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1.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(10): e1008057, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671153

RESUMO

Human astroviruses (HAstV) are understudied positive-strand RNA viruses that cause gastroenteritis mostly in children and the elderly. Three clades of astroviruses, classic, MLB-type and VA-type have been reported in humans. One limitation towards a better understanding of these viruses has been the lack of a physiologically relevant cell culture model that supports growth of all clades of HAstV. Herein, we demonstrate infection of HAstV strains belonging to all three clades in epithelium-only human intestinal enteroids (HIE) isolated from biopsy-derived intestinal crypts. A detailed investigation of infection of VA1, a member of the non-canonical HAstV-VA/HMO clade, showed robust replication in HIE derived from different patients and from different intestinal regions independent of the cellular differentiation status. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analysis revealed that VA1 infects several cell types, including intestinal progenitor cells and mature enterocytes, in HIE cultures. RNA profiling of VA1-infected HIE uncovered that the host response to infection is dominated by interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immune responses. A comparison of the antiviral host response in non-transformed HIE and transformed human colon carcinoma Caco-2 cells highlighted significant differences between these cells, including an increased magnitude of the response in HIE. Additional studies confirmed the sensitivity of VA1 to exogenous IFNs, and the endogenous IFN response of HIE to curtail the growth of strains from all three clades. Genotypic variation in the permissiveness of different HIE lines to HAstV could be overcome by pharmacologic inhibition of JAK/STAT signaling. Collectively, our data identify HIE as a universal infection model for HAstV and an improved model of the intestinal epithelium to investigate enteric virus-host interactions.

2.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000000582, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592714
4.
Anal Chem ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663335

RESUMO

We present precise measurements of doubly-deuterated methane (12CH2D2) in natural methane samples using tunable infrared laser direct absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS). Using a 413 m optical path length astigmatic Herriott cell and two quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) scanning the spectral regions of 1090.46 ± 0.1 cm-1 and 1200.23 ± 0.1 cm-1, the instrument simultaneously measures the five main isotopologues of methane. The ratios 13CH3D/12CH4 and 12CH2D2/12CH4 are measured at 0.01‰ and 0.5‰ (1) instrumental precision, respectively. The instrumental accuracy was assessed by measuring a series of methane gases with a range of 13C and D values but with the abundances of all isotopologues driven to thermal equilibrium at 250 C. The estimated accuracy of 12CH2D2 is 1‰ (1) based on the results of the heated methane samples. This new TILDAS instrument provides a simple and rapid technique to explore the sources of methane in the environment.

5.
J Virol ; 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619561

RESUMO

Mammalian RIG-I-like receptors detect viral dsRNA and 5' triphosphorylated RNA to activate transcription of interferon genes and promote antiviral defense. The C. elegans RIG-I-like receptor DRH-1 promotes defense through antiviral RNA interference, but less is known about its role in regulating transcription. Here we describe a role for DRH-1 in directing a transcriptional response in C. elegans called the Intracellular Pathogen Response (IPR), which is associated with increased pathogen resistance. The IPR includes a set of genes induced by diverse stimuli including intracellular infection and proteotoxic stress. Previous work suggested that the proteotoxic stress caused by intracellular infections might be the common trigger of the IPR, but here we demonstrate that different stimuli act through distinct pathways. Specifically, we demonstrate that DRH-1/RIG-I is required for inducing the IPR in response to Orsay virus infection, but not in response to other triggers like microsporidian infection or proteotoxic stress. Furthermore, DRH-1 appears to be acting independently of its known role in RNAi. Interestingly, expression of the replication competent Orsay virus RNA1 segment alone is sufficient to induce most of the IPR genes in a manner dependent on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity and on DRH-1. Altogether, these results suggest that DRH-1 is a pattern-recognition receptor that detects viral replication products to activate the IPR stress/immune program in C. elegans Importance C. elegans lacks homologs of most mammalian pattern recognition receptors, and how nematodes detect pathogens is poorly understood. We show that the C. elegans RIG-I homolog DRH-1 mediates induction of the Intracellular Pathogen Response (IPR), a novel transcriptional defense program, in response to infection by the natural C. elegans viral pathogen Orsay virus. DRH-1 appears to act as a pattern-recognition receptor to induce the IPR transcriptional defense program by sensing the products of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity. Interestingly, this signaling role of DRH-1 is separable from its previously known role in antiviral RNAi. In addition, we show that there are multiple host pathways for inducing the IPR, shedding light on the regulation of this novel transcriptional immune response.

6.
J Sleep Res ; : e12930, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633865

RESUMO

Opioid-related deaths from respiratory depression are increasing but there is only limited information on the effect of morphine on breathing during sleep. This study aimed to detect and quantify opioid-induced cardiorespiratory pattern changes during sleep in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients using novel automated methods and correlate these with conventional polysomnography (PSG) measures. Under a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, 60 male OSA patients attended two one-night visits to the sleep laboratory, at least a week apart. Either a 40-mg controlled-release oral morphine dose or placebo was administered. Breathing during sleep was measured by standard in-laboratory PSG. We analysed the inter-breath interval (IBI) from the PSG flow channel to quantify breathing irregularity. Cardiopulmonary coupling (CPC) was analysed using the PSG electrocardiogram (ECG) channel. Following the consumption of morphine, the 60 OSA patients had fewer breaths (p = .0006), a longer inter-breath interval (p < .0001) and more irregular breathing with increased IBI coefficient of variation (CV) (p = .0015) compared to the placebo night. A higher CPC sleep quality index was found with morphine use. The change of key IBI and CPC parameters was significantly correlated with the change of key PSG sleep-disordered breathing parameters. In conclusion, 40 mg controlled-release morphine resulted in a longer breathing cycle and increased breathing irregularity but generally more stable sleep in OSA patients. The significant links between the IBI and CPC techniques and a range of PSG sleep-disordered breathing parameters may suggest a practical value as surrogate overnight cardiorespiratory measurements, because both respiratory flow and ECG can be detected by small portable devices.

7.
Sleep ; 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31552426

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Neurophysiological activity during wake and sleep states in obesity hypoventilation (OHS) and its relationship with neurocognitive function is not well understood. This study compared OHS with equally obese obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients, with similar apnea hypopnea indices. METHODS: Resting wake and overnight sleep electroencephalography (EEG) recordings, neurocognitive tests, and sleepiness, depression and anxiety scores were assessed before and after 3 months of positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy in 15 OHS and 36 OSA patients. RESULTS: Pre-treatment, greater slow frequency EEG activity during wake and sleep states (increased delta alpha ratio during sleep, and theta power during awake) was observed in the OHS group compared to the OSA group. EEG slowing was correlated with poorer performance on the psychomotor vigilance task (slowest 10% of reciprocal reaction times, PVT SRRT, primary outcome), and worse sleep-related hypoxemia measures in OHS. There was no between-group significant difference in PVT performance at pre or post-treatment. Similarly, despite both groups demonstrating improved sleepiness, anxiety and depression scores with PAP therapy, there were no differences in treatment response between the OSA and OHS groups. CONCLUSION: Patients with OHS have greater slow frequency EEG activity during sleep and wake than equally obese patients with OSA. Greater EEG slowing was associated with worse vigilance and lower oxygenation during sleep.

8.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542273

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To study short-term and long-term outcomes of lower extremity venous stents placed at a single center and to characterize changes in vein diameter achieved by stent placement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A database of all patients who received lower extremity venous stents between 1996 and 2018 revealed 1,094 stents were placed in 406 patients (172 men, 234 women; median age, 49 y) in 513 limbs, including patients with iliocaval stents (9.4% acute thrombosis, 65.3% chronic thrombosis, 25.3% nonthrombotic lesions). Primary, primary assisted, and secondary patency rates were assessed for lower extremity venous stents at 1, 3, and 5 years using Kaplan-Meier analyses and summary statistics. Subset analyses and Cox regression were performed to identify risk factors for patency loss. Vein diameters and Villalta scores before and up to 12 months after stent placement were compared. Complication and mortality rates were calculated. RESULTS: Primary, primary assisted, and secondary patency rates at 5 years were 57.3%, 77.2%, and 80.9% by Kaplan-Meier methods and 78.6%, 90.3%, and 92.8% by summary statistics. Median follow-up was 199 days (interquartile range, 35.2-712.0 d). Patency rates for the subset of patients (n = 46) with ≥ 5 years of follow-up (mean ± SD 9.1 y ± 3.4) were nearly identical to cohort patency rates at 5 years. Patients with inferior vena cava stent placement (hazard ratio 2.11, P < .0001) or acute thrombosis (hazard ratio 3.65, P < .0001) during the index procedure had significantly increased risk of losing primary patency status. Vein diameters were significantly greater after stent placement. There were no instances of stent fracture, migration, or structural deformities. In patients with chronic deep vein thrombosis, Villalta scores significantly decreased after stent placement (from 15.7 to 7.4, P < .0001). Perioperative mortality was < 1%, and major perioperative complication rate was 3.7%. CONCLUSIONS: Cavo-ilio-femoral stent placement for venous occlusive disease achieves improvement of vein disease severity scores, increase in treated vein diameters, and satisfactory long-term patency rates.

9.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542278

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To demonstrate the feasibility and evaluate the performance of a deep-learning convolutional neural network (CNN) classification model for automated identification of different types of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters on radiographs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 1,375 cropped radiographic images of 14 types of IVC filters were collected from patients enrolled in a single-center IVC filter registry, with 139 images withheld as a test set and the remainder used to train and validate the classification model. Image brightness, contrast, intensity, and rotation were varied to augment the training set. A 50-layer ResNet architecture with fixed pre-trained weights was trained using a soft margin loss over 50 epochs. The final model was evaluated on the test set. RESULTS: The CNN classification model achieved a F1 score of 0.97 (0.92-0.99) for the test set overall and of 1.00 for 10 of 14 individual filter types. Of the 139 test set images, 4 (2.9%) were misidentified, all mistaken for other filter types that appear highly similar. Heat maps elucidated salient features for each filter type that the model used for class prediction. CONCLUSIONS: A CNN classification model was successfully developed to identify 14 types of IVC filters on radiographs and demonstrated high performance. Further refinement and testing of the model is necessary before potential real-world application.

10.
J Urol ; 202(6): 1074, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509063
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(6): 1079-1081, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505596
13.
Science ; 365(6452)2019 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371577

RESUMO

Laboratory mouse studies are paramount for understanding basic biological phenomena but also have limitations. These include conflicting results caused by divergent microbiota and limited translational research value. To address both shortcomings, we transferred C57BL/6 embryos into wild mice, creating "wildlings." These mice have a natural microbiota and pathogens at all body sites and the tractable genetics of C57BL/6 mice. The bacterial microbiome, mycobiome, and virome of wildlings affect the immune landscape of multiple organs. Their gut microbiota outcompete laboratory microbiota and demonstrate resilience to environmental challenges. Wildlings, but not conventional laboratory mice, phenocopied human immune responses in two preclinical studies. A combined natural microbiota- and pathogen-based model may enhance the reproducibility of biomedical studies and increase the bench-to-bedside safety and success of immunological studies.

14.
Annu Rev Genet ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424970

RESUMO

Caenorhabditis elegans has long been a laboratory model organism with no known natural pathogens. In the past ten years, however, natural viruses have been isolated from wild-caught C. elegans (Orsay virus) and its relative Caenorhabditis briggsae (Santeuil virus, Le Blanc virus, and Melnik virus). All are RNA positive-sense viruses related to Nodaviridae; they infect intestinal cells and are horizontally transmitted. The Orsay virus capsid structure has been determined and the virus can be reconstituted by transgenesis of the host. Recent use of the Orsay virus has enabled researchers to identify evolutionarily conserved proviral and antiviral genes that function in nematodes and mammals. These pathways include endocytosis through SID-3 and WASP; a uridylyltransferase that destabilizes viral RNAs by uridylation of their 3' end; ubiquitin protein modifications and turnover; and the RNA interference pathway, which recognizes and degrades viral RNA. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Genetics, Volume 53 is November 23, 2019. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

15.
Semin Roentgenol ; 54(3): 207-214, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376862
16.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000000487, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393817
18.
J Virol ; 93(21)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434736

RESUMO

Three RNA viruses related to nodaviruses were previously described to naturally infect the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and its relative, Caenorhabditis briggsae Here, we report on a collection of more than 50 viral variants from wild-caught Caenorhabditis. We describe the discovery of a new related virus, the Melník virus, infecting C. briggsae, which similarly infects intestinal cells. In France, a frequent pattern of coinfection of C. briggsae by the Santeuil virus and Le Blanc virus was observed at the level of an individual nematode and even a single cell. We do not find evidence of reassortment between the RNA1 and RNA2 molecules of Santeuil and Le Blanc viruses. However, by studying patterns of evolution of each virus, reassortments of RNA1 and RNA2 among variants of each virus were identified. We develop assays to test the relative infectivity and competitive ability of the viral variants and detect an interaction between host genotype and Santeuil virus genotype, such that the result depends on the host strain.IMPORTANCE The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans is a laboratory model organism in biology. We study natural populations of this small animal and its relative, C. briggsae, and the viruses that infect them. We previously discovered three RNA viruses related to nodaviruses and here describe a fourth one, called the Melník virus. These viruses have a genome composed of two RNA molecules. We find that two viruses may infect the same animal and the same cell. The two RNA molecules may be exchanged between variants of a given viral species. We study the diversity of each viral species and devise an assay of their infectivity and competitive ability. Using this assay, we show that the outcome of the competition also depends on the host.

19.
MBio ; 10(4)2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289185

RESUMO

Recent advances in unbiased pathogen discovery have implicated astroviruses as pathogens of the central nervous system (CNS) of mammals, including humans. However, the capacity of astroviruses to be cultured in CNS-derived cells in vitro has not been reported to date. Both astrovirus VA1/HMO-C (VA1; mamastrovirus 9) and classic human astrovirus 4 (HAstV4; mamastrovirus 1) have been previously detected from cases of human encephalitis. We tested the ability of primary human neurons, primary human astrocytes, and other immortalized human nervous system cell lines (SK-N-SH, U87 MG, and SW-1088) to support infection and replication of these two astrovirus genotypes. Primary astrocytes and SK-N-SH cells supported the full viral life cycle of VA1 with a >100-fold increase in viral RNA levels during a multistep growth curve, detection of viral capsid, and a >100-fold increase in viral titer. Primary astrocytes were permissive with respect to HAstV4 infection and replication but did not yield infectious virus, suggesting abortive infection. Similarly, abortive infection of VA1 was observed in SW-1088 and U87 MG cells. Elevated expression of the chemokine CXCL10 was detected in VA1-infected primary astrocytes and SK-N-SH cells, suggesting that VA1 infection can induce a proinflammatory host response. These findings establish an in vitro cell culture model that is essential for investigation of the basic biology of astroviruses and their neuropathogenic potential.IMPORTANCE Encephalitis remains a diagnostic conundrum in humans as over 50% of cases are managed without the identification of an etiology. Astroviruses have been detected from the central nervous system of mammals in association with disease, suggesting that this family of RNA viruses could be responsible for cases of some neurological diseases that are currently without an ascribed etiology. However, there are significant barriers to understanding astrovirus infection as the capacity of these viruses to replicate in nervous system cells in vitro has not been determined. We describe primary and immortalized cultured cells of the nervous system that support infection by astroviruses. These results further corroborate the role of astroviruses in causing neurological diseases and will serve as an essential model to interrogate the neuropathogenesis of astrovirus infection.

20.
Br J Anaesth ; 123(4): 408-420, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320115

RESUMO

Preoperative cardiac function is an important predictor of postoperative outcomes. Patients with heart failure are at higher risk of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Left ventricular ejection fraction, derived by standard echocardiography, is most frequently used to assess cardiac function in the intraoperative and postoperative periods. Myocardial strain analysis, a measurement of myocardial deformation, can provide additional information to left venricular eject fraction estimation. Here, we provide an overview of myocardial strain and different methods used to evaluate strain, including speckle tracking echocardiography. Speckle tracking echocardiography is an imaging modality that can analyse and track small segments of the myocardium, which provides greater detail for assessing global and regional cardiac motion and function. We further review the literature to illustrate the value of speckle tracking echocardiography-derived myocardial strain in describing cardiac function and its association with adverse surgical outcomes in the perioperative period, including low cardiac output states, need for inotropic support, postoperative arrhythmias, subclinical myocardial ischaemia, and length of hospital stay.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Ecocardiografia , Testes de Função Cardíaca , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Miocárdio , Volume Sistólico
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