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1.
Oncoimmunology ; 11(1): 2079182, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35707221

RESUMO

Metabolic inhibition via PFKFB3 inhibition has demonstrated considerable tumor inhibitory effects in various studies; however, PFKFB3 inhibition did not show satisfactory tumor inhibition when used in clinical trials. PFKFB3 is a crucial metabolic enzyme that is highly upregulated in cancer cells and directly affects tumor glycolysis. Here, we showed that PFKFB3 inhibition suppresses tumors in vitro and in vivo in immune-deficient xenografts. However, this inhibition induces the upregulation of PD-L1 levels, which inactivated cocultured T-cells in vitro, compromises anti-tumor immunity in vivo, and reduced anti-tumor efficacy in an immune-competent mouse model. Functionally, PD-1 mAb treatment enhances the efficacy of PFKFB3 inhibition in immunocompetent and hu-PBMC NOG mouse models. Mechanistically, PFKFB3 inhibition increases phosphorylation of PFKFB3 at residue Ser461, which increases interaction with HIF-1α, and their colocalization into the nucleus, where HIF-1α transcriptionally upregulate PD-L1 expression and causes subsequent tumor immune evasion. Higher phos-PFKFB3 correlated with higher PD-L1 expression, lower CD8 and GRZMB levels, and shorter survival time in ESCC patients.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1 , Neoplasias , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Camundongos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fosfofrutoquinase-2/metabolismo
2.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35254582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRLM) is a determining factor affecting the survival of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. This study aims at developing a novel prognostic stratification tool for CRLM resection. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 666 CRC patients who underwent complete CRLM resection from two Chinese medical institutions between 2001 and 2016 were classified into the training (341 patients) and validation (325 patients) cohorts. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Associations between clinicopathological variables, circulating lipid and inflammation biomarkers, and OS were explored. The five most significant prognostic factors were incorporated into the Circulating Lipid- and Inflammation-based Risk (CLIR) score. The predictive ability of the CLIR score and Fong's Clinical Risk Score (CRS) was compared by time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. RESULTS: Five independent predictors associated with worse OS were identified in the training cohort: number of CRLMs >4, maximum diameter of CRLM >4.4 cm, primary lymph node-positive, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level >250.5 U/L, and serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C)/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio >2.9. These predictors were included in the CLIR score and each factor was assigned one point. Median OS for the low (score 0-1)-, intermediate (score 2-3)-, and high (score 4-5)-risk groups was 134.0 months, 39.9 months, and 18.7 months in the pooled cohort. The CLIR score outperformed the Fong score with superior discriminatory capacities for OS and RFS, both in the training and validation cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: The CLIR score demonstrated a promising ability to predict the long-term survival of CRC patients after complete hepatic resection.

3.
JAMA Oncol ; 8(5): 706-714, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35323856

RESUMO

Importance: Induction chemotherapy added to concurrent chemoradiotherapy significantly improves survival for patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma, but the optimal induction regimen remains unclear. Objective: To determine whether induction chemotherapy with paclitaxel, cisplatin, and capecitabine (TPC) improves survival vs cisplatin and fluorouracil (PF) prior to chemoradiotherapy for patients with stage IVA to IVB nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized, open-label, phase 3 clinical trial recruited 238 patients at 4 hospitals in China from October 20, 2016, to August 29, 2019. Patients were 18 to 65 years of age with treatment-naive, nonkeratinizing stage IVA to IVB nasopharyngeal carcinoma and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 to 1. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive induction chemotherapy with two 21-day cycles of TPC (intravenous paclitaxel [150 mg/m2, day 1], intravenous cisplatin [60 mg/m2, day 1], and oral capecitabine [1000 mg/m2 orally twice daily, days 1-14]) or PF (intravenous cisplatin [100 mg/m2, day 1] and fluorouracil [800 mg/m2 daily, days 1-5]), followed by chemoradiotherapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was failure-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. Secondary end points included distant metastasis-free survival, locoregional relapse-free survival, overall survival, tumor response, and safety. Results: Overall, 238 eligible patients (187 men [78.6%]; median age, 45 years [range, 18-65 years]) were randomly assigned to receive TPC (n = 118) or PF (n = 120). The median follow-up duration was 48.4 months (IQR, 39.6-53.3 months). Failure-free survival at 3 years was 83.5% (95% CI, 77.0%-90.6%) in the TPC group and 68.9% (95% CI, 61.1%-77.8%) in the PF group (stratified hazard ratio [HR] for recurrence or death, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.28-0.79; P = .004). Induction with the TPC regimen resulted in a significant reduction in the risk of distant metastases (stratified HR, 0.49 [95% CI, 0.24-0.98]; P = .04) and locoregional recurrence (stratified HR, 0.40 [95% CI, 0.18-0.93]; P = .03) compared with the PF regimen. However, there was no effect on early overall survival (stratified HR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.17-1.18]; P = .10). The incidences of grade 3 to 4 acute adverse events and late-onset toxicities were 57.6% (n = 68) and 13.6% (16 of 118), respectively, in the TPC group and 65.8% (n = 79) and 17.9% (21 of 117), respectively, in the PF group. One treatment-related death occurred in the PF group. Conclusions and Relevance: This randomized clinical trial found that induction chemotherapy with 2 cycles of TPC for patients with stage IVA to IVB nasopharyngeal carcinoma improved failure-free survival compared with 2 cycles of PF, with no increase in the toxicity profile. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02940925.


Assuntos
Quimioterapia de Indução , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Quimiorradioterapia/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Fluoruracila , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos
4.
JAMA Oncol ; 8(4): 553-561, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35175316

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Capecitabine maintenance therapy improves survival outcomes in various cancer types, but data are limited on the efficacy and safety of capecitabine maintenance therapy in metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of capecitabine maintenance therapy in metastatic NPC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This randomized phase 3 clinical trial was conducted at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center from May 16, 2015, to January 9, 2020, among 104 patients with newly diagnosed metastatic NPC who had achieved disease control after 4 to 6 cycles of induction chemotherapy with paclitaxel, cisplatin, and capecitabine. The final follow-up date was May 30, 2021. All efficacy analyses were conducted in the intention-to-treat population. INTERVENTIONS: Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either capecitabine maintenance therapy (1000 mg/m2 orally twice daily on days 1-14) every 3 weeks plus best supportive care (BSC) (capecitabine maintenance group) or BSC alone after 4 to 6 cycles of induction chemotherapy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points were objective response rate, duration of response, overall survival, and safety. RESULTS: This study included 104 patients (84 men [80.8%]; median age, 47 years [IQR, 38-54 years]), with 52 assigned to the capecitabine maintenance group and 52 assigned to the BSC group. After a median follow-up of 33.8 months (IQR, 22.9-50.7 months), there were 23 events (44.2%) of progression or death in the capecitabine maintenance group and 37 events (71.2%) of progression or death in the BSC group. Median PFS survival was significantly higher in the capecitabine maintenance group (35.9 months [95% CI, 20.5 months-not reached]) than in the BSC group (8.2 months [95% CI, 6.4-10.0 months]), with a hazard ratio of 0.44 (95% CI, 0.26-0.74; P = .002). Higher objective response rates and longer median duration of response were observed in the capecitabine maintenance group (25.0%; 40.0 months) compared with the BSC group (objective response rate, 25.0% [n = 13] vs 11.5% [n = 6]; and median duration of response, 40.0 months [95% CI, not reached-not reached] vs 13.2 months [95% CI, 9.9-16.5 months]). The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events during maintenance therapy were anemia (6 of 50 [12.0%]), hand-foot syndrome (5 of 50 [10.0%]), nausea and vomiting (3 of 50 [6.0%]), fatigue (2 of 50 [4.0%]), and mucositis (2 of 50 [4.0%]). No deaths in the maintenance group were deemed treatment-related. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this phase 3 randomized clinical trial, capecitabine maintenance therapy significantly improved PFS for patients with newly diagnosed metastatic NPC who achieved disease control after capecitabine-containing induction chemotherapy. Capecitabine exhibited manageable toxic effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02460419.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Capecitabina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão
5.
Am J Cancer Res ; 11(10): 5006-5015, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34765307

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) patients with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positivity have demonstrated promising response with immunotherapy. We assessed the efficacy and safety of camrelizumab as salvage treatment in EBV-positive mGC. In this single-arm, phase 2 prospective clinical trial (NCT03755440), stage IV EBV-positive GC patients who failed/could not tolerate previous lines of chemotherapy were given intravenous camrelizumab 200 mg every 2 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was objective response rate. Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), disease control rate (DCR), duration of response, and toxicity. Exploratory analysis included the associations between treatment response and tumor mutation burden (TMB), programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression. Six eligible patients were enrolled in the first stage of the study. No patient achieved an objective response; thus, the study did not proceed to the second stage. The DCR was 67% (4/6). The median PFS rate was 2.2 months (95% CI: 1.5-not reached [NR]) and median OS was 6.8 months (95% CI: 1.7-NR). All treatment-related adverse events were grade 1-2, with reactive cutaneous capillary endothelial proliferation (n=4 [67%]) being the most commonly observed event. The only patient with PD-L1 combined positive score >1 had disease progression. Two stable disease and one disease progression were observed in three patients with TMB >10 Mut/Mb. EBV positivity may not be a good predictor for response to camrelizumab in mGC. Newer biomarkers are needed to identify EBV-positive mGC respondents who might benefit from immunotherapy.

6.
Cancer Med ; 10(22): 8005-8019, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in colorectal cancer patients has remained inconsistent between nonmetastatic and metastatic settings. So far, very few studies have included LDH in the prognostic analysis of curative-intent surgery for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five hundred and eighty consecutive metastatic colorectal cancer patients who underwent curative-intent CRLM resection from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (434 patients) and Sun Yat-sen University Sixth Affiliated Hospital (146 patients) in 2000-2019 were retrospectively collected. Overall survival (OS) was the primary end point. Cox regression model was performed to identify the prognostic values of preoperative serum LDH levels and other clinicopathology variables. A modification of the established Fong CRS scoring system comprising LDH was developed within this Chinese population. RESULTS: At the median follow-up time of 60.5 months, median OS was 59.5 months in the pooled cohort. In the multivariate analysis, preoperative LDH >upper limit of normal (250 U/L) was the strongest independent prognostic factor for OS (HR 1.73, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-2.44; p < 0.001). Patients with elevated LDH levels showed impaired OS than patients with normal LDH levels (27.6 months vs. 68.8 months). Five-year survival rates were 53.7% and 22.5% in the LDH-normal group and LDH-high group, respectively. Similar results were also confirmed in each cohort. In the subgroup analysis, LDH could distinguish the survival regardless of most established prognostic factors (number and size of CRLM, surgical margin, extrahepatic metastases, CEA, and CA19-9 levels, etc.). Integrating LDH into the Fong score contributed to an improvement in the predictive value. CONCLUSION: Our study implicates serum LDH as a reliable and independent laboratory biomarker to predict the clinical outcome of curative-intent surgery for CRLM. Composite of LDH and Fong score is a potential stratification tool for CRLM resection. Prospective, international studies are needed to validate these results across diverse populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Hepatectomia/métodos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pré-Operatório , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
7.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(9): 100383, 2021 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622226

RESUMO

This is a phase Ib/II study of regorafenib plus toripalimab for colorectal cancer. The objective response rate (ORR) is 15.2% and the disease control rate is 36.4% in evaluable patients with recommended phase II dose (80 mg regorafenib plus toripalimab). The median progression-free survival (PFS) and the median overall survival are 2.1 months and 15.5 months, respectively. Patients with liver metastases have lower ORR than those without (8.7% versus 30.0%). All patients (3/3) with lung-only metastasis respond, whereas no patients (0/4) with liver-only metastasis respond. 94.9% and 38.5% of patients have grade 1 and grade 3 treatment-related adverse events, respectively. Gut microbiome analysis of the baseline fecal samples shows significantly increased relative abundance and positive detection rate of Fusobacterium in non-responders than responders. Patients with high-abundance Fusobacterium have shorter PFS than those with low abundance (median PFS = 2.0 versus 5.2 months; p = 0.002).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Compostos de Fenilureia/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Biomolecules ; 11(9)2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572480

RESUMO

The prognostic heterogeneity in patients with BRAF V600E metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) remains poorly defined. Real-world data of 93 BRAF V600E mCRC patients from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were evaluated using the prognostic factors affecting overall survival (OS). Treatment of metastases served as an independent prognosticator, where curative locoregional interventions (LRIs) were associated with superior clinical outcomes (adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22-0.98; p = 0.044). The LRIs group showed an improved median OS of 49.4 months versus 18.3 months for the palliative treatments (PTs) group. The median OS of patients with colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) was significantly prolonged after undergoing LRIs (42.4 vs. 23.7 months; HR: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.01-1.22; p = 0.030), and patients in the LRIs plus liver-limited or lung-limited metastasis (LLM) group benefited more than those in the LRIs plus non-LLM group when compared to the PTs group (LLM from LRIs vs. PTs, HR: 0.16, 95% CI: 0.04-0.68; p = 0.006. Non-LLM from LRIs vs. PTs, HR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.21-1.05; p = 0.074). In conclusion, we confirmed the positive prognostic value of LRIs in BRAF V600E mCRC, particularly in patients with CRLM or LLM.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Metástase Neoplásica , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
9.
Gut ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489309

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) sequencing is increasingly used in the clinical management of patients with colorectal cancer. However, the genomic heterogeneity in ctDNA during treatments and its impact on clinical outcomes remain largely unknown. DESIGN: We conducted a prospective cohort study (NCT04228614) of 171 patients with unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who underwent first-line treatment and prospectively collected blood samples with or without tumour samples from patients at baseline and sequentially until disease progression or last follow-up. RESULTS: The RAS/BRAF alterations in paired baseline tissue and plasma samples from 63 patients displayed a favourable concordance (81.0%, 51/63). After a period of first-line treatment (median time between baseline and last liquid biopsy, 4.67 months), 42.6% (26/61) of RAS-mutant patients showed RAS clearance and 50.0% (5/10) of BRAF-mutant patients showed BRAF clearance, while 3.6% (3/84) and 0.7% (1/135) of patients showed new RAS or BRAF mutations in ctDNA. Patients with plasma RAS/BRAF clearance showed similar progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) with patients who remained RAS/BRAF wild-type, while much better outcomes than those who remained RAS/BRAF mutant. Patients who gained new RAS/BRAF mutations showed similar prognosis as those who maintained RAS/BRAF mutations, and shorter PFS and OS than those who remained RAS/BRAF wild-type. CONCLUSION: This prospective, serial and large-scale ctDNA profiling study reveals the temporal heterogeneity of mCRC-related somatic variants, which should be given special attention in clinical practice, as evidenced by the finding that the shift in plasma RAS/BRAF mutational status can yield a drastic change in survival outcomes.

10.
Oncogene ; 40(33): 5168-5181, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218271

RESUMO

Fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO), an N6-methyladenosine (m6A) demethylase, participates in tumor progression and metastasis in many malignancies, but its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) is still unclear. Here, we found that FTO protein levels, but not RNA levels, were downregulated in CRC tissues. Reduced FTO protein expression was correlated with a high recurrence rate and poor prognosis in resectable CRC patients. Moreover, we demonstrated that hypoxia restrained FTO protein expression, mainly due to an increase in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. The serine/threonine kinase receptor associated protein (STRAP) might served as the E3 ligase and K216 was the major ubiquitination site responsible for hypoxia-induced FTO degradation. FTO inhibited CRC metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, FTO exerted a tumor suppressive role by inhibiting metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) expression in an m6A-dependent manner. Methylated MTA1 transcripts were recognized by an m6A "reader", insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2), which then stabilized its mRNA. Together, our findings highlight the critical role of FTO in CRC metastasis and reveal a novel epigenetic mechanism by which the hypoxic tumor microenvironment promotes CRC metastasis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Regulação para Baixo , Adenosina , Anexina A2 , Humanos , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA
11.
Theranostics ; 11(14): 7018-7028, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093868

RESUMO

Rationale: Hepatectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy after resection of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) may improve survival, however, patients which may benefit cannot currently be identified. Postoperative circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis can detect minimal residual disease (MRD) and predict the prognosis and efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy. Our study aims to determine the impact of serial ctDNA analysis to predict the outcome among patients undergoing resection of CRLM. Methods: Between May 2018 and October 2019, 91 CRLM patients were prospectively enrolled. Whole exome sequencing was performed in 50 primary and 48 metastatic liver tissues. Targeted sequencing of 451 cancer relevant genes was performed in 50 baseline plasma to determine plasma-tissue concordance. We prospectively investigated changes in the amount and constitution of ctDNA in 271 serial plasma samples taken at different time points (baseline, pre-operation, post-operation, post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy (post-ACT) and recurrence) during the treatment of CRLM. Results: Detected molecular alterations were highly consistent among baseline ctDNA, primary and liver metastases tissue. Patients with a higher variant allele frequency (VAF) level at baseline ctDNA represent a higher tumor burden, and decreased ctDNA during pre-operative chemotherapy predicted better tumor response. Patients with detectable post-operative and post-ACT ctDNA were associated with significantly shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS). ROC analysis showed that post-ACT ctDNA status was superior to post-operative ctDNA status in predicting RFS with an AUROC of 0.79. A significant difference in overall recurrence rate was observed in patients with detectable vs undetectable levels of ctDNA after resection of CRLM (79.4% vs 41.7%) and after completion of adjuvant chemotherapy (77.3% vs 40.7%). During adjuvant chemotherapy, patients with decreased ctDNA VAF after adjuvant chemotherapy had a recurrence rate of 63.6%, compared to 92.3% in patients with increased ctDNA VAF. Conclusions: We envision that dynamic ctDNA analysis, especially in a post-ACT setting, might be used to not only reflect MRD but also to determine rational personalized adjuvant therapy after the resection of CRLM.


Assuntos
Quimioterapia Adjuvante , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/sangue , Alelos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , DNA Tumoral Circulante/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Hepatectomia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Neoplasia Residual , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
13.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e215250, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835174

RESUMO

Importance: The prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting has an important role in the overall management of cancer treatment. Objective: To evaluate whether adding aprepitant to palonosetron and dexamethasone can further prevent the incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting caused by FOLFIRI (fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan) or FOLFOX (fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) chemotherapy regimens among women with gastrointestinal cancer at higher risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: This phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial recruited young women (age ≤50 years) who drank little or no alcohol and had gastrointestinal cancer for which they received FOLFOX or FOLFIRI chemotherapy. A total of 248 women were enrolled and assigned in the ratio 1:1 to intervention and control groups from August 4, 2015, to March 31, 2020. Intention-to-treat analysis was used to evaluate patient baseline characteristics and efficacy. The analysis was conducted on October 30, 2020. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to the aprepitant group (aprepitant, 125 mg, orally 60 minutes before initiation of chemotherapy on day 1 and 80 mg orally each morning of days 2 and 3; palonosetron, 0.25 mg, intravenously; and dexamethasone, 6 mg, orally 30 minutes before chemotherapy initiation on day 1) or the placebo group (placebo, 125 mg, orally 60 minutes before initiation of chemotherapy on day 1 and 80 mg orally on each morning of days 2 and 3; palonosetron, 0.25 mg, intravenously; and dexamethasone, 12 mg, orally 30 minutes before chemotherapy initiation on day 1). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the complete response (CR) rate, defined as the proportion of patients without emesis episodes or rescue medication use during the overall phase of the first cycle. Other efficacy indicators, such as no vomiting and no nausea, were measured as the secondary and exploratory end points. Results: A total of 248 women from 4 clinical centers in China entered this study, and 243 patients (aprepitant regimen, 125 patients [51.4%]; placebo regimen, 118 patients [48.5%]) were evaluable for efficacy and safety; mean (SD) age of the total population was 40.1 (7.3) years. The CR rate was significantly higher in the aprepitant group vs the control group overall (107 [87.0%] vs 80 [66.7%]; P < .001) and in the acute (114 [92.7%] vs 91 [75.8%]; P = .001) and delayed (109 [88.6%] vs 84 [70.0%]; P = .001) phases of the trial. The incidence of adverse events was similar between the 2 groups (100 [80.0%] vs 96 [81.3%]; P = .79), and no grade 3 or 4 aprepitant treatment-related adverse events were observed. Multivariable analysis revealed that aprepitant use was the only independent factor associated with CR during the overall phase. Conclusions and Relevance: The combination of aprepitant with palonosetron and dexamethasone provided increased antiemetic efficacy in the FOLFOX or FOLFIRI chemotherapy regimen and was well tolerated by younger women with gastrointestinal cancer who have a history of little or no alcohol consumption. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03674294.


Assuntos
Antieméticos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Aprepitanto/administração & dosagem , Náusea/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Vômito/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/administração & dosagem , Camptotecina/efeitos adversos , Camptotecina/análogos & derivados , China , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fluoruracila/administração & dosagem , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Leucovorina/administração & dosagem , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/etiologia , Compostos Organoplatínicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Organoplatínicos/efeitos adversos , Vômito/etiologia
14.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(4): 310, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33708937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that the immune score is significantly associated with cancer prognosis. However, the prognostic role of primary tumor immune score in colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRLM) after hepatectomy in Chinese patients has not been reported. The present study is designed to investigate whether the immune score of primary tumor can predict the postoperative survival of liver metastases in Chinese patients. METHODS: A total of 131 patients diagnosed with CRLM were included, and the corresponding primary tumor and liver metastasis specimens were acquired. An immune score ranging from 0 to 4 was established based on the counts and densities of CD3+ and CD8+ T cells in the core tumor (CT) and the invasive margin (IM). Relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curves to assess the prognostic role of primary tumor immune score. Furthermore, we conducted a comprehensive search of the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and selected stage IV colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with liver metastasis to compare the tumor-infiltrating T cell profiles of the primary tumor and liver metastases by CIBERSORT. RESULTS: Patients with high immune scores in the primary tumor has no significantly better RFS and OS after hepatectomy than those with low immune scores [median RFS (95% CI): 19.13 (10.07-28.20) vs. 27.13 (15.97-38.29) months, P=0.604; median OS (95% CI): 64.37 (35.96-92.78) vs. 40.07 (32.54-47.59) months, P=0.652]. Data collected from the GEO indicates that the proportion of CD8+ T cells and total T cells in the primary tumor and liver metastatic lesion are also not significantly correlated (CD8+ T cells: r2 =0.030, P=0.468; total T cells: r2 =0.165, P=0.076). CONCLUSIONS: The immune score of the primary tumor fails to predict the prognosis of CRLM after hepatectomy in Chinese patients.

15.
Cancer Med ; 10(5): 1535-1544, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539664

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to construct a nomogram to predict personalized post-recurrence survival (PRS) among colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRLM) patients with post-hepatectomy recurrence. METHODS: Colorectal cancer liver metastasis patients who received initial hepatectomy and had subsequent recurrence between 2001 and 2019 in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center from China were included in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to a training cohort and a validation cohort on a ratio of 2:1. Univariable analysis was first employed to select potential predictive factors for PRS. Then, the multivariable Cox regression model was applied to recognize independent prognostic factors. According to the model, a nomogram to predict PRS was established. The nomogram's predictive capacity was further assessed utilizing concordance index (C-index) values, calibration plots, and Kaplan-Meier curves. RESULTS: About 376 patients were finally enrolled, with a 3-year PRS rate of 37.3% and a 5-year PRS rate of 24.6%. The following five independent predictors for PRS were determined to construct the nomogram: the largest size of liver metastases at initial hepatectomy, relapse-free survival, CEA level at recurrence, recurrent sites, and treatment for recurrence. The nomogram displayed fairly good discrimination and calibration. The C-index value was 0.742 for the training cohort and 0.773 for the validation cohort. Patients were grouped into three risk groups very well by the nomogram, with 5-year PRS rates of 45.2%, 23.3%, and 9.0%, respectively (p < 0.001) in the training cohort and 36.0%, 9.2%, and 4.6%, respectively (p < 0.001) in the validation cohort. CONCLUSION: A novel nomogram was built and validated to enable the prediction of personal PRS in CRLM patients with post-hepatectomy recurrence. The nomogram may help physicians in decision making.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Nomogramas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Análise de Variância , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/secundário , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Hepatectomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Distribuição Aleatória , Fatores de Risco , Carga Tumoral
16.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 13: 1758835921988996, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33613701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously reported tumor mutation burden (TMB) as a potential prognostic factor for patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC) receiving immunotherapy. We aimed to comprehensively understand the impact of tumor burden and TMB on efficacy and prognosis in immunotherapy-treated AGC patients. METHODS: A total of 58 patients with refractory AGC receiving PD-1 inhibitor monotherapy from a phase Ib/II clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02915432) were retrospectively included. Univariate and multivariate logistical regression analyses and the Cox proportional hazards model were performed for prognostic value of baseline factors. Factors reflecting baseline tumor burden, including baseline lesion number (BLN), the maximum tumor size (MTS) and the sum of target lesion size (SLS) were analyzed. The objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) were compared by Chi-square test. RESULTS: In univariate analysis, high BLN was associated with poor median progression-free survival (mPFS) [1.7 months versus 3.4 months; hazard ratio (HR), 2.696, p < 0.05] and median overall survival (mOS) (3.2 months versus 7.6 months; HR, 1.997, p < 0.05), while high TMB was a positive prognostic factor. In multivariable analysis, both BLN and TMB were independent prognostic factors for mOS (BLN: HR, 2.782, p < 0.05; TMB: HR, 0.288, p < 0.05), while MTS or SLS had no association with survival. Better ORR and DCR were observed in the low BLN group (15.4% versus 5.3%, p > 0.05; 86.96% versus 54.29%, p < 0.05). When combining BLN and TMB, the best efficacy and survival were observed in the BLNlowTMBhigh group (ORR: 37.5%, DCR: 62.5%, mPFS and mOS: not reached). The worst efficacy and survival were shown in the BNLhighTMBlow group [ORR: 0% (0/15); DCR: 13.3%; mPFS: 1.7 months; mOS: 2.7 months (all p < 0.05)]. CONCLUSIONS: BLN, rather than factors regarding baseline tumor size, is perhaps a potential predictor for benefit from immunotherapy and its combination with TMB could further risk-stratify patients with AGC receiving immunotherapy.

17.
Invest New Drugs ; 39(3): 836-845, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411209

RESUMO

Background Gemcitabine plus cisplatin is regarded as the standard first-line therapy for patients with advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC); however, no standard chemotherapy has yet been recommended after treatment failure. Modified FOLFIRINOX (mFOLFIRINOX) appears to be a better-tolerated regimen, which leads to improved survival in metastatic pancreatic cancer that has histological and molecular similarities with BTC. We assessed the efficacy and safety of mFOLFIRINOX as salvage therapy in advanced BTC patients who were refractory to previous chemotherapy. Methods A total of 15 consecutive patients with documented unresectable locally advanced or metastatic BCT who received the mFOLFIRINOX regimen were included in the study. Patients were intravenously administrated with oxaliplatin (65 mg/m2), leucovorin (400 mg/m2), irinotecan (150 mg/m2), and continuous infusion of fluorouracil (2400 mg/m2) over 46 h. The objective response rates (ORR), disease control rates (DCR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and adverse events (AEs) were recorded. Results At least three cycles of mFOLFIRINOX regimen were delivered to 15 patients with a median number of 6.0 cycles (IQR 5.5-11.0). The median duration of treatment was 3.8 months (IQR 2.9-8.5). Four patients (26.7%) achieved an ORR, and 12 patients (80.0%) had a DCR. The median PFS and OS were 6.7 months (95%CI 2.3-11.1) and 13.2 months (95%CI 7.3-19.1), respectively. Five patients (33.3%) had treatment-related grade 3/4 AEs. The most common grade 3/4 AE was neutropenia (n = 3, 20.0%), while there was no occurrence of febrile neutropenia. Conclusion Treatment with mFOLFIRINOX has promising efficacy and favorable tolerance as salvage therapy in patients with refractory advanced BCT.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Salvação , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/mortalidade , Feminino , Fluoruracila/efeitos adversos , Fluoruracila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Irinotecano/efeitos adversos , Irinotecano/uso terapêutico , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucovorina/efeitos adversos , Leucovorina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Oxaliplatina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Terapia de Salvação/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Invest New Drugs ; 39(2): 516-523, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070249

RESUMO

Background The prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are still poor. Nedaplatin/paclitaxel regimen has shown activity with lower toxicity in metastatic ESCC. Recombinant human endostatin (Rh-endostatin), an inhibitor of angiogenesis, has shown inhibitory effects on ESCC xenograft. We assessed the activity and safety of Rh-endostatin plus paclitaxel/nedaplatin in patients with recurrent or metastatic advanced ESCC. Methods In this single-center, open-label, single-arm, phase II study, patients with recurrent/metastatic or unresectable advanced ESCC were recruited. Eligible patients received the multidrug combination therapy with Rh-endostatin (30 mg/day on days 1-14), paclitaxel (150 mg/m2 on day 4) and nedaplatin (80 mg/m2 on day 4) every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. Secondary endpoints included objective response rate, disease control rate, overall survival. Results Between Jan 29, 2015 and Dec 31, 2019, 53 patients were enrolled and received at least one dose of Rh-endostatin. Median progression-free survival was 5.1 months (95% CI: 3.7-6.6), with a 6 month progression-free survival of 41% (95% CI: 25-56). Median overall survival was 13.2 months (95% CI: 8.0-18.4), with a 1-year overall survival of 51% (95% CI: 36-67). 21 (42%, 95% CI: 28-56) of 50 patients had an objective response and 35 (70.00%, 95% CI: 57-83) had a disease control. Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or worse were reported in 13 (24.5%) patients. The most common grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events were neutropenia (9 patients [17%]) and anaemia (2 [3.8%]). No treatment-related death occurred. Conclusions Rh-endostatin plus paclitaxel/nedaplatin has anti-tumour activity with acceptable tolerability in patients with recurrent or metastatic advanced ESCC. Randomized controlled trial is needed to confirm the efficacy of this regimen.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Endostatinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Endostatinas/administração & dosagem , Endostatinas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Compostos Organoplatínicos/uso terapêutico , Paclitaxel/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Mol Cancer ; 19(1): 172, 2020 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317550

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (CircRNAs) are single-stranded, covalently closed RNA molecules that are ubiquitous across species ranging from viruses to mammals. Important advances have been made in the biogenesis, regulation, localization, degradation and modification of circRNAs. CircRNAs exert biological functions by acting as transcriptional regulators, microRNA (miR) sponges and protein templates. Moreover, emerging evidence has revealed that a group of circRNAs can serve as protein decoys, scaffolds and recruiters. However, the existing research on circRNA-protein interactions is quite limited. Hence, in this review, we briefly summarize recent progress in the metabolism and functions of circRNAs and elaborately discuss the patterns of circRNA-protein interactions, including altering interactions between proteins, tethering or sequestering proteins, recruiting proteins to chromatin, forming circRNA-protein-mRNA ternary complexes and translocating or redistributing proteins. Many discoveries have revealed that circRNAs have unique expression signatures and play crucial roles in a variety of diseases, enabling them to potentially act as diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets. This review systematically evaluates the roles and mechanisms of circRNAs, with the hope of advancing translational medicine involving circRNAs.


Assuntos
Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA Circular/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatina/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Estabilidade de RNA/genética , RNA Circular/biossíntese , RNA Circular/genética , Transcrição Genética
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