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1.
BMJ ; 368: l6669, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915124

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine how a healthy lifestyle is related to life expectancy that is free from major chronic diseases. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The Nurses' Health Study (1980-2014; n=73 196) and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986-2014; n=38 366). MAIN EXPOSURES: Five low risk lifestyle factors: never smoking, body mass index 18.5-24.9, moderate to vigorous physical activity (≥30 minutes/day), moderate alcohol intake (women: 5-15 g/day; men 5-30 g/day), and a higher diet quality score (upper 40%). MAIN OUTCOME: Life expectancy free of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. RESULTS: The life expectancy free of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer at age 50 was 23.7 years (95% confidence interval 22.6 to 24.7) for women who adopted no low risk lifestyle factors, in contrast to 34.4 years (33.1 to 35.5) for women who adopted four or five low risk factors. At age 50, the life expectancy free of any of these chronic diseases was 23.5 (22.3 to 24.7) years among men who adopted no low risk lifestyle factors and 31.1 (29.5 to 32.5) years in men who adopted four or five low risk lifestyle factors. For current male smokers who smoked heavily (≥15 cigarettes/day) or obese men and women (body mass index ≥30), their disease-free life expectancies accounted for the lowest proportion (≤75%) of total life expectancy at age 50. CONCLUSION: Adherence to a healthy lifestyle at mid-life is associated with a longer life expectancy free of major chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estilo de Vida Saudável/fisiologia , Expectativa de Vida , Neoplasias , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/psicologia , Pesquisa em Enfermagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar
2.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sulfur-metabolizing microbes, which convert dietary sources of sulfur into genotoxic hydrogen sulfide (H2S), have been associated with development of colorectal cancer (CRC). We identified a dietary pattern associated with sulfur-metabolizing bacteria in stool and then investigated its association with risk of incident CRC using data from a large prospective study of men. METHODS: We collected data from 51,529 men enrolled in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, since 1986, to determine the association between sulfur-metabolizing bacteria in stool and risk of CRC over 26 years of follow up. First, in a subcohort of 307 healthy men, we profiled serial stool metagenomes and meta-transcriptomes and assessed diet using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires to identify food groups associated with 43 bacterial species involved in sulfur metabolism. We used these data to develop a sulfur microbial dietary score. We then used Cox proportional hazards modeling to evaluate adherence to this pattern among eligible individuals (n=48,246) from 1986 through 2012 with risk for incident CRC. RESULTS: Foods associated with higher sulfur microbial diet scores included increased consumption of processed meats and low-calorie drinks and lower consumption of vegetables and legumes. Increased sulfur microbial diet scores were associated with risk of distal colon and rectal cancers, after adjusting for other risk factors (multivariable relative risk, highest vs lowest quartile, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.14-1.81; Ptrend=.002). In contrast, sulfur microbial diet scores were not associated with risk of proximal colon cancer (multivariable relative risk, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.65-1.14; Ptrend=.31]. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of participants in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, we found that long-term adherence to a dietary pattern associated with sulfur-metabolizing bacteria in stool was associated with an increased risk of distal CRC. Further studies are needed to determine how sulfur-metabolizing bacteria might contribute to CRC pathogenesis.

3.
JAMA ; 322(12): 1178-1187, 2019 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550032

RESUMO

Importance: Changes in the economy, nutrition policies, and food processing methods can affect dietary macronutrient intake and diet quality. It is essential to evaluate trends in dietary intake, food sources, and diet quality to inform policy makers. Objective: To investigate trends in dietary macronutrient intake, food sources, and diet quality among US adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: Serial cross-sectional analysis of the US nationally representative 24-hour dietary recall data from 9 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles (1999-2016) among adults aged 20 years or older. Exposure: Survey cycle. Main Outcomes and Measures: Dietary intake of macronutrients and their subtypes, food sources, and the Healthy Eating Index 2015 (range, 0-100; higher scores indicate better diet quality; a minimal clinically important difference has not been defined). Results: There were 43 996 respondents (weighted mean age, 46.9 years; 51.9% women). From 1999 to 2016, the estimated energy from total carbohydrates declined from 52.5% to 50.5% (difference, -2.02%; 95% CI, -2.41% to -1.63%), whereas that of total protein and total fat increased from 15.5% to 16.4% (difference, 0.82%; 95% CI, 0.67%-0.97%) and from 32.0% to 33.2% (difference, 1.20%; 95% CI, 0.84%-1.55%), respectively (all P < .001 for trend). Estimated energy from low-quality carbohydrates decreased by 3.25% (95% CI, 2.74%-3.75%; P < .001 for trend) from 45.1% to 41.8%. Increases were observed in estimated energy from high-quality carbohydrates (by 1.23% [95% CI, 0.84%-1.61%] from 7.42% to 8.65%), plant protein (by 0.38% [95% CI, 0.28%-0.49%] from 5.38% to 5.76%), saturated fatty acids (by 0.36% [95% CI, 0.20%-0.51%] from 11.5% to 11.9%), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (by 0.65% [95% CI, 0.56%-0.74%] from 7.58% to 8.23%) (all P < .001 for trend). The estimated overall Healthy Eating Index 2015 increased from 55.7 to 57.7 (difference, 2.01; 95% CI, 0.86-3.16; P < .001 for trend). Trends in high- and low-quality carbohydrates primarily reflected higher estimated energy from whole grains (0.65%) and reduced estimated energy from added sugars (-2.00%), respectively. Trends in plant protein were predominantly due to higher estimated intake of whole grains (0.12%) and nuts (0.09%). Conclusions and Relevance: From 1999 to 2016, US adults experienced a significant decrease in percentage of energy intake from low-quality carbohydrates and significant increases in percentage of energy intake from high-quality carbohydrates, plant protein, and polyunsaturated fat. Despite improvements in macronutrient composition and diet quality, continued high intake of low-quality carbohydrates and saturated fat remained.


Assuntos
Dieta/tendências , Carboidratos da Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 63(17): e1900140, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291050

RESUMO

SCOPE: The relationship between red wine (RW) consumption and metabolism is poorly understood. It is aimed to assess the systemic metabolomic profiles in relation to frequent RW consumption as well as the ability of a set of metabolites to discriminate RW consumers. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cross-sectional analysis of 1157 participants is carried out. Subjects are divided as non-RW consumers versus RW consumers (>1 glass per day RW [100 mL per day]). Plasma metabolomics analysis is performed using LC-MS. Associations between 386 identified metabolites and RW consumption are assessed using elastic net regression analysis taking into consideration baseline significant covariates. Ten-cross-validation (CV) is performed and receiver operating characteristic curves are constructed in each of the validation datasets based on weighted models. A subset of 13 metabolites is consistently selected and RW consumers versus nonconsumers are discriminated. Based on the multi-metabolite model weighted with the regression coefficients of metabolites, the area under the curve is 0.83 (95% CI: 0.80-0.86). These metabolites mainly consisted of lipid species, some organic acids, and alkaloids. CONCLUSIONS: A multi-metabolite model identified in a Mediterranean population appears useful to discriminate between frequent RW consumers and nonconsumers. Further studies are needed to assess the contribution of these metabolites in health and disease.

5.
J Nutr ; 149(6): 1065-1074, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The preventable premature mortality achievable by improvement in dietary quality at a global level is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess dietary quality globally, and to quantify the potential global impact of improving dietary quality on population health. METHODS: We applied the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI, potential range 0-100) to a global dietary database to assess dietary quality among adults in 190 countries/territories. The relation of AHEI score to risks of major chronic disease was estimated from 2 large cohorts of men and women for whom many repeated dietary assessments during up to 30 years were available. We calculated the preventable premature deaths achievable by shifting from current national diets to a reference healthy diet. RESULTS: The global mean AHEI score in 2017 was 49.5 for males and 50.5 for females. Large differences between current and target intakes existed for whole grains, sodium, long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, and fruits. From 1990 to 2017, the global mean AHEI score increased modestly from 45.4 to 50.0. Diet quality varied substantially across the world. Coastal Mediterranean nations, the Caribbean region, and Eastern Asia (except China and Mongolia) had a higher AHEI score, whereas Central Asia, the South Pacific, and Eastern and Northern Europe had a lower score. An improvement in dietary quality from the current global diet to the reference healthy diet could prevent >11 million premature deaths, ∼24% of total deaths in 2017. These included 1.6 million cancer deaths, 3.9 million coronary artery disease deaths, 1.0 million stroke deaths, 1.7 million respiratory disease deaths, 0.4 million neurodegenerative disease deaths, 0.5 million kidney disease deaths, 0.6 million diabetes deaths, and 1.2 million digestive disease deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Global dietary quality is slowly improving, but remains far from optimal and varies across countries. Improvements in dietary quality have the potential to reduce mortality rates substantially.

6.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(7): 540-548, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have used nationally representative data to describe dietary trends and the related cardiometabolic mortality burden in China. Thus, we aimed to characterise the trends in disease-related dietary factors as well as their associated disease burden among Chinese adults from 1982 to 2012. METHODS: For this cross-sectional population-based study, we analysed a nationally representative sample of 204 802 adults aged 20 years or older, using data from the 1982, 1992, 2002, and 2010-12 China National Nutrition Surveys (CNNS). We did a comparative risk assessment, in which the effects of suboptimal intakes of 12 dietary factors, individually and collectively, on cardiometabolic mortality were estimated by calculating the population attributable fraction (PAF) to estimate the proportional reduction in cardiometabolic deaths that would occur if exposure to each dietary risk factor was reduced to an alternative optimal level. FINDINGS: The overall PAF of mortality from cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes that was associated with suboptimal dietary quality was 62·2% in 1982, 57·9% in 1992, 56·2% in 2002, and 51·0% in 2010-12, which accounted for 21·6% of total mortality in China in 1982, 16·6% in 1992, 17·6% in 2002, and 20·8% in 2010-12. The estimated number of cardiometabolic deaths associated with suboptimal dietary intakes was 1·07 million in 1982, 0·93 million in 1992, 1·18 million in 2002, and 1·51 million in 2010-12. Of all 12 dietary factors examined, high sodium intake (17·3%), low fruit consumption (11·5%), and low marine omega-3 fatty acids (9·7%) were associated with the largest numbers of estimated cardiometabolic deaths in 2010-12. INTERPRETATION: We observed an improvement in several dietary factors in China in the past few decades. However, current intakes of these dietary factors remain suboptimal. Poor diet quality is estimated to be associated with a substantial proportion of deaths from heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in China. FUNDING: Ministry of Health, China, and Ministry of Science and Technology, China.

7.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(16): 2046-2048, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023427
8.
Neurology ; 92(18): e2089-e2100, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926684

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify prediagnostic plasma metabolomic biomarkers associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: We conducted a global metabolomic study using a nested case-control study design within 5 prospective cohorts and identified 275 individuals who developed ALS during follow-up. We profiled plasma metabolites using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and identified 404 known metabolites. We used conditional logistic regression to evaluate the associations between metabolites and ALS risk. Further, we used machine learning analyses to determine whether the prediagnostic metabolomic profile could discriminate ALS cases from controls. RESULTS: A total of 31 out of 404 identified metabolites were associated with ALS risk (p < 0.05). We observed inverse associations (n = 27) with plasma levels of diacylglycerides and triacylglycerides, urate, purine nucleosides, and some organic acids and derivatives, while we found positive associations for a cholesteryl ester, 2 phosphatidylcholines, and a sphingomyelin. The number of significant associations increased to 67 (63 inverse) in analyses restricted to cases with blood samples collected within 5 years of onset. None of these associations remained significant after multiple comparison adjustment. Further, we were not able to reliably distinguish individuals who became cases from controls based on their metabolomic profile using partial least squares discriminant analysis, elastic net regression, random forest, support vector machine, or weighted correlation network analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Although the metabolomic profile in blood samples collected years before ALS diagnosis did not reliably separate presymptomatic ALS cases from controls, our results suggest that ALS is preceded by a broad, but poorly defined, metabolic dysregulation years before the disease onset.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Metaboloma , Adulto , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/sangue , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco
9.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(5): 1508-1519, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30423132

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The potential associations between acylcarnitine profiles and incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and whether acylcarnitines can be used to improve diabetes prediction remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations between baseline and 1-year changes in acylcarnitines and their diabetes predictive ability beyond traditional risk factors. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We designed a case-cohort study within the PREDIMED Study including all incident cases of T2D (n = 251) and 694 randomly selected participants at baseline (follow-up, 3.8 years). Plasma acylcarnitines were measured using a targeted approach by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. We tested the associations between baseline and 1-year changes in individual acylcarnitines and T2D risk using weighted Cox regression models. We used elastic net regressions to select acylcarnitines for T2D prediction and compute a weighted score using a cross-validation approach. RESULTS: An acylcarnitine profile, especially including short- and long-chain acylcarnitines, was significantly associated with a higher risk of T2D independent of traditional risk factors. The relative risks of T2D per SD increment of the predictive model scores were 4.03 (95% CI, 3.00 to 5.42; P < 0.001) for the conventional model and 4.85 (95% CI, 3.65 to 6.45; P < 0.001) for the model including acylcarnitines, with a hazard ratio of 1.33 (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.63; P < 0.001) attributed to the acylcarnitines. Including the acylcarnitines into the model did not significantly improve the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (0.86 to 0.88, P = 0.61). A 1-year increase in C4OH-carnitine was associated with higher risk of T2D [per SD increment, 1.44 (1.03 to 2.01)]. CONCLUSIONS: An acylcarnitine profile, mainly including short- and long-chain acylcarnitines, was significantly associated with higher T2D risk in participants at high cardiovascular risk. The inclusion of acylcarnitines into the model did not significantly improve the T2D prediction C-statistics beyond traditional risk factors, including fasting glucose.

10.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 21(2): 397-401, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30146690

RESUMO

The associations between arginine-based metabolites and incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) are unknown. We employed a case-cohort design, nested within the PREDIMED trial, to examine six plasma metabolites (arginine, citrulline, ornithine, asymmetric dimethylarginine [ADMA], symmetric dimethylarginine [SDMA] and N-monomethyl-l-arginine [NMMA]) among 892 individuals (251 cases) for associations with incident T2D and insulin resistance. Weighted Cox models with robust variance were used. The 1-year changes in arginine (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] per SD 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49, 0.95; Q4 vs. Q1 0.46, 95% CI 0.21, 1.04; P trend = 0.02) and arginine/ADMA ratio (adjusted HR per SD 0.73, 95% CI 0.51, 1.04; Q4 vs. Q1 0.52, 95% CI 0.22, 1.25; P trend = 0.04) were associated with a lower risk of T2D. Positive changes of citrulline and ornithine, and negative changes in SDMA and arginine/(ornithine + citrulline) were associated with concurrent 1-year changes in homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Individuals in the low-fat-diet group had a higher risk of T2D for 1-year changes in NMMA than individuals in Mediterranean-diet groups (P interaction = 0.02). We conclude that arginine bioavailability is important in T2D pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Arginina/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Arginina/análogos & derivados , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citrulina/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Mediterrânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ornitina/sangue , Fatores de Risco , ômega-N-Metilarginina/sangue
11.
Int J Epidemiol ; 47(6): 1830-1845, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30428039

RESUMO

Background: Perturbed lipid metabolic pathways may play important roles in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, existing epidemiological studies have focused more on discovering individual lipid metabolites for CVD risk prediction rather than assessing metabolic pathways. Methods: This study included a subcohort of 787 participants and all 230 incident CVD cases from the PREDIMED trial. Applying a network-based analytical method, we identified lipid subnetworks and clusters from a global network of 200 lipid metabolites and linked these subnetworks/clusters to CVD risk. Results: Lipid metabolites with more double bonds clustered within one subnetwork, whereas lipid metabolites with fewer double bonds clustered within other subnetworks. We identified 10 lipid clusters that were divergently associated with CVD risk. The hazard ratios [HRs, 95% confidence interval (CI)] of CVD per a 1-standard deviation (SD) increment in cluster score were 1.39 (1.17-1.66) for the hydroxylated phosphatidylcholine (HPC) cluster and 1.24 (1.11-1.37) for a cluster that included diglycerides and a monoglyceride with stearic acyl chain. Every 1-SD increase in the score of cluster that included highly unsaturated phospholipids and cholesterol esters was associated with an HR for CVD of 0.81 (95% CI, 0.67-0.98). Despite a suggestion that MedDiet modified the association between a subnetwork that included most lipids with a high degree of unsaturation and CVD, changes in lipid subnetworks/clusters during the first-year follow-up were not significantly different between intervention groups. Conclusions: The degree of unsaturation was a major determinant of the architecture of lipid metabolic network. Lipid clusters that strongly predicted CVD risk, such as the HPC cluster, warrant further functional investigations.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta Mediterrânea , Lipídeos/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
12.
J Nutr ; 148(11): 1821-1829, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30247611

RESUMO

Background: The relation between dietary fat intake and body weight remains controversial. Few studies have examined long-term changes in types of dietary fat and weight change in longitudinal studies. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine associations between intake of different types of fat and long-term weight change in US women and men. Methods: The association between changes in consumption of varying types of fat and weight change was examined every 4 y through the use of multivariate models adjusted for age, baseline body mass index, and change in percentage energy from protein, intake of cereal fiber, fruits, and vegetables, alcohol use, and other lifestyle covariates in 3 prospective US cohorts, including 121,335 men and women free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, or obesity over a 20- to 24-y follow-up. Dietary intakes and body weight were assessed via validated questionnaires. Cohort-specific results were pooled with the use of a random-effect meta-analysis. Results: Compared with equivalent changes in carbohydrate intake, a 5% increase in energy from saturated fatty acid (SFA) and a 1% increase in energy from trans-fat were associated with 0.61 kg (95% CI: 0.54, 0.68 kg) and 0.69 kg (95% CI: 0.56, 0.84 kg) greater weight gain per 4-y period, respectively. A 5% increase in energy from polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) was associated with less weight gain (-0.55 kg; 95% CI: -0.81, -0.29 kg). Increased intake of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) from animal sources by 1% was associated with weight gain of 0.29 kg (95% CI: 0.25, 0.33 kg), whereas MUFA from plant sources was not associated with weight gain. Conclusions: Different dietary fats have divergent associations with long-term weight change in US men and women. Replacing saturated and trans-fats with unsaturated fats, especially PUFAs, contributes to the prevention of age-related weight gain. These trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005152 and NCT00005182.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Gorduras na Dieta/classificação , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30103933

RESUMO

Epidemiologists have been studying the effect of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) intake on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) for many decades. Abundant evidence from prospective studies on the clinical endpoints of CVD, including cohort studies measuring n-6 PUFA intake by food frequency questionnaires and nested case-control studies using biomarkers of intake level, strongly support that higher intakes of n-6 PUFAs are associated with a lower risk of CVD. Furthermore, a significant reduction in CVD risk can be achieved when saturated fatty acids (SFAs) is replaced by n-6 PUFAs. Evidence from appropriately designed and vigorously executed randomized controlled trials support that high-PUFA (predominantly linoleic acid) and low-SFA diets, compared to high-SFA diets, reduced the risk of coronary heart disease. Overall, epidemiologic studies provide a solid evidence base of the current dietary guidelines that recommend replacing SFA by PUFA, both n-6 and n-3 PUFA, for CVD prevention.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Política Nutricional , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
14.
Circulation ; 138(4): 345-355, 2018 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29712712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Americans have a shorter life expectancy compared with residents of almost all other high-income countries. We aim to estimate the impact of lifestyle factors on premature mortality and life expectancy in the US population. METHODS: Using data from the Nurses' Health Study (1980-2014; n=78 865) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2014, n=44 354), we defined 5 low-risk lifestyle factors as never smoking, body mass index of 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2, ≥30 min/d of moderate to vigorous physical activity, moderate alcohol intake, and a high diet quality score (upper 40%), and estimated hazard ratios for the association of total lifestyle score (0-5 scale) with mortality. We used data from the NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys; 2013-2014) to estimate the distribution of the lifestyle score and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention WONDER database to derive the age-specific death rates of Americans. We applied the life table method to estimate life expectancy by levels of the lifestyle score. RESULTS: During up to 34 years of follow-up, we documented 42 167 deaths. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for mortality in adults with 5 compared with zero low-risk factors were 0.26 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22-0.31) for all-cause mortality, 0.35 (95% CI, 0.27-0.45) for cancer mortality, and 0.18 (95% CI, 0.12-0.26) for cardiovascular disease mortality. The population-attributable risk of nonadherence to 5 low-risk factors was 60.7% (95% CI, 53.6-66.7) for all-cause mortality, 51.7% (95% CI, 37.1-62.9) for cancer mortality, and 71.7% (95% CI, 58.1-81.0) for cardiovascular disease mortality. We estimated that the life expectancy at age 50 years was 29.0 years (95% CI, 28.3-29.8) for women and 25.5 years (95% CI, 24.7-26.2) for men who adopted zero low-risk lifestyle factors. In contrast, for those who adopted all 5 low-risk factors, we projected a life expectancy at age 50 years of 43.1 years (95% CI, 41.3-44.9) for women and 37.6 years (95% CI, 35.8-39.4) for men. The projected life expectancy at age 50 years was on average 14.0 years (95% CI, 11.8-16.2) longer among female Americans with 5 low-risk factors compared with those with zero low-risk factors; for men, the difference was 12.2 years (95% CI, 10.1-14.2). CONCLUSIONS: Adopting a healthy lifestyle could substantially reduce premature mortality and prolong life expectancy in US adults.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Expectativa de Vida , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Causas de Morte , Bases de Dados Factuais , Exercício , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Diabetologia ; 61(7): 1560-1571, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29663011

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and aromatic amino acids (AAAs) are associated with type 2 diabetes. However, repeated measurements of BCAA/AAA and their interactions with dietary interventions have not been evaluated. We investigated the associations between baseline and changes at 1 year in BCAA/AAA with type 2 diabetes in the context of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) trial. METHODS: We included 251 participants with incident type 2 diabetes and a random sample of 694 participants (641 participants without type 2 diabetes and 53 overlapping cases) in a case-cohort study nested within the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial. Participants were randomised to a MedDiet+extra-virgin olive oil (n = 273), a MedDiet+nuts (n = 324) or a control diet (n = 295). We used LC-MS/MS to measure plasma levels of amino acids. Type 2 diabetes was a pre-specified secondary outcome of the PREDIMED trial. RESULTS: Elevated plasma levels of individual BCAAs/AAAs were associated with higher type 2 diabetes risk after a median follow-up of 3.8 years: multivariable HR for the highest vs lowest quartile ranged from 1.32 for phenylalanine ([95% CI 0.90, 1.92], p for trend = 0.015) to 3.29 for leucine ([95% CI 2.03, 5.34], p for trend<0.001). Increases in BCAA score at 1 year were associated with higher type 2 diabetes risk in the control group with HR per SD = 1.61 (95% CI 1.02, 2.54), but not in the MedDiet groups (p for interaction <0.001). The MedDiet+extra-virgin olive oil significantly reduced BCAA levels after 1 year of intervention (p = 0.005 vs the control group). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our results support that higher baseline BCAAs and their increases at 1 year were associated with higher type 2 diabetes risk. A Mediterranean diet rich in extra-virgin olive oil significantly reduced the levels of BCAA and attenuated the positive association between plasma BCAA levels and type 2 diabetes incidence. Clinical trial number: SRCTN35739639 ( www.controlled-trials.com ).


Assuntos
Aminoácidos Aromáticos/sangue , Aminoácidos de Cadeia Ramificada/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Dieta Mediterrânea , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nozes , Azeite de Oliva , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Regulação para Cima
17.
Circulation ; 137(8): 841-853, 2018 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although metabolomic profiling offers promise for the prediction of coronary heart disease (CHD), and metabolic risk factors are more strongly associated with CHD in women than men, limited data are available for women. METHODS: We applied a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry metabolomics platform to measure 371 metabolites in a discovery set of postmenopausal women (472 incident CHD cases, 472 controls) with validation in an independent set of postmenopausal women (312 incident CHD cases, 315 controls). RESULTS: Eight metabolites, primarily oxidized lipids, were significantly dysregulated in cases after the adjustment for matching and CHD risk factors in both the discovery and validation data sets. One oxidized phospholipid, C34:2 hydroxy-phosphatidylcholine, remained associated with CHD after further adjustment for other validated metabolites. Subjects with C34:2 hydroxy-phosphatidylcholine levels in the highest quartile had a 4.7-fold increase in CHD odds in comparison with the lowest quartile; C34:2 hydroxy-phosphatidylcholine also significantly improved the area under the curve (P<0.01) for CHD. The C34:2 hydroxy-phosphatidylcholine findings were replicated in a third replication data set of 980 men and women (230 cardiovascular events) with a stronger association observed in women. CONCLUSIONS: These data replicate known metabolite predictors, identify novel markers, and support the relationship between lipid oxidation and subsequent CHD.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Metabolômica , Fosfatidilcolinas/sangue , Idoso , Cromatografia Líquida , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 6(5): 416-426, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29433995

RESUMO

Precision nutrition aims to prevent and manage chronic diseases by tailoring dietary interventions or recommendations to one or a combination of an individual's genetic background, metabolic profile, and environmental exposures. Recent advances in genomics, metabolomics, and gut microbiome technologies have offered opportunities as well as challenges in the use of precision nutrition to prevent and manage type 2 diabetes. Nutrigenomics studies have identified genetic variants that influence intake and metabolism of specific nutrients and predict individuals' variability in response to dietary interventions. Metabolomics has revealed metabolomic fingerprints of food and nutrient consumption and uncovered new metabolic pathways that are potentially modified by diet. Dietary interventions have been successful in altering abundance, composition, and activity of gut microbiota that are relevant for food metabolism and glycaemic control. In addition, mobile apps and wearable devices facilitate real-time assessment of dietary intake and provide feedback which can improve glycaemic control and diabetes management. By integrating these technologies with big data analytics, precision nutrition has the potential to provide personalised nutrition guidance for more effective prevention and management of type 2 diabetes. Despite these technological advances, much research is needed before precision nutrition can be widely used in clinical and public health settings. Currently, the field of precision nutrition faces challenges including a lack of robust and reproducible results, the high cost of omics technologies, and methodological issues in study design as well as high-dimensional data analyses and interpretation. Evidence is needed to support the efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and additional benefits of precision nutrition beyond traditional nutrition intervention approaches. Therefore, we should manage unrealistically high expectations and balance the emerging field of precision nutrition with public health nutrition strategies to improve diet quality and prevent type 2 diabetes and its complications.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Metabolômica , Nutrigenômica , Terapia Nutricional/tendências , Medicina de Precisão/tendências
19.
Int J Cardiol ; 253: 126-132, 2018 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29306452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study of the plasma lipidome may help to better characterize molecular mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease. The identification of new lipid biomarkers could provide future targets for prevention and innovative therapeutic approaches. In the frame of the PREDIMED trial, our aim was to examine the associations of baseline lipidome patterns or their changes with the risk of clinical CVD events. METHODS: We included 983 participants in our case-cohort study. The end-point was the incidence of major CVD during 4.8years of median follow-up. We repeatedly measured 202 plasma known lipid metabolites at baseline and after 1-year of intervention. Principal component analysis was used to identify lipidome factors. Among the 15 identified factors, 7 were significantly associated with CVD. Considering common patterns among factors, lipids were grouped (summed) into scores. RESULTS: After adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors, scores of baseline polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines (PC)/lysoPC/PC-plasmalogens and polyunsaturated cholesterol esters (CE) showed inverse associations with CVD (p=0.036 and 0.012, respectively); whereas scores of monoacylglycerols (MAGs)/diacylglycerols (DAGs) and short triacylglycerols (TAGs) showed a direct association with CVD (p=0.026 and 0.037, respectively). Baseline phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs) and their 1-y changes tended to be associated with higher CVD risk (p=0.066 and 0.081, respectively). We did not find a significant effect of the intervention with the Mediterranean Diet on these scores. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that polyunsaturated PCs and CEs may confer protection against CVD. In contrast, MAGs, DAGs, TAGs and PEs appeared to be associated with higher CVD risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Ésteres do Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Mediterrânea , Fosfatidilcolinas/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nozes , Azeite de Oliva/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Risco
20.
Diabetes Care ; 40(12): 1685-1694, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29046327

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the secular trends in risk factors, estimate their impact on type 2 diabetes burden from 1991 to 2011, and project trends in the next 20 years. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Risk factor distributions were based on data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 1991-2011. Diabetes cases attributable to all nonoptimal levels of each risk factor were estimated by applying the comparative risk assessment method. RESULTS: In 2011, high BMI was the leading individual attributable factor for diabetes cases in China responsible for 43.8 million diabetes cases with a population-attributable fraction of 46.8%. Low whole-grain intake and high refined grain intake were the leading dietary risk factors in China responsible for 37.8 million and 21.8 million diabetes-attributable cases, respectively. The number of attributable diabetes cases associated with low physical activity, high blood pressure, and current smoking was 29.5, 21.6, and 9.8 million, respectively. Although intakes of low-fat dairy products, nuts, fruit, vegetables, and fish and seafood increased moderately over time, the average intake was below optimal levels in 2011 and were responsible for 15.8, 11.3, 9.9, 6.0, 3.6, and 2.6 million diabetes cases, respectively. Meanwhile, intakes of processed meat, red meat, and sugar-sweetened beverage showed increasing trends over time and were responsible for 2.8, 1.8, and 0.5 million diabetes cases, respectively, in 2011. CONCLUSIONS: A high BMI and low intake of whole grains but high intake of refined grains are the most important individual risk factors related to Chinese diabetes burden; low physical activity and high blood pressure also significantly contributed.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bebidas , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Laticínios , Exercício , Feminino , Seguimentos , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Produtos da Carne , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adoçantes Calóricos/administração & dosagem , Nozes , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
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