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1.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 26(1): 26, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, resistance against cisplatin (DDP) is a frequent problem for the success of advanced gastric carcinoma (GC) chemotherapy. Here, we sought to investigate the function of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) n GC chemoresistance. METHODS: Expression of ATF3 was determined in GC cell lines (MNK45, SGC7901, and BGC823) and cisplatin (DDP)-resistant cells (SGC7901/DDP and BGC823/DDP). Biological informatics was performed to analyze ATF3 expression and prognosis in GC patients. Cisplatin resistance was evaluated. Ferroptosis was detected after ATF3 transfection of cells. The underlying molecular mechanism was also investigated. RESULTS: Transcripts of ATF3 were decreased in GC cells and GC tissues. Kaplan-Meier plotter analysis revealed that ATF3 expression was positively related to the overall survival of GC patients. In particular, lower levels of ATF3 were observed in cisplatin-resistant SGC7901/DDP and BGC823/DDP relative to their parental cells. Notably, ATF3 elevation sensitized cisplatin-resistant cells to cisplatin. Mechanically, compared with parental cells, SGC7901/DDP and BGC823/DDP cells exhibited lower ferroptosis evident by lower ROS, MDA and lipid peroxidation and higher intracellular GSH levels. However, ATF3 elevated ferroptosis in SGC7901/DDP and BGC823/DDP cells. Intriguingly, ATF3 overexpression together with ferroptosis activator erastin or RSL3 treatment further enhanced ferroptosis and cisplatin resistance; however, the ferroptosis suppressor liproxstatin-1 reversed the function of ATF3 in ferroptosis and cisplatin resistance. Additionally, cisplatin-resistant cells exhibited stronger activation of Nrf2/Keap1/xCT signaling relative to parental cells, which was restrained by ATF3 up-regulation. Importantly, restoring Nrf2 signaling overturned ATF3-mediated ferroptosis and cisplatin resistance. CONCLUSION: ATF3 may sensitize GC cells to cisplatin by induction of ferroptosis via blocking Nrf2/Keap1/xCT signaling, supporting a promising therapeutic approach for overcoming chemoresistance in GC.

2.
Chemosphere ; 283: 131203, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147984

RESUMO

Denitrification in electroactive constructed wetland (EW) systems is constrained by the carbon source and the carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio (the COD/TN ratio). In this study, wastewater with a high C/N from a brewery was added to wastewater with a low C/N (dairy wastewater) in an EW system, and the pollutant removal, bioelectricity generation, transformations of dissolved organic matter, and microbial community structures were evaluated. The results showed that the average removal rates of ammonium nitrogen, total nitrogen, and chemical oxygen demand from the wastewater mixture were 6.40%, 46.44%, and 23.85% higher than those from the wastewater with a low C/N, respectively. Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium was effectively inhibited, and the NH4+-N removal was 25.52% higher, when the wastewater mixture was used instead of the high C/N wastewater. Similarly, the output voltage was significantly increased, and the internal resistance of the device was reduced, for the wastewater mixture. The structure of the microbial community improved, the relative abundance of electrochemically active bacteria was higher, and the protein-like and humic-like components were lower, in the mixture treatment than in the individual treatment. The results show that the nitrogen removal and biopower generation improved in an EW system when high C/N wastewater was used as the carbon source.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; 417: 125994, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992021

RESUMO

The current method for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of multiple heavy metals in environmental water still face challenge. Herein, the porous Co3O4 nanodisks with robust peroxidase-mimicking activity were prepared, and its catalytic activity can be significantly inhibited by the heavy metals like Cd(II), Hg(II), Pb(II) and As, which makes us to establish an ultrasensitive and rapid colorimetric sensor for the detection of multiple heavy metals. Further investigation reveals the anticompetitive inhibition effect of heavy metals on peroxidase-mimicking activity. The colorimetric sensor displays excellent sensitivity and selectivity, and the limits of detection (LOD) for Cd(II), Hg(II), Pb(II) and As are 0.085 µg·L-1, 0.19 µg·L-1, 0.2 µg·L-1 and 0.156 µg·L-1, respectively. Notably, the absorbance variation will be greater than 0.5 as the concentration of heavy metals exceeds 5 µg·L-1, which can be clearly discriminated by the naked eyes. Moreover, the average recovery range of heavy metals in actual water samples is from 86.9% to 98.3%. The above results indicate that the proposed sensor exhibits excellent practical applicability for the rapid and ultrasensitive detection of multiple harmful heavy metals in several environmental water samples, which has potential bright application in protecting the environment and human health.

4.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 255, 2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The area which located at the medial pedicle, posterior vertebral body and ventral hemilamina is defined as the hidden zone. Surgical management of hidden zone lumbar disc herniation (HZLDH) is technically challenging due to its difficult surgical exposure. The conventional interlaminar approach harbors the potential risk of post-surgical instability, while other approaches consist of complicated procedures with a steep learning curve and prolonged operation time. OBJECTIVE: To introduce microscopic extra-laminar sequestrectomy (MELS) technique for treatment of hidden zone lumbar disc herniation and present clinical outcomes. METHODS: Between Jan 2016 to Jan 2018, twenty one patients (13 males) with HZLDH were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent MELS (19 patients underwent sequestrectomy only, 2 patients underwent an additional inferior discectomy). The nerve root and fragment were visually exposed using MELS. The operation duration, blood loss, intra- and postoperative complications, and recurrences were recorded. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and the modified MacNab criteria were used to evaluate clinical outcomes. Postoperative stability was evaluated both radiologically and clinically. RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 20.95 ± 2.09 (18-24) months. The mean operation time was 32.43 ± 7.19 min and the mean blood loss was 25.52 ± 5.37 ml. All patients showed complete neurological symptom relief after surgery. The VAS and ODI score were significantly improved at the final follow-up compared to those before operation (7.88 ± 0.70 vs 0.10 ± 0.30, 59.24 ± 10.83 vs 11.29 ± 3.59, respectively, p < 0.05). Seventeen patients (81%) obtained an "excellent" outcome and the remaining four (19%) patients obtained a "good" outcome based the MacNab criteria. One patient suffered reherniation at the same level one year after the initial surgery and underwent a transforaminal endoscopic discectomy. No major complications and postoperative instability were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our observation suggest that MELS is safe and effective in the management of HZLDH. Due to its relative simplicity, it comprises a flat surgical learning curve and shorter operation duration, and overall results in reduced disturbance to lumbar stability.


Assuntos
Discotomia Percutânea , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral , Discotomia , Endoscopia , Humanos , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Hepatol Res ; 51(6): 715-721, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743189

RESUMO

AIM: The REACH and REACH-2 trials investigated ramucirumab versus placebo in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Ascites is common in HCC and is associated with poorer outcomes. This exploratory, pooled meta-analysis of patients with baseline α-fetoprotein (AFP) ≥400 ng/ml investigated outcomes by treatment-emergent (TE) ascites in REACH and REACH-2. METHODS: A pooled meta-analysis of independent patient data for participants (N = 542) with baseline AFP ≥400 ng/ml (stratified by study) from REACH and REACH-2 was carried out. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier estimator, and OS further assessed by Cox models. The effect of TE ascites on OS was evaluated by multivariate Cox models. RESULTS: Treatment-emergent ascites developed in 66 patients (20.9%) in the ramucirumab group and 33 patients (14.8%) in the placebo group. When adjusted for treatment duration, the incidence rates per 100 patient-years of any grade TE ascites were 59.1 and 71.9 for the ramucirumab and placebo groups, respectively, and the incidence of grade ≥3 TE ascites were 13.4 and 19.6, respectively. Treatment-emergent ascites was associated with TE hypoalbuminemia (odds ratio 4.9; 95% confidence interval 2.5-9.3), but not TE proteinuria or hypertension. One patient discontinued ramucirumab treatment due to TE ascites. Ramucirumab treatment improved OS and PFS compared with placebo, irrespective of TE ascites. CONCLUSIONS: When adjusted for treatment duration, the incidence of TE ascites was no higher in patients who received ramucirumab than in those who received placebo. Ramucirumab was well tolerated and provided a survival benefit irrespective of the development of TE ascites.

6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(9): 2884-2893, 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646795

RESUMO

Although the colorimetric methods can easily meet the demands of point-of-care and ease-of-use for antibiotic detection, they still face many challenges in the accuracy and stability of assay. Herein, a facile and stable colorimetric aptasensor is first developed for kanamycin residue detection based on the aptamer-enhanced peroxidase-mimicking activity of layered WS2 nanosheets. The investigation confirmed that aptamer sequences can improve the affinity of nanosheets to the chromogenic substrate 3,3'',5,5''-tetramethylbenzidine, resulting in a significant increase of the peroxidase-mimicking activity. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection of the proposed colorimetric aptasensor for kanamycin was determined to be as low as 0.6 µM, and such an aptasensor displays excellent selectivity against other competitive antibiotics. Moreover, further studies have verified the applicability of the established colorimetric aptasensor in several actual samples, indicating that the aptasensor may have bright application prospects for kanamycin detection in livestock husbandry and agriculture samples.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Análise de Alimentos , Canamicina/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Colorimetria , Limite de Detecção , Peroxidase
7.
Dis Markers ; 2021: 8880282, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33680216

RESUMO

Background: Early diagnosis is very important for the clinical treatment of gastric cancer (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to detect Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3) and evaluate its diagnostic value. Materials and Methods: Serum concentrations of GOLPH3 were detected by ELISA in 136 CRC patients, 102 GC patients, and 50 healthy controls at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University from June 2016 to December 2019. Serum concentrations of CEA and CA19-9 were detected by ECLIA. Results: Serum concentrations of GOLPH3, CEA, and CA19-9 were higher in GC and CRC patients than in healthy controls (P < 0.001). Serum GOLPH3 concentrations were increased in GC and CRC patients with tumors greater than 5 cm, poor differentiation, greater depth of tumor invasion, and increased lymphatic and distant metastases (P < 0.05). In the GC and CRC groups, the AUCs of GOLPH3 were higher than those of CEA and CA19-9 (P < 0.05), while the AUCs of the marker combination were higher than those of GOLPH3 (P < 0.05), and postoperative serum GOLPH3 levels were lower than preoperative levels (P < 0.001). Serum GOLPH3 concentrations in CRC patients correlated positively with CEA and CA19-9 concentrations (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Serum GOLPH3 concentrations in GC and CRC patients are related to TNM stage. GOLPH3 may represent a novel biomarker for the diagnosis of GC and CRC. The combination of serum GOLPH3, CEA, and CA19-9 concentrations can improve diagnostic efficiency for GC and CRC. GOLPH3 is expected to become an indicator for the early diagnosis and evaluation of surgical effects.

8.
Br J Cancer ; 124(8): 1388-1397, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post hoc analyses assessed the prognostic and predictive value of baseline alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), as well as clinical outcomes by AFP response or progression, during treatment in two placebo-controlled trials (REACH, REACH-2). METHODS: Serum AFP was measured at baseline and every three cycles. The prognostic and predictive value of baseline AFP was assessed by Cox regression models and Subpopulation Treatment Effect Pattern Plot method. Associations between AFP (≥ 20% increase) and radiographic progression and efficacy were assessed. RESULTS: Baseline AFP was confirmed as a continuous (REACH, REACH-2; p < 0.0001) and dichotomous (≥400 vs. <400 ng/ml; REACH, p < 0.01) prognostic factor, and was predictive for ramucirumab survival benefit in REACH (p = 0.0042 continuous; p < 0.0001 dichotomous). Time to AFP (hazard ratio [HR] 0.513; p < 0.0001) and radiographic (HR 0.549; p < 0.0001) progression favoured ramucirumab. Association between AFP and radiographic progression was shown for up to 6 (odds ratio [OR] 5.1; p < 0.0001) and 6-12 weeks (OR 1.8; p = 0.0065). AFP response was higher with ramucirumab vs. placebo (p < 0.0001). Survival was longer in patients with an AFP response than patients without (13.6 vs. 5.6 months, HR 0.451; 95% confidence interval, 0.354-0.574; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: AFP is an important prognostic factor and a predictive biomarker for ramucirumab survival benefit. AFP ≥ 400 ng/ml is an appropriate selection criterion for ramucirumab. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, REACH (NCT01140347) and REACH-2 (NCT02435433).

9.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 44, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral cancer is among the most common malignant tumors worldwide, and it has become an increasingly important public health problem in China. This study systematically assesses the current state of oral cancer in China from 1990 to 2017, providing new information and perspectives for oral health researchers and public health policy makers. METHODS: Based on the Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017), we evaluated the incidence rates, mortality and disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rates for oral cancer in China and their changing trends between 1990 and 2017, making comparisons by gender and age. We also assessed the DALY rates associated with oral cancer at the provincial level for 33 provinces and their trends over time. RESULTS: From 1990 to 2017, the number of new cases and the age-standardized incidence rate for oral cancer in China increased by 280.0% and 79.7%, respectively; the number of deaths and the age-standardized mortality rose by 196.8% and 29.0%, respectively; and the number of DALYs and the age-standardized DALY rate increased by 149.1% and 21.0%, respectively. The incidence rates for oral cancer rose after 30 years of age and peaked at 65-69 years; the mortality for oral cancer rose after 50 years of age and peaked at 65-69 years; and the DALY rates for oral cancer rose after 45 years of age and peaked at 65-69 years. The incidence rates, mortality and DALY rates for oral cancer in males were significantly higher than those in females and showed an upward trend, while there was a decrease or no significant change in females. The DALY rates increased in 21 provinces and decreased in 12 provinces, with the largest growth in Henan Province and the largest decline in Hong Kong Province. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of oral cancer in China continues to increase continuously. More prevention, control and intervention measures should be taken and increased attention paid to common risk factors is essential for the prevention of oral cancer.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Neoplasias Bucais , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco
10.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 19: 1534735420972477, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289438

RESUMO

Protosappanin B (PSB) is a key active component of Lignum Sappan extract. Although the antiproliferative effects of Lignum Sappan extract have been demonstrated in various cancer cells, relatively little is known about the effects of PSB on tumor progression. The aim of this study was to explore the anti-tumor effects of PSB on human colon cancer cells by regulation of intracellular signaling pathways and Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3) expression in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that PSB effectively inhibited the viability and migration of SW620 cells and induced apoptosis, but had poor effect on HCT116 cells. Furthermore, PSB significantly reduced the expression of p-AKT, p-p70S6K, ß-catenin, and p-ERK1/2 proteins in SW620 cells, and this effect was reversed by the corresponding signaling pathway agonists. Interestingly, PSB could also suppress GOLPH3 expression of SW620 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, but SW620 cells transfected with lentiviral vectors overexpressing GOLPH3 can effectively resist the cytotoxic activity of PSB in vitro. The xenograft experiment of SW620 cells with LV-GOLPH3 confirmed that PSB distinctly inhibited the tumor growth via suppressing GOLPH3 expression. Collectively, these findings clarified a new anti-cancer mechanism of PSB through inhibition of GOLPH3 expression and intracellular signaling pathways in colon cancer cells. PSB may be a potential new drug for colon cancer.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296171

RESUMO

As a critical component for photodynamic therapy toward cancer treatment, photosensitizers require high photoinduced reactive oxygen species generation efficiency, good biocompatibility, and high phototoxicity. Herein, a series of donor-acceptor conjugated polymers containing dibenzothiophene-S,S-dioxide derivatives are designed and synthesized, which can be used as effective photosensitizers. The resulting copolymer PTA5 shows strong green light emission with high photoluminescence quantum yields owing to the intercrossed excited state of local existed and charge transfer states. The PTA5 nanoparticles can be fabricated by encapsulation with a biocompatible polymer matrix. Upon excitation at 800 nm, these nanoparticles present a relatively large two-photon absorption cross section of 3.29 × 106 GM. These nanoparticles also exhibit good photostability in water and thus can be utilized for bioimaging. The tissue-penetrating depths of up to 170 µm for hepatic vessels and 380 µm for blood vessels of mouse ear were achieved using PTA5 nanoparticles. Furthermore, PTA5 nanoparticles show impressive reactive oxygen species generation capability under the irradiation of a white light source. This can be attributed to the effective intersystem crossing between high-level excited state. Upon irradiation with white light (400-700 nm) at 50 mW cm-2 for 5 min every other day, the tumor growth can be effectively suppressed in the presence of PTA5 nanoparticles. These findings demonstrate that PTA5 nanoparticles can be used as a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy.

12.
Cancer Manag Res ; 12: 12185-12195, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273855

RESUMO

Purpose: LACTB, regulated by a variety of microRNAs (miRNAs), is proven to be a tumor suppressor. However, there are few reports that LACTB in colon cancer cells is regulated by miRNA. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the miRNAs that regulate LACTB in colon cancer. Patients and Methods: Data from TCGA were analyzed in starBase and GEPIA2, and Western blot and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to detect the expression of LACTB in colon cancer cell lines. MiRNAs targeting LACTB were predicted by MicroT-CDS, starBase, miRDB, mirDIP, and DIANA. The relationship between LACTB and miRNA was explored by dual-luciferase assay. MTT, propidium iodide (PI), Western blot, Annexin V-FITC/PI Kit, qPCR and transwell assay were used to detect the changes in cell proliferation, cell cycle, autophagy, apoptosis, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cell migration, and invasiveness in colon cancer cells that overexpressed miR-1276 and/or LACTB. Results: The results showed that the LACTB mRNA level was lower and the miR-1276 level was higher in colon cancer than in normal tissue. MiR-1276 inhibited the expression of LACTB. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-1276 in colon cancer cells increased proliferation, migration, invasiveness and EMT, and decreased autophagy and apoptosis. Supplementing LACTB suppressed these effects of miR-1276. Conclusion: In conclusion, miR-1276, which may be a potential therapy for colon cancer, inhibits cell growth and promotes apoptosis by targeting LACTB in colon cancer cells.

13.
Liver Int ; 2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Radiological progression patterns to first-line sorafenib have been associated with post-progression and overall survival in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, but these associations remain unknown for therapies in second- and later-line settings. This post hoc analysis of REACH and REACH-2 examined outcomes by radiological progression patterns in the second-line setting of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma treated with ramucirumab or placebo. METHODS: Patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, Child-Pugh A and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status 0 or 1 with prior sorafenib were randomized to receive ramucirumab 8mg/kg or placebo every 2 weeks. Among 625 patients with ≥1 progression pattern (new extrahepatic lesion [including new macrovascular invasion], new intrahepatic lesion, extrahepatic growth or intrahepatic growth), data were analysed by trial and for pooled individual patient data for REACH-2 and REACH (alpha-fetoprotein ≥400 ng/mL). Cox models evaluated prognostic implications of progression patterns on overall and post-progression survival. RESULTS: Post-progression survival was worse among those with new extrahepatic lesions in REACH (HR 2.33, 95% CI 1.51-3.60), REACH-2 (HR 1.49, 95% CI 0.72-3.08) and the pooled population (HR 1.75, 95% CI 1.12-2.74) compared to other progression patterns. Overall survival was also significantly reduced in those with new extrahepatic lesions across studies. Ramucirumab provided an overall survival benefit across progression patterns, including patients with new extrahepatic lesions (HR 0.56, 95% CI 0.39-0.80) in the pooled population. CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of new extrahepatic lesions in the second-line setting is a poor prognostic factor for post-progression survival. The benefit of ramucirumab for overall survival was consistent across progression patterns.

14.
J Mater Chem B ; 8(46): 10609-10615, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136104

RESUMO

In this work, an anionic conjugated polyelectrolyte (PCP-SO3K), in which the backbone contains alternating 4,4-bis-alkyl-4H-cyclopenta-[2,1-b;3,4-b']-dithiophene and benzene structural units and the charges are provided by pendant sulfonate groups, was synthesized. The ionic nature of PCP-SO3K renders it soluble in water, and PCP-SO3K aqueous solution exhibits good photostability, with two main absorbance bands centered at 490 nm and 837 nm before and after laser irradiation. Its NIR absorption in water, negligible photoluminescence and insignificant intersystem crossing endow PCP-SO3K with efficient photothermal therapy performance, and an effective photothermal conversion efficiency of 56.7% was realized. Thus, PCP-SO3K aqueous solution can be used as an effective photothermal agent for in vivo applications as its photoactivity can be triggered by NIR light and can convert laser energy into thermal energy in a water environment. Of particular importance is the fact that complete tumor remission without recurrence in 4T1 tumor-bearing mice was realized after intravenous injection of PCP-SO3K aqueous solution and laser irradiation (2.0 W cm-2, 808 nm). The results indicate that the application of anionic conjugated polyelectrolytes as photothermal agents in photothermal therapy provides a new platform for the design of photothermal agents for clinical cancer treatment.

15.
J Clin Periodontol ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103285

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate periodontal conditions in adults in mainland China based on data from the 4th National Oral Health Survey. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of adult subjects (35- to 44-year-old group [N = 4409], 55- to 64-year-old group [N = 4622], and 65- to 74-year-old group [N = 4428]) were analysed. Demographic, socio-economic, personal habit, dental history, and health attitude data were obtained using a questionnaire. Periodontal condition was assessed using the standardized case definitions of the 2018 classification scheme. A multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between periodontitis severity and age, smoking status, gender, and region using generalized additive models after adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: The frequency of subjects with periodontitis was 52.8%, 69.3%, and 64.6% in the three age groups, respectively. The frequency of subjects with severe periodontitis (stage III or IV) was 10.6%, 37.3%, and 43.5% in the three age groups, respectively. The severity of periodontal disease was positively associated with age. Current and former smokers exhibited significantly greater disease severity than non-smokers after adjustment for confounders. No significant difference of severity was found between males and females. CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of the study, the prevalence of periodontitis is very high among adults in mainland China. Periodontal status is associated with age and smoking status.

16.
ISA Trans ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046241

RESUMO

It is meaningful to study the control problems of nonlinear systems with uncertain parameters and external disturbances, especially for those subject to state constraints. In this paper, a state transformation approach is proposed to address time-varying asymmetric state constraints. By this state transformation, the state constrained problem is transformed into the boundedness problem of the transformed function. When the initial states are in the constrained region, the state constraints can be guaranteed as long as the boundedness of the transformed functions are guaranteed. Compared with the barrier Lyapunov function (BLF) approach, it successfully removes the feasibility test from virtual controllers, and thus broadens its application scope. In addition, for the parametric uncertainties and external disturbances exist in the system simultaneously, the tuning function and the adaptive laws for the upper bounds of disturbances are designed to help realize the control performance of the system. Consequently, a novel tuning function based adaptive backstepping control scheme is given. The designed controller ensures the error signals converge to a small neighbourhood of zero and the asymmetric time-varying constraints on system states are maintained for all the time. Finally, simulation results are given to illustrate the efficacy of the presented control scheme.

17.
J Food Sci Technol ; 57(11): 4092-4102, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071330

RESUMO

Adlay, as a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used in nourishing foods, which are rich in a variety of nutrients (special biological compounds). The study was designed to optimize the fermentation parameters of dehulled, polished and broken adlay fermented by Bacillus subtilis BJ3-2 with regard to tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) yield and fibrinolytic enzyme activity. Then the proximate and bioactive components of B. subtilis-fermented adlay were evaluated. Box-Behnken design results showed that the TMP yield was 6.93 mg/g DW (dried weight) of B. subtilis-fermented polished adlay, which was about 136 times higher than that of B. subtilis-fermented soybean (BSB). The fibrinolytic enzyme activity was 2236.17 U/g in B. subtilis-fermented dehulled adlay, and slightly less than in BSB. B. subtilis-fermented adlay contained higher fat, free amino acids and fatty acids contents but lower protein and starch contents than raw adlay. Except for coixol and coixan, the levels of γ-aminobutyric acid, triterpenes, phenolics, flavonoids and coixenolide in B. subtilis-fermented adlay increased by 14.05, 2.02, 2.31 and 1.36 times, respectively. The contents of phenolic acids including caffeic, gallic, catechinic and chlonogenic acids in the free phenolic extracts significantly increased (p < 0.05). The results demonstrated that the biotransformation of high-yield TMP, fibrinolytic enzyme and other bioactive components of B. subtilis-fermented adlay products was realized. B. subtilis-fermented adlay could be a promising value-added food, and that is more suitable for human consumption.

18.
Mol Ecol ; 29(24): 5019-5034, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084100

RESUMO

Microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract of animals play vital roles in food digestion, homeostasis and immune response regulation. Globally, there are 33,700 fish species, representing almost half of all vertebrate diversity and a wide range of physiologies, ecologies and life histories. To investigate gut microbiomes with high coverage, we performed 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing with 115 samples of 20 common marine fish species. The fish gut microbiome is a remarkably simple community with low microbial diversity (a maximum of 300 amplicon sequence variants only) and has up to 70% of unknown species in some fish species. The gut microbial community structure was significantly shaped by the combined influence of host-associated factors, including the fish taxon (p < .001, R2  = 0.16, ω2  = 0.04), feeding habit (p < .001, R2  = 0.06, ω2  = 0.02) and trophic level (p < .01, R2  = 0.04, ω2  = 0.01), although the influence was subtle with a small effect size. The core gut microbiomes of different feeding habits were also previously discovered in animal-associated and corresponding habitat samples. Certain energy metabolism pathways were enriched in herbivore/omnivore and zooplanktivore/zoobenthivore fishes, whereas lipid metabolism and glycan metabolism were enriched in zoobenthivore/piscivore fishes. Moreover, substantial taxonomic variability was found between the gut microbiomes of fish and animals, indicated by their low degree of shared microbiota. The data and observations reported herein pave the way for further investigations on the co-evolution of fish gut microbiomes and their hosts, the physiological functions of gut microorganisms and the development of probiotics for improving the nutrition and health of aquaculture fish species.

19.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240805, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104741

RESUMO

Ditylenchus destructor is a migratory plant-parasitic nematode that causes huge damage to global root and tuber production annually. The main plant hosts of D. destructor contain plenty of starch, which makes the parasitic environment of D. destructor to be different from those of most other plant-parasitic nematodes. It is speculated that D. destructor may harbor some unique pathogenesis-related genes to parasitize the starch-rich hosts. Herein, we focused on the multi-copy alpha-amylase genes in D. destructor, which encode a key starch-catalyzing enzyme. Our previously published D. destructor genome showed that it has three alpha-amylase encoding genes, Dd_02440, Dd_11154, and Dd_13225. Comparative analysis of alpha-amylases from different species demonstrated that the other plant-parasitic nematodes, even Ditylenchus dipsaci in the same genus, harbor only one or no alpha-amylase gene, and the three genes from D. destructor were closely clustered in the phylogenetic tree, indicating that there was a unique expansion of the alpha-amylase gene in D. destructor. The enzymatic activity of the three alpha-amylase proteins was verified by an enzyme assay. Quantitative real-time PCR assay showed that the expression of the three alpha-amylase genes in the post-hatching stage of D. destructor was found to be significantly higher than that in eggs. In the in situ hybridization assay, the expression of the genes was localized to the intestine, implying the association of these genes with nematode digestion. An infection assay in sweet potato demonstrated that RNA interference of any one alpha-amylase gene had no influence on the infectivity of D. destructor. Using the multi-target dsRNA cocktail method, it was found that silencing of two of the three genes inhibited nematode infection, and the infectivity of worms treated with three dsRNA simultaneously changed the most, which decreased by 76.6%. Thus, the multi-copy alpha-amylase genes in D. destructor are compensatory and crucial for nematodes to parasitize the plant host.

20.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 2103, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983066

RESUMO

To increase the safety and quality of baijiu and rice wine in China, controlling the use of traditional Xiaoqu by studying the beneficial yeasts present has recently been considered. The fungal diversity of six Chinese Xiaoqu including five traditional and one commercial samples was investigated to screen fermentative yeasts with low yields of higher alcohols. A high throughput sequencing approach detected fifteen fungal species with relative abundance higher than 1%, and displayed dissimilarities of fungal diversity among Xiaoqu samples. The 15 fungal species were composed of 11 filamentous fungi with Rhizopus arrhizus as the most common specie and four yeast species, containing Hyphopichia burtonii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, and Saccharomycopsis malanga. Classic culture-dependent approaches, including 5.8S-ITS-RFLP analysis and D1/D2 sequencing of the 26S rRNA gene, identified nine yeast species in the five traditional Chinese Xiaoqu. In addition to the four yeast species also detected by high throughput sequencing approach, the other five yeast species isolated were Clavispora lusitaniae, Cryptococcus neoformans, Komagataella pastoris, Trichosporon asahii, and Wickerhamomyces anomalus. Further micro-fermentations of rice wine were performed using 19 single yeast isolates, and after the fermentation of rice wine, higher alcohols and ethanol were analyzed by gas chromatography. Two yeast strains, Saccharomyces cerevisiae FBKL2.8022 and Wickerhamomyces anomalus FBKL2.8023, were found to have low yields of higher alcohols and could produce 11.70%vol and 7.10%vol ethanol separately. This study for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, explored the fungal resources in traditional Xiaoqu from different regions of Guizhou, China. The screened S. cerevisiae and W. anomalus strains could be used to establish specific starters to promote the standardization of the production of baijiu and rice wine.

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