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1.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(10): 330, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498123

RESUMO

Tunable multicolor carbon dots (CDs) with a quantum yield reach up to 35% were generated directly from rhodamine and urea via one-step hydrothermal approach and purified through silica gel column chromatography. Transmission electron microscopy images reveal that the as-prepared CDs possess a small size distribution below 10 nm with bright blue, green, and yellow color emission, designated as b-CDs, g-CDs, and y-CDs, respectively. The in-depth investigations reveal that the multicolor emission CDs with different fraction displays fluorescence emission wavelength ranges from 398 nm (b-CDs), 525 nm (g-CDs), to 553 nm (y-CDs) which could be well modulated by controlling the amount of heteroatom nitrogen especially amino nitrogen onto their surface structures. Further experiments verify the important role of nitrogen content by using rhodamine solely or substituting urea with sulfur containing compounds as precursors to produce corresponding CDs since the performance is lower than that of urea incorporation. Theoretical calculation results also reveal that the increasing amount of amino nitrogen into their surface structures of b-CDs, g-CDs to y-CDs is responsible for reduced band gaps energy, which result in the redshifted wavelength. Benefiting from the excellent photoluminescence properties, wide pH variation range, high photo stability, and low toxicity, these CDs were employed for HClO sensing at 553 nm within the range 5 to 140 µM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.27 ± 0.025 µM (n = 3) and multicolor cellular imaging in HeLa cells. Tunable multicolor carbon dots (CDs) were generated directly from rhodamine and urea via one-step hydrothermal approach and purified through silica gel column chromatography. The as-prepared CDs exhibit bright blue, green, and yellow color emission which could be well modulated by controlling the increasing incorporation of heteroatom nitrogen especially amino nitrogen into their surface structures. These CDs were employed for HClO sensing and demonstrated to multicolor cellular imaging in HeLa cells.

2.
Blood Purif ; : 1-8, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal therapy that included therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) or continuous hemofiltration (CHF) for toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) syndrome was used in small number of patients. We aimed to describe the sequential mode of combined application of CHF and TPE in 3 TEN patients with multiple organ dysfunction (MODS) in pediatric intensive care unit. METHODS: Three patients with fatal TEN received sequential CHF and TPE due to unsatisfactorily conventional treatments. CHF was initiated and performed on a daily basis with 35-50 mL/kg.h replacement fluid at the rate of 3-5 mL/kg.min blood flow. CHF was temporarily interrupted for TPE, which was performed with exchange 1-1.5-fold of one body calculated plasma volume in each section. RESULTS: All 3 fatal TEN (with >30% involvement of body surface and MODS) following unsuccessful treatment with corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin. Antibiotics were suspected in the TEN-triggered drugs. The range number of TPE sessions was 3-5 and the duration of CHF was from 120 h to 202 h. After initiation of TPE and CHF, blistering with extensive epidermal necrosis halted and the skin re-epithelialized within 2 weeks. Serum C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, tumor necrosis factor-α , and interlukin-6 decreased and percentage of natural killer cells increased in surviving children. Two patients survived to discharge and one case died due to nosocomial infection with multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. CONCLUSION: After sequential TPE and CHF, skin lesions and inflammatory response improved in TEN. Our result indicates extracorporeal therapy could be used as an alternative modality for fatal pediatric TEN.

3.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 33(8): 1017-1020, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590575

RESUMO

The pathology of sepsis is extremely complex. Pathogen invasion, inflammatory factors secretion, coagulation disorder and microcirculation disturbance lead to metabolic disorder and organ dysfunction. In recent years, immunometabolism has aroused continuous attention in aspect of nutrition therapy and immune intervention for sepsis. Nutrition metabolites include amino acids, fatty acids, and glucose metabolites, which are not only the nutritional ingredients, but also the regulators of innate immune and adaptive immune. Fatty acids and glucose metabolites are involved in regulation of immune response mainly via free fatty acid receptors and AMP-activated protein kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin (AMPK/mTOR) signaling pathway. Here, we summarized the research progress on the roles of nutrition metabolites in nutrition therapy and immune regulation during sepsis, which could provide a new direction for the development of metabolic therapy for sepsis.


Assuntos
Terapia Nutricional , Sepse , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Glucose , Humanos , Sepse/terapia , Transdução de Sinais
4.
Planta ; 254(3): 59, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427790

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Through combined analysis of the transcriptome and targeted metabolome of lily bulbs, the possible molecular mechanism of dormancy release was revealed. Regulation of bulb dormancy is critical for ensuring annual production and high-quality cultivation. The application of low temperatures is the most effective method for breaking bulb dormancy, but the molecular mechanism underlying this response is unclear. Herein, targeted metabolome and transcriptome analyses were performed on Lilium davidii var. unicolor bulbs stored for 0, 50, and 100 days at 4 °C. Dormancy release mainly depended on the accumulation of gibberellins GA4 and GA7, which are synthesized by the non-13-hydroxylation pathway, rather than GA3, and ABA was degraded in the process. The contents of nonbioactive GA9, GA15, and GA24, the precursors of GA4 synthesis, increased with bulb dormancy release. Altogether, 113,252 unique transcripts were de novo assembled through high-throughput transcriptome sequences, and 639 genes were continuously differentially expressed. Energy sources during carbohydrate metabolism mainly depend on glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway. Screening of transcription factor families involved in bulb dormancy release showed that MYB, WRKY, NAC, and TCP members were significantly correlated with the targeted metabolome. Coexpression analysis further confirmed that ABI5, PYL8, PYL4, and PP2C, which are vital ABA signaling elements, regulated GA3ox and GA20ox in the GA4 biosynthesis pathway, and XERICO may be involved in the regulation of ABA and GA4 signaling through the ubiquitination pathway. WRKY32, WRKY71, DAM14, NAC8, ICE1, bHLH93, and TCP15 also participated in the ABA/GA4 regulatory network, and ICE1 may be the key factor linking temperature signals and hormone metabolism. These results will help to reveal the bulb dormancy molecular mechanism and develop new strategies for high-quality bulb production.


Assuntos
Lilium , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lilium/genética , Metabolômica , Dormência de Plantas , Sementes , Transcriptoma
5.
Artif Intell Med ; 118: 102134, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412850

RESUMO

Resembling the role of disease diagnosis in Western medicine, pathogenesis (also called Bing Ji) diagnosis is one of the utmost important tasks in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In TCM theory, pathogenesis is a complex system composed of a group of interrelated factors, which is highly consistent with the character of systems science (SS). In this paper, we introduce a heuristic definition called pathogenesis network (PN) to represent pathogenesis in the form of the directed graph. Accordingly, a computational method of pathogenesis diagnosis, called network differentiation (ND), is proposed by integrating the holism principle in SS. ND consists of three stages. The first stage is to generate all possible diagnoses by Cartesian Product operated on specified prior knowledge corresponding to the input symptoms. The second stage is to screen the validated diagnoses by holism principle. The third stage is to pick out the clinical diagnosis by physician-computer interaction. Some theorems are stated and proved for the further optimization of ND in this paper. We conducted simulation experiments on 100 clinical cases. The experimental results show that our proposed method has an excellent capability to fit the holistic thinking in the process of physician inference.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445115

RESUMO

The SWEET (Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporter) proteins are a novel family of sugar transporters that play key roles in sugar efflux, signal transduction, plant growth and development, plant-pathogen interactions, and stress tolerance. In this study, 22 ClaSWEET genes were identified in Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) through homology searches and classified into four groups by phylogenetic analysis. The genes with similar structures, conserved domains, and motifs were clustered into the same groups. Further analysis of the gene promoter regions uncovered various growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stress responsive cis-regulatory elements. Tissue-specific analysis showed most of the genes were highly expressed in male flowers and the roots of cultivated varieties and wild cultivars. In addition, qRT-PCR results further imply that ClaSWEET proteins might be involved in resistance to Fusarium oxysporum infection. Moreover, a significantly higher expression level of these genes under various abiotic stresses suggests its multifaceted role in mediating plant responses to drought, salt, and low-temperature stress. The genome-wide characterization and phylogenetic analysis of ClaSWEET genes, together with the expression patterns in different tissues and stimuli, lays a solid foundation for future research into their molecular function in watermelon developmental processes and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Transporte Biológico/genética , Citrullus/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Família Multigênica/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Açúcares/metabolismo , Fusarium/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
7.
Microorganisms ; 9(7)2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361877

RESUMO

Microsporidia are ubiquitous fungi-related parasites infecting nearly all vertebrates and invertebrates. Microsporidian Nosema bombycis is a natural pathogen of multiple insects, including the silkworm and many agricultural and forest pests. N. bombycis can transovarially transmit in silkworm and cause huge economic losses to the sericulture. However, it remains unclear whether N. bombycis vertically transmits in the crop pests Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa armigera. Here, we investigated the infection of N. bombycis in S. litura and H. armigera to illuminate its infectivity and transovarial transmission. In result, tissue examination with light microscopy revealed that the fat body, midgut, malpighian tubules, hemolymph, testis, and ovary were all infected in both pest pupae. Immunohistochemical analysis (IHA) of the ovariole showed that a large number of parasites in maturation and proliferation presented in follicle cell, nurse cell, and oocyte, suggesting that N. bombycis can infect and multiply in these cells and probably transovarially transmit to the next generations in both pests. Microscopic examination on the egg infection rate demonstrated that 50% and 38% of the S. litura and H. armigera eggs were congenitally infected, respectively. IHA of both eggs manifested numerous spores and proliferative pathogens in the oocyte, confirming that N. bombycis can invade into the female germ cell from the parent body. After hatching of the infected eggs, we detected the infection in offspring larvae and found large quantities of proliferative pathogens, confirming that N. bombycis can transovarially transmit in S. litura and H. armigera, and probably persists in both pest populations via congenital infection. In summary, our work, for the first time, proved that N. bombycis is able to vertically transmit in S. litura and H. armigera via infecting the oocyte in the parent, suggesting that N. bombycis could be a biological insecticide for controlling the population of crop pests.

8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 699239, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222053

RESUMO

Microsporidia are a group of obligated intracellular parasites that can infect nearly all vertebrates and invertebrates, including humans and economic animals. Microsporidian Vairimorpha necatrix is a natural pathogen of multiple insects and can massively proliferate by making tumor-like xenoma in host tissue. However, little is known about the subcellular structures of this xenoma and the proliferation features of the pathogens inside. Here, we characterized the V. necatrix xenoma produced in muscle cells of silkworm midgut. In result, the whitish xenoma was initially observed on the 12th day post infection on the outer surface of the midgut and later became larger and numerous. The observation by scanning electronic microscopy showed that the xenoma is mostly elliptical and spindle with dense pathogen-containing protrusions and spores on the surface, which were likely shedding off the xenoma through exocytosis and could be an infection source of other tissues. Demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy and fluorescent staining, the xenoma was enveloped by a monolayer membrane, and full of vesicle structures, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum around parasites in development, suggesting that high level of energy and nutrients were produced to support the massive proliferation of the parasites. Multiple hypertrophic nuclei were found in one single xenoma, indicating that the cyst was probably formed by fusion of multiple muscle cells. Observed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, pathogens in the xenoma were in merongony, sporogony, and octosporogony, and mature stages. And mature spores were pushed to the center while vegetative pathogens were in the surface layer of the xenoma. The V. necatrix meront usually contained two to three nuclei, and sporont contained two nuclei and was wrapped by a thick membrane with high electron density. The V. necatrix sporogony produces two types of spores, the ordinary dikaryotic spore and unicellular octospores, the latter of which were smaller in size and packed in a sporophorous vesicle. In summary, V. necatrix xenoma is a specialized cyst likely formed by fusion of multiple muscle cells and provides high concentration of energy and nutrients with increased number of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum for the massive proliferation of pathogens inside.


Assuntos
Microsporídios , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Microsporídios/genética , Filogenia
10.
Ann Pharmacother ; : 10600280211022722, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105395

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze and discuss the clinical characteristics of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP4i)-induced bullous pemphigoid (BP). DATA SOURCES: We collected case reports of DPP4i-induced BP by searching databases from 2006 to mid-May 2021, as a retrospective analysis. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Relevant case reports and case analyses of DPP4i-induced BP were included. DATA SYNTHESIS: The median time of symptom onset was 9 months (range 0.5-59 months). BP most often occurred in patients receiving vildagliptin (52.63%) followed by linagliptin (27.19%) and sitagliptin (17.54%). Tense bullae and blisters (85.51%) and erythema (82.61%) on the extremities and trunk were the most common presenting symptoms. In total, 64.06% of BP patients were anti-BP180 autoantibody positive, 58.97% were BP180NC16a autoantibody positive, and 31.25% were anti-BP230 autoantibody positive. Skin biopsy revealed subepidermal bulla eosinophil infiltration in 93.85% of BP patients, lymphocyte infiltration in 56.93%, and neutrophil infiltration in 44.62%. Direct immunofluorescence was positive in 98.94% of BP patients with linear deposition of IgG (97.80%) and/or complement C3 (98.94%) along the basement membrane zone. Indirect immunofluorescence was positive in 87.88% of BP patients. Complete remission of BP was achieved in 83.64% of patients on DPP4i withdrawal and after 4 months (range 0.13-72 months) of follow-up. RELEVANCE TO PATIENT CARE AND CLINICAL PRACTICE: This review analyzes and discusses the clinical characteristics of DPP4i-induced BP and provides a reference for the safe and reasonable clinical application of DPP4i. CONCLUSIONS: DPP4i drugs are related to the occurrence of BP in diabetic patients, especially elderly men taking vildagliptin.

11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11513, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075198

RESUMO

Brucellosis is one of the major public health problems in China, and human brucellosis represents a serious public health concern in Xinjiang and requires a prediction analysis to help making early planning and putting forward science preventive and control countermeasures. According to the characteristics of the time series of monthly reported cases of human brucellosis in Xinjiang from January 2008 to June 2020, we used seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) method and nonlinear autoregressive regression neural network (NARNN) method, which are widely prevalent and have high prediction accuracy, to construct prediction models and make prediction analysis. Finally, we established the SARIMA((1,4,5,7),0,0)(0,1,2)12 model and the NARNN model with a time lag of 5 and a hidden layer neuron of 10. Both models have high fitting performance. After comparing the accuracies of two established models, we found that the SARIMA((1,4,5,7),0,0)(0,1,2)12 model was better than the NARNN model. We used the SARIMA((1,4,5,7),0,0)(0,1,2)12 model to predict the number of monthly reported cases of human brucellosis in Xinjiang from July 2020 to December 2021, and the results showed that the fluctuation of the time series from July 2020 to December 2021 was similar to that of the last year and a half while maintaining the current prevention and control ability. The methodology applied here and its prediction values of this study could be useful to give a scientific reference for prevention and control human brucellosis.

12.
Theor Appl Genet ; 134(10): 3263-3277, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185107

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Using two segregating population, watermelon stripe pattern underlying gene ClSP was delimited to a 611.78 Kb region, consisting of four discrete haploblocks and ongoing recombination suppression. Stripe pattern is an important commodity trait in watermelon, displaying diverse types. In this study, two segregating populations were generated for genetic mapping the single dominant locus ClSP, which was finally delimited to a 611.78 Kb interval with suppression of recombination. According to polymorphism sites detected among genotypes, four discrete haploblocks were characterized in this target region. Based on reference genomes, 81 predicted genes were annotated in the ClSP interval, including seven transcription factors namely as candidate No1-No7. Meanwhile, the ortholog gene of cucumber ist responsible for the irregular stripes was considered as candidate No8. Strikingly, gene structures of No1-No5 completely varied from their reference descriptions and subsequently re-annotated. For instance, the original adjacent distribution candidates No2 and No3 were re-annotated as No2_3, while No4 and No5 were integrated as No4_5. Sequence analysis demonstrated the third polymorphism in CDS of re-annotated No4_5 resulting in truncated proteins in non-stripe plants. Furthermore, only No4_5 was down-regulated in light green stripes relative to dark green stripes. Transcriptome analysis identified 356 DEGs between dark green striped and light green striped peels, with genes involved in photosynthesis and chloroplast development down-regulated in light green stripes but calcium ion binding related genes up-regulated. Additionally, 38 DEGs were annotated as transcription factors, with the majority up-regulated in light green stripes, such as ERFs and WRKYs. This study not only contributes to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying watermelon stripe development, but also provides new insights into the genomic structure of ClSP locus and valuable candidates.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Citrullus/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes Recessivos , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Recombinação Genética , Citrullus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citrullus/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 182: 1208-1217, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989686

RESUMO

Thermostability is an important indicator to evaluate xanthan applied in the oilfield industry. Besides reductive agents, salts, and pH, the inherent primary structure is also an important determinant of thermostability. In this work, the thermal conformational transition and degradation of natural xanthan XG and variants XG-A0, XG-AA, and XG-0P dissolved in different solvents were compared. Acetylated XG-A0 and XG-AA both showed the highest initial conformational transition temperature (Tm0) in distilled water, NaCl, and CaCl2 brines. Additionally, the variant XG-A0 dissolved in water was more thermostable although its acetyl group was hydrolyzed easily after a hot-rolling test at 110 °C. Thermostability could be reinforced by adding antioxidant Na2SO3 and saturated NaCl through improving Tm0 value or inhibiting degradation of the molecular chain and acyl groups. Furthermore, pyruvyl-rich XG-0P dissolved in saturated NaCl showing multi-stranded helix structure was also stable after a hot-rolling process. Therefore, xanthan variants, as biological products, will have broader application potential in the oilfield industry.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cloreto de Cálcio/química , Temperatura Alta , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Temperatura , Viscosidade
14.
Exp Cell Res ; 401(2): 112548, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675805

RESUMO

Having healthy adipose tissue is essential for metabolic health, as excessive adipose tissue in the body can cause its dysregulation and driving chronic metabolic diseases. Protein kinase D1 (PKD1) is considered to be a key kinase in signal transduction, which regulates multiple cellular functions, but its physiological functions in adipose are still not fully understood. This study aimed at elucidating the function of adipocyte PKD1 on lipogenesis. From RNA-Sequencing data, we found that the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in white adipose tissue lacking PKD1 was significantly affected. Critical rate-limiting enzymes for de novo lipogenesis in adipocytes, such as FASN, ACCα, and SCD1, were significantly repressed after deleting PKD1 in vivo and in vitro. Further studies revealed that blockade of PKD1 significantly increased phosphorylation of SREBP1c at serine 372 site. Co-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that PKD1 interacts with SREBP1c in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, overexpression of SREBP1c reversed the inhibition of FASN and ACCα expression caused by PKD1 silencing. Together, adipocyte PKD1 promotes de novo lipogenesis via SREBP1c-dependent manner in visceral white adipose tissue and might provide a new target for the development of anti-obesity therapies.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lipogênese/genética , Proteína Quinase C/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Inativação Gênica , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética
15.
J Adolesc Health ; 69(2): 342-345, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712386

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the chemical composition of JUUL pods collected from a convenience sample of 16 high schools in California to identify possible consumer modification or counterfeit use. METHODS: Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, we quantitatively analyzed the nicotine, propylene glycol (PG), and vegetable glycerin (VG) in JUUL pods (n = 26) collected from California high schools and compared results to commercial 3% (n = 15) and 5% (n = 24) JUUL pods purchased online. RESULTS: Most of the collected JUUL pods (24/26 pods) had a nicotine concentration (43.3 mg/ml, 95% PI: 21.5-65.1) outside the prediction intervals (PI) of the 3% (33.5 mg/ml, 95% PI: 31.8-35.2) and 5% (55.0 mg/ml, 95% PI: 51.5-58.3) commercial JUUL pods. Most (73%) collected JUUL pods had VG concentrations (583.5 mg/ml, PI: 428.9-738.1) lower than the 3% (722.2 mg/ml, PI: 643.0-801.4) and 5% (710.5 mg/ml, PI: 653.1-767.8) commercial JUUL pods. CONCLUSIONS: Used JUUL products collected from high school students or found on school grounds were not chemically consistent with the manufacturer's stated formulations.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping , California , Aromatizantes , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
16.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 33(2): 150-154, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect and mechanism of 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice aged 8-12 weeks were divided into 4 groups with 8 mice in each group, according to the method of simple random sampling. Sepsis-induced ALI mice model was established by intraperitoneal injection of LPS 5 mg/kg (LPS group), and phosphate buffer saline (PBS) control group (PBS group) was injected with equal volume of PBS. The LPS+FICZ group was intervened by intraperitoneal injection of 1 µg FICZ 1 hour after LPS stimuli, while the FICZ control group (FICZ group) was given the same amount of FICZ 1 hour after intraperitoneal injection of PBS. Serum and lung tissue were collected 24 hours after LPS stimuli, and the pathological changes of lung tissue were analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio of lung tissue. The concentrations of inflammatory factors in serum and lung tissue were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling pathway related molecules were detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blotting. RESULTS: Compared with PBS group, inflammatory cell infiltration, alveolar collapse and obvious alveolar exudative lesions had increased, lung tissue W/D ratio was significantly increased, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) level, lung tissue IL-6 mRNA expression, and the mRNA expressions of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), CCAAT/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and the protein expressions of GRP78, PERK, activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), CHOP in lung tissue were significantly increased in LPS group. However, the indexes of FICZ group were not affected. Compared with LPS group, LPS+FICZ group had less inflammatory cell infiltration, relatively intact alveolar structure. Lung W/D weight ratio in LPS+FICZ group was significantly decreased (5.38±0.10 vs. 6.60±0.30, P < 0.01), so as serum IL-6 (ng/L: 15.55±3.77 vs. 32.22±3.84) and lung IL-6 mRNA expression (2-ΔΔCt: 0.79±0.21 vs. 6.89±0.92, both P < 0.01). The mRNA expressions of GRP78, PERK and CHOP were also significantly decreased [GRP78 mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 1.90±0.16 vs. 7.55±1.29, PERK mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 1.68±0.20 vs. 4.54±0.89, CHOP mRNA (2-ΔΔCt): 1.13±0.24 vs. 4.44±1.13, all P < 0.05], and the protein expressions of GRP78, PERK, ATF6 and CHOP were significantly decreased (GRP78/GAPDH: 0.59±0.02 vs. 0.77±0.01, PERK/GAPDH: 0.48±0.03 vs. 1.04±0.05, ATF6/GAPDH: 0.51±0.03 vs. 0.65±0.01, CHOP/GAPDH: 0.91±0.05 vs. 1.11±0.07, all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: FICZ protects LPS-induced ALI possibly via suppressing endoplasmic reticulum stress and reducing IL-6 expression in blood and lung tissue.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda , Lipopolissacarídeos , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Carbazóis/farmacologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Pulmão , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
17.
Semin Ophthalmol ; 36(3): 88-93, 2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734918

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of the "inverted U method" Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy on anterior segment parameters, decentration and tilt of intraocular lens (IOLs) and visual acuity in posterior capsular opacification (PCO) patients after combined phaco-vitrectomy. METHODS: Seventy-six patients (76 eyes) were enrolled in this study, who were diagnosed as PCO and underwent "inverted U method" Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy. All patients had undergone previous combined phaco-vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. The parameters including IOL decentration, angle of IOL tilt, anterior chamber angle (ACA), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), central corneal thickness (CCT), keratometry, pupil size, axial length (AL), intraocular pressure (IOP), refractive status, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), objective scattering index (OSI) and Chinese version of Visual Function 14 (VF-14) index were obtained before and 3 months after capsulotomy. RESULTS: After capsulotomy, the tilt angle and decentration of the IOLs at both vertical (tilt: p = .004, decentration: p = .029) and horizontal meridian (tilt: p = .001, decentration: p = .017) were significantly decreased, ACA increased (p = .015), CDVA (p = .000), VF-14 score (p = .000) and OSI (p = .000) were significantly improved. There were a significant decrease in cylindrical error (p = .001) and a myopic shift in spherical error (p = .001) after the capsulotomy. No significant differences in ACD, ACV, CCT, keratometry, pupil size, AL and IOP were detected (p > .05 for all). CONCLUSION: The "inverted U method" Nd: YAG laser posterior capsulotomy decreases tilt and decentration of the IOL, increases ACA and causes no change in ACD, ACV, CCT and IOP in patients after phaco-vitrectomy. These changes make a decrease in cylindrical error and a myopic shift in spherical error. Laser capsulotomy significantly improves visual acuity.

18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 274: 114072, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781876

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The ancient Chinese herbal formula Longdan Xiegan Tang (LXT, also called Gentiana Longdancao Decoction to Drain the Liver) treats insulin resistance- and inflammation-associated liver injuries in clinical practice. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying LXT-elicited improvement of the liver injuries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male rats were co-treated with olanzapine (5 mg/kg) and LXT extract (50 and 500 mg/kg) for eight weeks. Blood parameters were determined enzymatically or by ELISA. Gene/protein expression was analyzed by Real-Time PCR, Western blot and/or immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: LXT attenuated olanzapine-induced liver injury manifested by hyperactivities of plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminostransferase, hyperbilirubinemia and hypoalbuminemia. Furthermore, LXT improved hepatic insulin resistance that was indicated by hyperinsulinemia, the increased HOMA-IR index, and hepatic over-phosphorylation of Ser307 in insulin receptor substrate (IRS)1, Ser731 in IRS2, Tyr607 in phosphoinositide 3-kinase p85α and Ser473 in AKT at baseline. Mechanistically, LXT inhibited olanzapine-triggered hepatic over-phosphorylation of both IκB kinase (IKK)α/ß and nuclear factor (NF)κB p65 proteins, and mRNA overexpression of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, interleukin 1ß and CD68. More importantly, LXT restored the decreases in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein level, and its downstream targets Ang (1-7) content and Mas receptor expression. CONCLUSIONS: The present results demonstrate that LXT attenuates liver injury and hepatic insulin resistance by regulating the ACE2/Ang (1-7)/Mas axis-mediated anti-inflammatory pathway in rats. Our findings provide a better understanding of LXT for treatment of insulin resistance- and inflammation-associated liver injuries.

19.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(3): e0366, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786442

RESUMO

Objectives: We aimed to describe the characteristics and outcome in children with severe Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in a Chinese PICU. Design: A retrospective observational study from 2017 to 2019. Setting: A 36-bed university tertiary PICU at Shanghai Children's Hospital. Patients: Patients admitted to a tertiary PICU 29 days to 18 years old screened for laboratory-confirmed severe M. pneumoniae pneumonia. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Descriptive analysis of baseline characteristics for patients included hospital mortality, organ dysfunctions, use of mechanical ventilation, continuous renal replacement therapy, and/or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. A total of 817 children with severe pneumonia were admitted to PICU, and 203 of 817 cases (24.8%) with severe M. pneumoniae pneumonia were included in this study. The median age was 41 months (interquartile range, 20-67 mo), of which 77.3% (157/203) were younger than 6 years old. Among 163 patients with the test for macrolide resistance, 90.2% cases (147/163) were macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae. Severe M. pneumoniae pneumonia-associated organ dysfunction included acute respiratory failure (203 cases, 100%), followed by cardiovascular disorder (79/203, 38.9%), gastrointestinal dysfunction (24/203, 11.8%). The main complications were pleural effusion (79/203, 38.9%), capillary leak syndrome (58/203, 28.6%), and plastic bronchitis (20/203, 9.9%). All patients needed respiratory support, including 64.5% patients (131/203) who received mechanical ventilation and 35.5% patients (72/203) who received high-flow nasal oxygen. Twenty-five patients (12.3%) treated with continuous renal replacement therapy and nine cases (4.4%) received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The case fatality rate was 3.9% (8/203). Furthermore, cardiovascular dysfunction, liver injury, or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome were associated with longer mechanical ventilation duration, delayed PICU discharge, and high hospital mortality. Coinfection was a risk factor of delayed PICU discharge. Conclusions: Children with severe M. pneumoniae pneumonia mainly occur under the age of 6 years, showing a high proportion of extrapulmonary organ dysfunction and macrolide resistances. Extrapulmonary organ dysfunction and coinfection are associated with worse outcomes. The overall mortality is relatively low after treated with appreciate antibiotics, respiratory support, and extracorporeal life support.

20.
Cytometry A ; 99(6): 560-574, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638604

RESUMO

Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) as a well-established multicellular model organism has been widely used in the biological field for half a century. Its numerous advantages including small body size, rapid life cycle, high-reproductive rate, well-defined anatomy, and conserved genome, has made C. elegans one of the most successful multicellular model organisms. Discoveries obtained from the C. elegans model have made great contributions to research fields such as development, aging, biophysics, immunology, and neuroscience. Because of its transparent body and giant cell size, C. elegans is also an ideal subject for high resolution and high-throughput optical imaging and analysis. During the past decade, great advances have been made to develop biomolecule-targeting techniques for noninvasive optical imaging. These novel technologies expanded the toolbox for qualitative and quantitative analysis of biomolecules in C. elegans. In this review, we summarize recently developed fluorescent probes or labeling techniques for visualizing biomolecules at the cellular, subcellular or molecular scale by using C. elegans as the major model organism or designed specifically for the applications in C. elegans. Combining the technological advantages of the C. elegans model with the novel fluorescent labeling techniques will provide new horizons for high-efficiency quantitative optical analysis in live organisms.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans , Corantes Fluorescentes , Envelhecimento , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Genoma
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