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1.
Int J Cardiol ; 345: 111-117, 2021 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only one large series has been reported on fat embolism syndrome (FES), a condition caused by fat globules release into the circulation, primarily as consequence of bone fracture. Thus, more data on clinical features, therapies, and prognosis are needed. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study screened 1090 manuscripts in PubMed and Web of Science on cases of FES published from June 2010 to June 2020. The authors identified 124 studies and included in the pooled-analysis 135 patients (>14 years), plus one additional unpublished case managed in Tongji hospital. All had confirmed diagnosis of FES with complete clinical data. The median age at presentation was 39 years, and 82 (61.8%) were men. FES was predominantly associated with bone fractures (78, 57.4%), particularly femur fracture (59, 43.4%). The most common clinical finding at the onset was respiratory abnormalities in 34.6% of all clinical presentations. Therapies included respiratory supportive care in 127 (93.4%) patients, application of corticosteroids in 22 (16.2%) and anticoagulant in 5 (3.7%) cases. Overall mortality was 30.2% (N = 41), and logistic regression analysis showed that corticosteroid therapy was significantly associated with reduced mortality with an OR of 0.143 (95%CI 0.029-0.711), while age ≥ 65 years and non-orthopedic conditions were significantly associated with increased mortality with an OR of 4.816 (95%CI 1.638-14.160) and 4.785 (95%CI 1.019-22.474). CONCLUSIONS: FES has been associated with a larger mortality rate than previously observed, although publication bias can have led to overestimation of mortality. Finally, a potential protective effect of corticosteroid therapy has been suggested by the current analysis.

2.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 707399, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603021

RESUMO

Energic deficiency of cardiomyocytes is a dominant cause of heart failure. An antianginal agent, trimetazidine improves the myocardial energetic supply. We presumed that trimetazidine protects the cardiomyocytes from the pressure overload-induced heart failure through improving the myocardial metabolism. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). After 4 weeks of TAC, heart failure was observed in mice manifested by an increased left ventricular (LV) chamber dimension, an impaired LV ejection fraction evaluated by echocardiography analysis, which were significantly restrained by the treatment of trimetazidine. Trimetazidine restored the mitochondrial morphology and function tested by cardiac transmission electron microscope and mitochondrial dynamic proteins analysis. Positron emission tomography showed that trimetazidine significantly elevated the glucose uptake in TAC mouse heart. Trimetazidine restrained the impairments of the insulin signaling in TAC mice and promoted the translocation of glucose transporter type IV (GLUT4) from the storage vesicle to membrane. However, these cardioprotective effects of trimetazidine in TAC mice were notably abolished by compound C (C.C), a specific AMPK inhibitor. The enlargement of neonatal rat cardiomyocyte induced by mechanical stretch, together with the increased expression of hypertrophy-associated proteins, mitochondria deformation and dysfunction were significantly ameliorated by trimetazidine. Trimetazidine enhanced the isolated cardiomyocyte glucose uptake in vitro. These benefits brought by trimetazidine were also removed with the presence of C.C. In conclusion, trimetazidine attenuated pressure overload-induced heart failure through improving myocardial mitochondrial function and glucose uptake via AMPK.

3.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648001

RESUMO

AIMS: Abnormal intracellular calcium handling contributes to the progressive nature of atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. Evidence in mouse models suggests that activation of the nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) signaling pathway contributes to atrial remodeling. Our aim was to determine the role of NFATc2 in AF in humans and mouse models. METHODS AND RESULTS: Expression levels of NFATc1-c4 isoforms were assessed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in right atrial appendages from patients with chronic AF. NFATc1 and NFATc2 mRNA levels were elevated in chronic AF (cAF) patients compared with those in sinus rhythm (SR). Western blotting revealed increased cytosolic and nuclear levels of NFATc2 in AF patients. Similar findings were obtained in CREM-IbΔC-X transgenic (CREM) mice, a model of progressive AF. Telemetry ECG recordings revealed age-dependent spontaneous AF in CREM mice, which was prevented by NFATc2 knockout in CREM: NFATc2-/- mice. Programmed electrical stimulation revealed that CREM: NFATc2-/- mice lacked an AF substrate. Morphometric analysis and histology revealed increased atrial weight and atrial fibrosis in CREM mice compared with WT controls, which was reversed in CREM: NFATc2-/- mice. Confocal microscopy showed an increased Ca2+ spark frequency despite a reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ load in CREM mice compared with controls, whereas these abnormalities were normalized in CREM: NFATc2-/- mice. Western blotting revealed that genetic inhibition of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-mediated phosphorylation of S2814 on RyR2 in CREM: RyR2-S2814A mice suppressed NFATc2 activation observed in CREM mice, suggesting that NFATc2 is activated by excessive SR Ca2+ leak via RyR2. Finally, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing from AF patients identified Ras And EF-Hand Domain-Containing Protein (RASEF) as a direct target of NFATc2 mediated transcription. CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal activation of the NFAT signaling pathway in patients of Chinese and European descent. NFATc2 knockout prevents the progression of AF in the CREM mouse model. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a progressive disease characterized by electrical and structural remodeling which promotes atrial arrhythmias. This study provides evidence for increased 'nuclear factor of activated T-cell' (NFAT) signaling in patients with chronic AF. Studies in the CREM transgenic model of progressive AF revealed that the NFATc2 isoform mediates atrial remodeling associated with AF substrate development. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing of atrial biopsies from AF patients identified 'Ras And EF-Hand Domain-Containing Protein' (RASEF) as a downstream target of NFATc2-mediated transcription, suggesting that targeting these factors might be beneficial for curtailing AF progression.

5.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 26: 444-457, 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631276

RESUMO

A variety of studies indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in diabetes. However, the direct role of miR-320a in the pathophysiology of pancreatic ß cells under diabetes mellitus remains unclear. In the current study, islet transplantation and hyperglycemic clamp assays were performed in miR-320a transgenic mice to explore the effects of miR-320a on pancreatic ß cells in vivo. Meanwhile, ß cell-specific overexpression or inhibition of miR-320a was delivered by adeno-associated virus (AAV8). In vitro, overexpression or downregulation of miR-320a was introduced in cultured rat islet tumor cells (INS1). RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (RIP-Seq), luciferase reporter assay, and western blotting were performed to identify the target genes. Results showed that miR-320a was increased in the pancreatic ß cells from high-fat-diet (HFD)-treated mice. Overexpression of miR-320a could not only deteriorate the HFD-induced pancreatic islet dysfunction, but also initiate pancreatic islet dysfunction spontaneously in vivo. Meanwhile, miR-320a increased the ROS level, inhibited proliferation, and induced apoptosis of cultured ß cells in vitro. Finally, we identified that MafF was the target of miR-320a that responsible for the dysfunction of pancreatic ß cells. Our data suggested that miR-320a could damage the pancreatic ß cells directly and might be a potential therapeutic target of diabetes.

7.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 636204, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588976

RESUMO

Rationale: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a kind of metabolic disease characterized by liver steatosis. Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) originating from dysfunctional mitochondria is the major pathophysiological contributor in the development of NAFLD and is thought to be a promising therapeutic target. A few reports demonstrate the antioxidative treatments for NAFLD. Methods: Male C57 mice were fed on a normal chow diet (ND) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks. PBS or N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) was gavaged to mice. LO2 human liver cell line treated with palmitic acid (PA) was applied as a cellular model. Western blot, immunofluorescence, biochemistry assay, and pathological staining were used to investigate the mechanism of suppressing lipid accumulation of NAC. Results: NAC treatment was able to prevent HFD-induced NAFLD, as evidenced by less hepatic triglyceride accumulation and lipid droplet formation compared with that of mice in the HFD group. NAC could preserve mitochondrial function by inhibiting excessive mitophagy and promoting mitochondria biogenesis to prevent ROS production. NAC also activated Sirt1 and preserved its protein level and subsequently promoted mitochondria biogenesis via deacetylating PGC1a. Conclusion: We demonstrated that NAC may be an effective drug to treat NAFLD, which was related to its antioxidative and mitochondrial protective effect.

9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 704919, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504807

RESUMO

Aims: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are critical regulators of viral infection and inflammatory responses. However, the roles of lncRNAs in acute myocarditis (AM), especially fulminant myocarditis (FM), remain unclear. Methods: FM and non-fulminant myocarditis (NFM) were induced by coxsackie B3 virus (CVB3) in different mouse strains. Then, the expression profiles of the lncRNAs in the heart tissues were detected by sequencing. Finally, the patterns were analyzed by Pearson/Spearman rank correlation, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and Cytoscape 3.7. Results: First, 1,216, 983, 1,606, and 2,459 differentially expressed lncRNAs were identified in CVB3-treated A/J, C57BL/6, BALB/c, and C3H mice with myocarditis, respectively. Among them, 88 lncRNAs were commonly dysregulated in all four models. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses further confirmed that four out of the top six commonly dysregulated lncRNAs were upregulated in all four models. Moreover, the levels of ENSMUST00000188819, ENSMUST00000199139, and ENSMUST00000222401 were significantly elevated in the heart and spleen and correlated with the severity of cardiac inflammatory infiltration. Meanwhile, 923 FM-specific dysregulated lncRNAs were detected, among which the levels of MSTRG.26098.49, MSTRG.31307.11, MSTRG.31357.2, and MSTRG.32881.28 were highly correlated with LVEF. Conclusion: Expression of lncRNAs is significantly dysregulated in acute myocarditis, which may play different roles in the progression of AM.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coxsackievirus , Miocardite , RNA Longo não Codificante , Animais , Enterovirus Humano B , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miocárdio , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética
10.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(15): 1221, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532358

RESUMO

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing public health crisis that has led to many deaths due to multiple organ dysfunction syndromes (MODS). This article describes the clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes of critically ill COVID-19 patients who survived the disease through mechanical circulatory support (MCS). Methods: We studied 25 critically ill COVID-19 patients who underwent MCS from January 20, 2020, to April 10, 2020, at the Tongji Hospital of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Results: Thirteen (52%) of the 25 patients survived with MCS support, while 12 (48%) died. At the time of their hospital admission, we identified significant differences in their peak cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels, as well as in their lymphocyte count and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Cox proportional hazards regression model revealed that receipt of renal replacement therapy (RRT) was associated with an approximately 20-fold improvement in survival [hazard ratio (HR) =0.049, 95% confidence interval (CI) =0.008 to 0.305]. The number of days spent on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support and the use of hydrogen (pH) at the time of MCS was also associated with an increase in survival. This contrasted with high-sensitivity C-reactive proteins (hs-CRP) and lactate, associated with a decrease in survival during MCS. Further analysis of the determinants relating to a COVID-19 patient's chance of survival on/after MCS was also indicated by levels of IL-6 (ß=0.009, P=0.006), IL-8 (ß=0.031, P=0.020), and TNF-α (ß=0.107, P=0.014), which saw a significant increase in the 12 patients who died. This contrasts with the non-significant decrease in IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α levels in the 13 patients who survived. Conclusions: These results indicate that pH, lactate, hs-CRP, ECMO duration, and RRT are important clinical determinants for assessing how MCS can increase the chances of critically ill COVID-19 patients surviving the disease.

11.
Can J Cardiol ; 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genetic basis of a considerable fraction of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) cases remains unknown. Whether the gene encoding RNA binding motif protein 20 (RBM20) is implicated in HCM and the correlation of clinical characteristics of RBM20 heterozygotes with HCM remain unresolved. We aimed to investigate the association between RBM20 variants and HCM. METHODS: We compared rare variants in the RBM20 gene by exome sequencing in 793 patients with HCM and 414 healthy controls. Based on a case-control approach, we used optimal sequence kernel association test (SKAT-O) to explore whether RBM20 is associated with HCM. The genetic distribution of RBM20 rare variants was then compared between HCM heterozygotes and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) heterozygotes. Clinical features and prognosis of RBM20 heterozygotes were compared with nonheterozygotes. RESULTS: Gene-based association analysis implicated RBM20 as a susceptibility gene for developing HCM. Patients with RBM20 variants displayed a higher prevalence of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) (6.7% vs 0.9%, P = 0.001), increased sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk factor counts and impaired left ventricle systolic function. Further survival analysis revealed that RBM20 heterozygotes had higher incidences of resuscitated cardiac arrest, recurrent nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, and malignant arrhythmias. Mendelian randomization suggested that RBM20 expression in the left ventricle was causally associated with HCM and DCM with opposite effects. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified RBM20 as a potential causal gene of HCM. RBM20 variants are associated with increased risk for SCA in HCM.

12.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 73(4): 617-630, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405218

RESUMO

The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases are increasing annually, which is one of the primary causes of human death. Recent studies have shown that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), endogenous metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) via CYP450 epoxygenase, possess a spectrum of protective properties in cardiovascular system. EETs not only alleviate cardiac remodeling and injury in different pathological models, but also improve subsequent hemodynamic disturbances and cardiac dysfunction. Meanwhile, various studies have demonstrated that EETs, as endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factors, regulate vascular tone by activating various ion channels on endothelium and smooth muscle, which in turn can lower blood pressure, improve coronary blood flow and regulate pulmonary artery pressure. In addition, EETs are protective in endothelium, including inhibiting inflammation and adhesion of endothelial cells, attenuating platelet aggregation, promoting fibrinolysis and revascularization. EETs can also prevent aortic remodeling, including attenuating atherosclerosis, adventitial remodeling, and aortic calcification. Therefore, it is clinically important to study the physiological and pathophysiological effects of EETs in the cardiovascular system to further elucidate the mechanisms, as well as provide new strategy for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This review summarizes the endogenous cardioprotective effects and mechanisms of EETs in order to provide a new insight for research in this field.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular , Células Endoteliais , Ácido 8,11,14-Eicosatrienoico/farmacologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Eicosanoides , Humanos
13.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 716213, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368265

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that participate in heart development and pathological processes mainly by silencing gene expression. Overwhelming evidence has suggested that miRNAs were involved in various cardiovascular pathological processes, including arrhythmias, ischemia-reperfusion injuries, dysregulation of angiogenesis, mitochondrial abnormalities, fibrosis, and maladaptive remodeling. Various miRNAs could regulate myocardial contractility, vascular proliferation, and mitochondrial function. Meanwhile, it was reported that miRNAs could manipulate nutrition metabolism, especially glucose and lipid metabolism, by regulating insulin signaling pathways, energy substrate transport/metabolism. Recently, increasing studies suggested that the abnormal glucose and lipid metabolism were closely associated with a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Therefore, maintaining glucose and lipid metabolism homeostasis in the heart might be beneficial to CVD patients. In this review, we summarized the present knowledge of the functions of miRNAs in regulating cardiac glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as highlighted the miRNA-based therapies targeting cardiac glucose and lipid metabolism.

14.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 683335, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385917

RESUMO

Follistatin (FST) is an endogenous protein that irreversibly inhibits TGF-ß superfamily members and plays an anti-fibrotic role in other diseases. However, the role of FST in diabetic cardiomyopathy remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of FST on diabetic cardiomyopathy. The expression of FST was downregulated in the hearts of db/db mice. Remarkably, overexpressing FST efficiently protected against cardiac dysfunction. In addition, overexpression of FST promoted cardiac hypertrophy with an unchanged expression of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and the ratio of myosin heavy chain-ß/myosin heavy chain-α (MYH7/MYH6). Furthermore, FST reduced cardiac fibrosis and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and enhanced matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9) activities in db/db mouse hearts. We also observed that overexpressing FST decreased the level of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) superfamily members and the phosphorylation of Smad3; consistently, in vitro experiments also verified the above results. Our findings revealed the cardioprotective role of FST in attenuating diabetic cardiomyopathy through its anti-fibrotic effects through the TGF-ß-Smad3 pathway and provided a promising therapeutic strategy for diabetic cardiomyopathy.

15.
Front Physiol ; 12: 695047, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276413

RESUMO

Despite mounting evidence demonstrating the significance of inflammation in the pathophysiological mechanisms of heart failure (HF), most large clinical trials that target the inflammatory responses in HF yielded neutral or even worsening outcomes. Further in-depth understanding about the roles of inflammation in the pathogenesis of HF is eagerly needed. This review summarizes cytokines, cardiac infiltrating immune cells, and extracardiac organs that orchestrate the complex inflammatory responses in HF and highlights emerging therapeutic targets.

17.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 678645, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34307494

RESUMO

The manifestations of hyperthyroidism-related myocardial damage are multitudinous, including arrhythmia, dilated cardiomyopathy, valvular diseases, and even cardiogenic shock. Acute myocarditis induced by thyrotoxicosis had been reported in a few studies. However, attention on its prevalence and underlying mechanisms is sorely lacking. Its long-term harm is often ignored, and it may eventually develop into dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure. We report a case of Graves' disease with a progressive elevation of hypersensitive cardiac troponin-I at several days after discontinuation of the patient's anti-thyroid drugs. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) showed inflammatory edema of some cardiomyocytes (stranded enhanced signals under T2 mapping), myocardial necrosis (scattered enhanced signals under T1 late gadolinium enhancement) in the medial and inferior epicardial wall, with a decreased left ventricular systolic function (48%), which implied a possibility of acute myocarditis induced by thyrotoxicosis. The patient was then given a transient glucocorticoid (GC) treatment and achieved a good curative effect. Inspired by this case, we aim to systematically elaborate the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of hyperthyroidism-induced autoimmune myocarditis. Additionally, we emphasize the importance of CMRI and GC therapy in the diagnosis and treatment of hyperthyroidism-related myocarditis.

18.
Front Med ; 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159537

RESUMO

The association among plasma trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), FMO3 polymorphisms, and chronic heart failure (CHF) remains to be elucidated. TMAO is a microbiota-dependent metabolite from dietary choline and carnitine. A prospective study was performed including 955 consecutively diagnosed CHF patients with reduced ejection fraction, with the longest follow-up of 7 years. The concentrations of plasma TMAO and its precursors, namely, choline and carnitine, were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the FMO3 E158K polymorphisms (rs2266782) were genotyped. The top tertile of plasma TMAO was associated with a significant increment in hazard ratio (HR) for the composite outcome of cardiovascular death or heart transplantation (HR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.13-1.91, P = 0.004) compared with the lowest tertile. After adjustments of the potential confounders, higher TMAO could still be used to predict the risk of the primary endpoint (adjusted HR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.01-1.74, P = 0.039). This result was also obtained after further adjustment for carnitine (adjusted HR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.01-1.74, P = 0.039). The FMO3 rs2266782 polymorphism was associated with the plasma TMAO concentrations in our cohort, and lower TMAO levels were found in the AA-genotype. Thus, higher plasma TMAO levels indicated increased risk of the composite outcome of cardiovascular death or heart transplantation independent of potential confounders, and the FMO3 AA-genotype in rs2266782 was related to lower plasma TMAO levels.

20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(11): e019276, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041919

RESUMO

Background Aortic dissection (AD) is one of the most life-threatening cardiovascular diseases that exhibit high genetic heterogeneity. However, it is unclear whether variants within the COL5A1 gene can cause AD. Therefore, we intend to determine whether COL5A1 is a causative gene of AD. Methods and Results We performed targeted sequencing in 702 patients with unrelated sporadic AD and 163 matched healthy controls using a predesigned panel with 152 vessel matrix-related genes. As a result, we identified that 11 variants in COL5A1 caused AD in 11 out of the 702 patients with AD. Furthermore, Col5a1 knockout (Col5a1+/-) rats were generated through the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Although there was no spontaneous AD, electron microscopy revealed a fracture of elastic fibers and disarray of collagenous fibers in 6-week-old Col5a1+/- rats, but not in WT rats (93.3% versus 0.0%, P<0.001). Three-week-old rats were used to induce the AD phenotype with ß-aminopropionitrile monofumarate for 4 weeks followed by angiotensin II for 72 hours. The ß-aminopropionitrile monofumarate and angiotensin II-treated rat model confirmed that Col5a1+/- rats had considerably higher AD incidence than WT rats. Subsequent mechanism analyses demonstrated that the transforming growth factor-ß-signaling pathway was significantly activated in Col5a1+/- rats. Conclusions Our findings, for the first time, revealed a relationship between variants in COL5A1 and AD via targeted sequencing in 1.57% patients with sporadic aortic dissection. The Col5a1 knockout rats exhibited AD after an intervention, indicating that COL5A1 is a causative gene of AD. Activation of the transforming growth factor-ß-signaling pathway may be implicated in the pathogenesis of this kind of AD.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/genética , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/genética , Colágeno Tipo V/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética , Aneurisma Dissecante/diagnóstico , Aneurisma Dissecante/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta Torácica/ultraestrutura , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Western Blotting , Colágeno Tipo V/biossíntese , DNA/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Ratos , Ratos Transgênicos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transdução de Sinais , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/biossíntese
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