, and insufficient information of sample characteristics. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that anxiety disorders are associated with aberrant regional brain activity in areas connected with emotion processing, which extends our understanding of anxiety disorders' pathophysiology.

2.
Brain Connect ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514848

RESUMO

Background: Patients with postacute anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis are often left with permanent memory impairments. Given that NMDA receptors are essential to memory encoding, and encoding processes have been suggested to contribute to the success of memory retrieval, we investigate whether postacute anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis leads to abnormal brain activation during verbal memory encoding and its potential effects on subsequent memory retrieval performance. Methods: To address this issue, this study recruited 21 adult patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis past the acute stage and 22 healthy controls (HCs). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected when they completed an episodic memory task. Results: At the neural level, the patients showed higher brain activation than the HCs in the bilateral hippocampus/parahippocampus (HG/PHG), right superior temporal gyrus (STG), and right thalamus during memory encoding. At the behavioral level, the patients showed worse memory retrieval performance than the HCs. Importantly, greater brain activation in the left HG/PHG during memory encoding was significantly associated with worse memory retrieval performance among the patients. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that postacute anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is likely related to altered brain activation during memory encoding. Particularly, less memory retrieval performance often observed in patients with postacute anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis may result from abnormal activation in HG during encoding. These observations may enhance our understanding of NMDA receptor dysfunction in the human brain. Impact statement Patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis are often left with permanent memory impairments. In this study, brain activation during verbal memory encoding and its potential effects on subsequent memory retrieval performance are addressed using 21 adult patients with postacute anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and 22 healthy controls. Greater brain activation in the left hippocampus/parahippocampus during memory encoding was significantly associated with worse memory retrieval performance among the patients. These observations enhance our understanding of NMDA receptor dysfunction in the human brain.

3.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can quantify the microstructural changes in the spinal cord. It might be a substitute for T2 increased signal intensity (ISI) for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) evaluation and prognosis. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between DWI metrics and neurologic function of patients with CSM. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. POPULATION: Forty-eight patients with CSM (18.8% females) and 36 healthy controls (HCs, 25.0% females). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3 T; spin-echo echo-planar imaging-DWI; turbo spin-echo T1/T2; multi-echo gradient echo T2*. ASSESSMENT: For patients, conventional MRI indicators (presence and grades of T2 ISI), DWI indicators (neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging [NODDI]-derived isotropic volume fraction [ISOVF], intracellular volume fraction, and orientation dispersion index [ODI], diffusion tensor imaging [DTI]-derived fractional anisotropy [FA] and mean diffusivity [MD], and diffusion kurtosis imaging [DKI]-derived FA, MD, and mean kurtosis), clinical conditions, and modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) were recorded before the surgery. Neurologic function improvement was measured by the 3-month follow-up recovery rate (RR). For HCs, DWI, and mJOA were measured as baseline comparison. STATISTICAL TESTS: Continuous (categorical) variables were compared between patients and HCs using Student's t-tests or Mann-Whitney U tests (chi-square or Fisher exact tests). The relationships between DWI metrics/conventional MRI findings, and the pre-operative mJOA/RR were assessed using correlation and multivariate analysis. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Among patients, grades of T2 ISI were not correlated with pre-surgical mJOA/RR (P = 0.717  and 0.175, respectively). NODDI ODI correlated with pre-operative mJOA (r = -0.31). DTI FA, DKI FA, and NODDI ISOVF were correlated with the recovery rate (r = 0.31, 0.41, and -0.34, respectively). In multivariate analysis, NODDI ODI (DTI FA, DKI FA, NODDI ISOVF) significantly contributed to the pre-operative mJOA (RR) after adjusting for age. DATA CONCLUSION: DTI FA, DKI FA, and NODDI ISOVF are predictors for prognosis in patients with CSM. NODDI ODI can be used to evaluate CSM severity. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 5.

4.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363282

RESUMO

With the emergence of AI-powered recommender systems and their extensive use in the video streaming service, questions and concerns also arise. Why can recommended video content continuously capture users' attention? What is the impact of long-term exposure to personalized video content on one's behaviors and brain functions? To address these questions, we designed an fMRI experiment presenting participants with personally recommended videos and generally recommended ones. To examine how large-scale networks were modulated by personalized video content, graph theory analysis was applied to investigate the interaction between seven networks, including the ventral and dorsal attention networks (VAN, DAN), frontal-parietal network (FPN), salience network (SN), and three subnetworks of default mode network (dorsal medial prefrontal (dMPFC), Core, and medial temporal lobe (MTL)). Our results showed that viewing nonpersonalized video content mainly enhanced the connectivity in the DAN-FPN-Core pathway, whereas viewing personalized ones increased not only the connectivity in this pathway but also the DAN-VAN-dMPFC pathway. In addition, both personalized and nonpersonalized short videos decreased the couplings between SN and VAN as well as between two DMN subsystems, Core and MTL. Collectively, these findings uncovered distinct patterns of network interactions in response to short videos and provided insights into potential neural mechanisms by which human behaviors are biased by personally recommended content.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17023, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426627

RESUMO

This study evaluated effects of dietary forage to concentrate ratio (F:C) on the body weight, digestibility, ruminal fermentation and rumen bacterial composition in Angus cows. Three diets with different F:C (LCD: 65:35, MCD:50:50, and HCD: 35:65) were fed to ninety Angus cows (3.2 ± 0.18 years old, 387.2 ± 22.6 kg). The average daily gain (ADG) and ammonia nitrogen concentration increased (P = 0.039 and P = 0.026, respectively), whereas the acetate to propionate ratio (P = 0.027) and the neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility decreased with increasing concentrate level. The acetate concentration and ruminal pH (P = 0.033 and P = 0.029, respectively) decreased by feeding HCD diet. Serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp) and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) increased under the HCD. The relative abundances of Bacteroidetes, Fibrobacterota, Prevotella and Prevotellaceae UCG-003 decreased, whereas the relative abundances of Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 group, Saccharofermentans and Spirochaetota increased with increasing dietary concentrate level. Our study provides a better understanding of rumen fermentation parameters and microbiota under a wide range of dietary F:C ratios, supporting the potential dietary manipulation of microbes, which could enhance feed digestibility associated with cow rearing.

6.
Biom J ; 63(7): 1507-1525, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216403

RESUMO

The additive hazards model is one of the most commonly used models for regression analysis of failure time data and many inference procedures have been developed for it under various situations. In particular, Wang et al. (2018a, Computational Statistics and Data Analysis, 125, 1-9) discussed the situation where one observes informatively interval-censored data and proposed a likelihood estimation approach. However , it involves estimation of the unknown baseline cumulative hazard function and thus may be time-consuming . Corresponding to this, we propose two new procedures, an estimating equation-based one and an empirical likelihood-based one, and both do not need estimation of the cumulative hazard function and can be easily implemented. The asymptotic properties of the proposed methods are established and an extensive simulation study suggests that they work well in practical situations. An application is also provided.

7.
Radiol Med ; 126(9): 1226-1235, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the feasibility of predicting high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities (HRCAs) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) using a spinal MRI-based radiomics method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, we analyzed the radiomic features of 248 lesions (HRCA [n = 111] and non-HRCA [n = 137]) using T1WI, T2WI, and fat suppression T2WI. To construct the radiomics model, the top nine most frequent radiomic features were selected using logistic regression (LR) machine-learning processes. A combined LR model incorporating radiomic features and basic clinical characteristics (age and sex) was also built. Fivefold external cross-validation was performed, and a comparative analysis of 10 random fivefold cross-validation sets was used to verify result stability. Model performance was compared by plotting receiver operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: Comparable AUC values were observed between the radiomics model and the combined model in validation cohorts (AUC: 0.863 vs. 0.870, respectively, p = 0.206). The radiomics model had an AUC of 0.863, with a sensitivity of 0.789, a specificity of 0.787, a positive predictive value of 0.753, a negative predictive value of 0.824, and an accuracy of 0.788 in the validation cohort, which were comparable with the performance in the training cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Radiomic features of routine spinal MRI reflect differences between HRCAs and non-HRCAs in patients with MM. This MRI-based radiomics model might be a useful and independent tool to predict HRCAs in patients MM.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mieloma Múltiplo/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Estudos Retrospectivos , Coluna Vertebral/patologia
8.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 54(4): 1303-1311, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiomics has shown promising results in the diagnosis, efficacy, and prognostic assessments of multiple myeloma (MM). However, little evidence exists on the utility of radiomics in predicting a high-risk cytogenetic (HRC) status in MM. PURPOSE: To develop and test a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based radiomics model for predicting an HRC status in MM patients. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. POPULATION: Eighty-nine MM patients (HRC [n: 37] and non-HRC [n: 52]). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: A 3.0 T; fast spin-echo (FSE): T1-weighted image (T1WI) and fat-suppression T2WI (FS-T2WI). ASSESSMENT: Overall, 1409 radiomics features were extracted from each volume of interest drawn by radiologists. Three sequential feature selection steps-variance threshold, SelectKBest, and least absolute shrinkage selection operator-were repeated 10 times with 5-fold cross-validation. Radiomics models were constructed with the top three frequency features of T1 WI/T2 WI/two-sequence MRI (T1 WI and FS-T2 WI). Radiomics models, clinical data (age and visually assessed MRI pattern), or radiomics combined with clinical data were used with six classifiers to distinguish between HRC and non-HRC statuses. Six classifiers used were support vector machine, random forest, logistic regression (LR), decision tree, k-nearest neighbor, and XGBoost. Model performance was evaluated with area under the curve (AUC) values. STATISTICAL TESTS: Mann-Whitney U-test, Chi-squared test, Z test, and DeLong method. RESULTS: The LR classifier performed better than the other classifiers based on different data (AUC: 0.65-0.82; P < 0.05). The two-sequence MRI models performed better than the other data models using different classifiers (AUC: 0.68-0.82; P < 0.05). Thus, the LR two-sequence model yielded the best performance (AUC: 0.82 ± 0.02; sensitivity: 84.1%; specificity: 68.1%; accuracy: 74.7%; P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The LR-based machine learning method appears superior to other classifier methods for assessing HRC in MM. Radiomics features based on two-sequence MRI showed good performance in differentiating HRC and non-HRC statuses in MM. EVIDENCE LEVEL: 3 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 2.


Assuntos
Mieloma Múltiplo , Análise Citogenética , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Mieloma Múltiplo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Lifetime Data Anal ; 27(3): 413-436, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895961

RESUMO

Current status data occur in many fields including demographical, epidemiological, financial, medical, and sociological studies. We consider the regression analysis of current status data with latent variables. The proposed model consists of a factor analytic model for characterizing latent variables through their multiple surrogates and an additive hazard model for examining potential covariate effects on the hazards of interest in the presence of current status data. We develop a borrow-strength estimation procedure that incorporates the expectation-maximization algorithm and correlated estimating equations. The consistency and asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators are established. A simulation study is conducted to evaluate the finite sample performance of the proposed method. A real-life study on the chronic kidney disease of type 2 diabetic patients is presented.

10.
Environ Res ; 195: 110810, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524331

RESUMO

As an important reservoir of mercury (Hg), cropland play an important role in the Hg cycle, but it was poorly understood in northern China. The major objectives of this study are to ascertain the distribution characteristics of soil Hg and then assess its pollution level and potential risk, and further evaluate the role of cropland in northern China in the global soil-air exchange of Hg based on the simulation experiments and regional survey. The average Hg concentration in surface soils of the 30 sites in northern China was 116.1 ± 135.8 ng g-1, which was significantly higher than background values. The surface soils show a significant spatial heterogeneity in Hg concentration, and the Hg levels near provincial capitals were higher than those at corresponding prefecture-level cities, revealing that the soil Hg levels were closely associated with the local industrial and economic development. Profile data shows that topsoil Hg concentration was significantly higher than those in deeper layers at most of sites, indicating the more serious pollution situation in recent years. Generally, the higher the surface soil Hg concentration, the more obvious this top-bottom decreasing trend. The planular-vertical distribution patterns of TOM share similar trends as those of soil Hg concentration, indicating Hg concentration was closely associated with TOM content. Statistical results show that the mean CF, Eri, and Igeo values were 4.0 ± 5.0, 161 ± 198, 0.76 ± 1.34, respectively, and more than two thirds of sampling sites were moderately and considerably polluted. The mean annual accumulative flux of Hg in the northern China was 20.9 ± 43.8 µg m-2 yr-1, and the total net emission fluxes of Hg from the croplands in six provinces were 8.37 ton yr-1. This indicates that although the cropland occasionally acts as a sink, it represents an important natural source of atmospheric Hg as a whole.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Poluentes do Solo , China , Produtos Agrícolas , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gases , Mercúrio/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
11.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 62, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persistent inflammation is an important driver of disease progression and affects prognosis. Some indicators of inflammation predict short-term outcomes. The relationship between prognosis, especially mortality, and persistent inflammation in massive stroke has not been studied, and this has been the subject of our research. METHODS: From April 1, 2017 to February 1, 2020, consecutive patients were prospectively enrolled. Clinical data, laboratory data, imaging data and follow-up infections morbidity were compared between 2 groups according to modified Rankin scale (mRS) scores (mRS < 3 and ≥ 3) at 1 month. The binomial logistic analysis was used to determine independent factors of 1-month prognosis. Short-term functional outcome, mortality and infection rates in massive stroke with and without persistent inflammation were compared. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-nine patients with massive stroke were included from 800 patients. We found that admission blood glucose levels (p = 0.005), proportions of cerebral hemispheric (p = 0.001), posterior circulatory (p = 0.035), and lacunar (p = 0.022) ischemia were higher in poor outcome patients; neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (odd ratio = 1.87, 95%CI 1.14-3.07, p = 0.013) and blood glucose concentrations (odd ratio = 1.34, 95%CI 1.01-1.79, p = 0.043) can independently predict the short-term prognosis in massive stroke patients. We also found that the incidence of pulmonary infection (p = 0.009), one-month mortality (p = 0.003) and adverse outcomes (p = 0.0005) were higher in patients with persistent inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that persistent inflammation is associated with poor prognosis, 1-month mortality and the occurrence of in-hospital pulmonary infection and that higher baseline inflammation level predicts short-term poor outcomes in massive stroke.


Assuntos
Inflamação/imunologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/imunologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/imunologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
12.
Cereb Cortex ; 31(6): 3122-3135, 2021 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33585902

RESUMO

Human learning can be understood as a network phenomenon, underpinned by the adaptive reconfiguration of modular organization. However, the plasticity of community structure (CS) in resting-state network induced by cognitive intervention has never been investigated. Here, we explored the individual difference of intrinsic CS between children with 5-year abacus-based mental calculation (AMC) training (35 subjects) and their peers without prior experience in AMC (31 subjects). Using permutation-based analysis between subjects in the two groups, we found the significant alteration of intrinsic CS, with training-attenuated individual difference. The alteration of CS focused on selective subsets of cortical regions ("core areas"), predominantly affiliated to the visual, somatomotor, and default-mode subsystems. These subsystems exhibited training-promoted cohesion with attenuated interaction between them, from the perspective of individuals' CS. Moreover, the cohesion of visual network could predict training-improved math ability in the AMC group, but not in the control group. Finally, the whole network displayed enhanced segregation in the AMC group, including higher modularity index, more provincial hubs, lower participation coefficient, and fewer between-module links, largely due to the segregation of "core areas." Collectively, our findings suggested that the intrinsic CS could get reconfigured toward more localized processing and segregated architecture after long-term cognitive training.

13.
Lifetime Data Anal ; 27(2): 244-268, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481146

RESUMO

The existence of a cured subgroup happens quite often in survival studies and many authors considered this under various situations (Farewell in Biometrics 38:1041-1046, 1982; Kuk and Chen in Biometrika 79:531-541, 1992; Lam and Xue in Biometrika 92:573-586, 2005; Zhou et al. in J Comput Graph Stat 27:48-58, 2018). In this paper, we discuss the situation where only interval-censored data are available and furthermore, the censoring may be informative, for which there does not seem to exist an established estimation procedure. For the analysis, we present a three component model consisting of a logistic model for describing the cure rate, an additive hazards model for the failure time of interest and a nonhomogeneous Poisson model for the observation process. For estimation, we propose a sieve maximum likelihood estimation procedure and the asymptotic properties of the resulting estimators are established. Furthermore, an EM algorithm is developed for the implementation of the proposed estimation approach, and extensive simulation studies are conducted and suggest that the proposed method works well for practical situations. Also the approach is applied to a cardiac allograft vasculopathy study that motivated this investigation.

14.
Front Neurosci ; 14: 913, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32982681

RESUMO

Abacus, which represents numbers via a visuospatial format, is a traditional device to facilitate arithmetic operations. Skilled abacus users, who have acquired the ability of abacus-based mental calculation (AMC), can perform fast and accurate calculations by manipulating an imaginary abacus in mind. Due to this extraordinary calculation ability in AMC users, there is an expanding literature investigating the effects of AMC training on cognition and brain systems. This review study aims to provide an updated overview of important findings in this fast-growing research field. Here, findings from previous behavioral and neuroimaging studies about AMC experts as well as children and adults receiving AMC training are reviewed and discussed. Taken together, our review of the existing literature suggests that AMC training has the potential to enhance various cognitive skills including mathematics, working memory and numerical magnitude processing. Besides, the training can result in functional and anatomical neural changes that are largely located within the frontal-parietal and occipital-temporal brain regions. Some of the neural changes can explain the training-induced cognitive enhancements. Still, caution is needed when extend the conclusions to a more general situation. Implications for future research are provided.

15.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 44(12): 1658-1665, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910018

RESUMO

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare histiocytic disorder composed of Langerhans cells admixed with reactive mononuclear and granulocytic cells, associated with prominent eosinophils. LCH is considered a neoplasm, driven in most cases by oncogenic RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway mutations. The disease predominantly affects children. Urinary system involvement has rarely been reported in a multisystem disease setting. We describe 7 patients who presented with LCH occurring within (6 cases) or after (1 case) a resected clear cell (n=6) or clear cell papillary (n=1) renal cell carcinoma (RCC), identified prospectively in our routine and consultation files (2012 to 2019). The patients included 5 women and 2 men, with a median age of 54 years (range, 39 to 73 y), none with a history of LCH or LCH manifestations before the time of RCC diagnosis. The median size of the RCC was 3.5 cm (range, 1.8 to 8.3 cm). Treatment included partial (5 cases), or radical (2 cases) nephrectomy. All RCCs on gross examination showed at least focal cystic changes and were low grade (World Health Organization [WHO]/International Society of Urologic Pathologists [ISUP] grade 1 to 2). The LCH foci were detected as incidental histological finding within the resected RCC in all six cases and they were limited to few high-power fields (<2 mm) in 5 of 6 cases, but in the sixth case, they occupied almost the entire clear cell papillary RCC (2 cm nodule). No LCH manifestations were detected in the normal kidney or in perinephric fat. The seventh patient developed LCH within inguinal deep soft tissue followed by systemic manifestations 6 years after clear cell RCC. Langerhans cell immunophenotype was supported by the reactivity for S-100, CD1a, and langerin and by the negative pankeratin. Successful pyrosequencing of microdissected LCH DNA revealed the V600E BRAF mutation in all 6 cases of LCH within RCC. To our knowledge, only 3 similar cases were published since 1980; the only case tested for BRAF mutation showed wild-type BRAF. This is the first study analyzing the morphologic and genetic features of a cohort of LCH associated with RCC. In our experience, these cases may be underrecognized in practice, or may erroneously be diagnosed as RCC dedifferentiation or high-grade sarcomatoid transformation. Finally, the detection of BRAF mutation further confirms that LCH in this setting is indeed a neoplasm, rather than a reactive lesion.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/genética , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma de Células Renais/química , Carcinoma de Células Renais/cirurgia , Feminino , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/metabolismo , Histiocitose de Células de Langerhans/cirurgia , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/química , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Nefrectomia , Estudos Prospectivos
16.
Thorac Cancer ; 11(10): 2775-2781, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Avitinib is one type of the third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with EGFR mutations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of avitinib on the pharmacokinetics of osimertinib, one FDA approved third-generation TIKI, both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The in vitro metabolic stability and inhibitory effect of avitinib on osimertinib were assessed with rat liver microsomes (RLM) to determine its IC50 values. For the in vivo study, 18 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: the avitinib multiple dose group (30 mg/kg avitinib once daily for seven days), the avitinib single dose group (PEG200 once daily for six days and a dose of 30 mg/kg avitinib in PEG200 on day 7) and the control group (equal amounts of PEG200 once daily for seven days). Next, all rats were given osimertinib at a dosage of 10 mg/kg. UPLC/MS-MS was used for the determination of the concentration of osimertinib in plasma. RESULTS: In vitro analysis revealed that the IC50 value of osimertinib in rat liver microsomes was 27.6 µM. When rats were pretreated with avitinib, the values of AUC and MRT of the osimertinib were increased, and its Cmax and Tmax were significantly extended, whereas the values of CLz/F were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Both in vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that a drug-drug interaction between avitinib and osimertinib occurred and more attention should be paid when avitinib and osimertinib are synchronously administered in clinic. KEY POINTS: SIGNIFICANT FINDINGS OF THE STUDY: Osimertinib is the only market available third-generation EGFR-TKI and it has been reported that some drugs could have drug-drug interactions with it. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: For the first time, we systematically investigated the effect of avitinib, one newly developed third-generation EGFR-TKI, on the pharmacokinetics of osimertinib both in vitro and in vivo using a rat model.

17.
Int J Neurosci ; : 1-6, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546038

RESUMO

Introduction: Inflammation plays an important role in stroke. Many inflammatory markers in peripheral blood are proved to be associated with stroke severity or prognosis. But few comprehensive models or scales to evaluate the severity of stroke have been reported. Systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) and platelet-albumin-bilirubin (PALBI) grade as new markers of inflammation have shown their positive association with liver cancer. The relation between SII, or PALBI and stroke remains uncertain.Objective: To investigate the relationship between SII, PALBI grade and stroke severity.Methods: Patients with ischemic stroke with hospital admission <24 h after symptom onset were prospectively included in a stroke registry. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected immediately after admission in all patients. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was used to assess stroke severity upon admission. Minor stroke was defined as NIHSS score < =5, moderate-to-severe stroke as NIHSS score >5. SII, calculated as platelet × neutrophil/lymphocyte was divided into four groups according to interquartile range: lowest SII (SII < 353.9 × 109/L), low SII (353.9-532.8 × 109/L), high SII (532.8-783.9 × 109/L), and highest SII (>783.9 × 109/L) group.Results: A total of 362 patients with ischemic stroke were included, and between minor and moderate-to-severe stroke significant difference was found in SII (p < 0.0001), NLR (p < 0.0001), and PLR (p = 0.001), respectively. After multivariate regression analyses, SII groups (Odd ratio = 1.351, 95% confidence interval 1.084-1.684, p = 0.007) not PALBI was an independent risk factor for stroke severity.Conclusion: We found that SII but not PALBI, which both are markers of inflammation, was independently associated with stroke severity.

18.
Neuroscience ; 432: 115-125, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112920

RESUMO

Accumulating evidence indicates a positive effect of abacus-based mental calculation (AMC) training on various cognitive functions including short-term memory (STM). Our previous work has shown AMC training-induced activation changes in the frontal-parietal network (FPN) using task fMRI. However, whether AMC training-induced functional plasticity in the same brain network can be detected at resting state remains unknown. The current study aimed to address this question using resting state functional connectivity in a longitudinal AMC training experiment engaging a training group (18 subjects, age = 21.439 ±â€¯0.565) and a control group (18 subjects, age = 21.113 ±â€¯1.140). Our results revealed that the average functional connectivity strength within the FPN showing task activation changes was significantly enhanced after training in the AMC group, whereas it remained stable in the control group. Further analysis indicated that such connectivity increase in the AMC group was primarily driven by the enhanced coupling of bilateral superior parietal lobules (SPL). In addition, a significant and positive correlation between letter forward memory span and SPL connectivity was found at post-training session in the AMC group. While the weakest quartile of SPL connections ranking by pre-training connectivity strength showed the largest effect of enhancement after training, it was the strongest quartile of SPL connectivity that correlated the most with memory span at post-training session. These findings suggest that AMC training may enhance bilateral SPL functional connectivity, through which AMC training might exert a transfer effect to improve short-term memory capacity.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Lobo Parietal , Adulto , Encéfalo , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Memória de Curto Prazo , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
19.
Microb Pathog ; 142: 104054, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061917

RESUMO

PROBLEM: It has long been known that Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, serotype CP8) is associated with clinical mastitis in cows, and recent scientific studies have shown that curcumin (CUR) is effective in anti-inflammatory. However, the mechanism of action of curcumin on S. aureus-induced cows has not been fully understood. Therefore, this study investigated whether curcumin could improve the inflammation response in mice mastitis and to clarify the possible mechanism. METHOD: of study: A mouse mastitis model was established. The mice were administered curcumin (125 mg/kg), ciprofloxacin (130 mg/kg, CIP), and water (model group) for 5 days. RESULTS: CUR and CIP treatment prevented the S. aureus-induced mouse mastitis increase the levels of IL-2, IL-10, and IFN-γ and decrease levels of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. Additionally, RT-PCR results showed that 20 µg/mL curcumin inhibited the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1ß, TRAF6 and MEKK1 in murine mammary epithelial cells (MMECs). Likewise, Western blotting results showed that CUR inhibited the expression of TRAF6 and MEKK1. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that CUR is superior to CIP in the prevention of mastitis, and the mechanism may be that the curative effect of CUR inhibits TLR-2 mediated NF-κB signaling pathway in mouse mastitis.

20.
Environ Res ; 182: 109092, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069770

RESUMO

Four cruises were performed in the Bohai Sea (BS) and Yellow Sea (YS) to ascertain the levels and distributions of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM), methylmercury (MeHg), and total mercury (THg) during 2012 and 2014. Their concentrations and Hg0 flux exhibited clear spatial-temporal distributions. The GEM level over the BS in spring (2.71 ± 0.49 ng m-3) was significantly higher than that in fall (1.98 ± 0.91 ng m-3). Air masses with elevated GEM mainly originated from northern China. During the two cruises in 2012 over the BS, the mean DGM concentration in spring (35.7 ± 4.6 pg l-1) was comparable to that in fall (32.4 ± 4.6 pg l-1). During the spring cruise of 2014, the mean DGM concentration in the BS (52.8 ± 12.5 pg l-1) was comparable to that in the YS (52.4 ± 14.1 pg l-1), while during the fall cruise of 2014, it was significantly lower in the BS (26.7 ± 14.4 pg l-1) than in the YS (57.2 ± 17.9 pg l-1). DGM represents a small portion of unfiltered THg in the BS (3.95%) and YS (5.12%). The MeHg and MeHg% values were higher in nearshore areas than in open sea, indicating higher productivity in coastal regions. The Hg0 flux in the YS (4.56 ng m-2 h-1) was about twice that in the BS. The annual emission Hg0 fluxes from the BS and YS were 2.71 and 23.68 tons yr-1, respectively.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Gases , Mercúrio/química , Oceanos e Mares , Água do Mar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
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