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1.
Virology ; 539: 92-103, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706164

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) has been reported to counteract the innate immune responses through interfering with the pattern recognition receptors signaling activated by retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS). Here, we showed that, compared to the HBx derived from genotype (gt) A, C and D, HBx of gtB exhibited more potent inhibitory activity on the RIG-I-MAVS-mediated interferon-ß promoter activation. Functional analysis of the genotype-associated differences in amino acid sequence and the reciprocal mutation experiments in transient-transfection and infection cell models revealed that HBx with asparagine (N) and glutamic acid (E) at 118-119 positions inhibited RIG-I signaling and interacted with MAVS more efficiently than that with lysine (K) and aspartic acid (D). An impaired RIG-I-induced MAVS aggregation was observed in the presence of HBx-118N119E while MAVS-TRAF3 interaction was not affected. These results implicated that HBx gene heterogeneity may affect the innate immune responses to HBV infection.

2.
Food Chem ; 308: 125569, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644967

RESUMO

In this study, the solubility of phloretin (PT) was enhanced via steviol glycoside (STE)-based micelle (MC) and solid dispersion (SD). Computer simulation, characterization, interaction with serum albumin (SA) and in vitro release were carried out to investigate the solubilization mechanisms and the difference in their solubilization capacities. For PT-loaded MC (STE-PT MC), PT was encapsulated into the hydrophobic core of a spherical micelle with a droplet diameter of 5 nm. For PT-loaded SD (STE-PT SD), PT was completely dispersed with the amorphous state in STE. Most of those PTs were directly dissolved in water, and few were encapsulated by STE micelles. The amorphous state combined with relatively large micelles contributed to the high solubilization capacity of STE-PT SD. In addition, PT of STE-PT SD exhibited a higher dissolution rate and more effective interaction with SA than that of STE-PT MC. No undesirable chemical interaction between PT and STE occurred.

3.
Int Health ; 11(S1): S33-S44, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the popularization of smartphones in China, the conditions of smartphone use (SU) and problematic smartphone use (PSU) among migrant workers are unknown. This study explored the patterns and influencing factors of SU and PSU in migrant workers in Shanghai, China. Furthermore, the mediation effects of PSU in the link between SU and some psychological factors were also examined. METHODS: Questionnaires containing the Mobile Phone Addiction Index, Patient Health Questionnaire, World Health Organization Five-item Well-being Index and other items, including demographics, sleep quality, job stress and SU, were distributed to 2330 migrant workers by trained investigators in six districts of Shanghai from June to September 2018. RESULTS: Of the 2129 returned questionnaires, 2115 were valid. SU and PSU varied according to certain demographics. Many demographics, psychological factors, sleep quality and main smartphone applications were influencing factors for SU and PSU. PSU played a mediating role in the link between daily SU time and psychological factors, including depression, mental health and job stress. CONCLUSIONS: The health influences of SU and PSU on migrant workers in Shanghai merit significant attention. Additionally, it is necessary to develop and target intervention strategies according to the workers' various characteristics and SU patterns.

4.
Int Health ; 11(S1): S24-S32, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to the 2017 China National Education Development Statistics Bulletin, there were 14.07 million rural-urban migrant children in the compulsory education stage. The mental health of migrant children in China has drawn increasing attention in research. The objective of this study was to compare subjective well-being, self-esteem, prosocial behaviour and family functioning of migrant children vs local children in Shanghai and to explore their relationship. METHODS: A survey was conducted among 2229 students (9-17 y of age; male 52.0%, female 48.0%) and their parents from grades 4 to 8 in four primary schools and four middle schools in Shanghai in 2016. The sample consisted of 1333 migrant children and 896 urban children in three migrant schools and five public schools. A total of 959 rural-urban migrant children and 374 urban hukou migrant children were recruited. The questionnaire for students included the Personal Well-Being Index - School Children (PWI-SC), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Family APGAR Index and prosocial behaviour domain of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. In the questionnaire for parents, the Personal Well-Being Index and Social Support Rating Scale were used in addition to the sociodemographic characteristics. These data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance, correlation analysis and multiple linear regression. RESULTS: Rural-urban migrant children reported significantly lower PWI-SC, SWLS, positive affect, prosocial behaviour, self-esteem and Family APGAR Index scores and reported higher negative affect scores than local children (p<0.01). The prevalence rate of abnormal prosocial behaviour among rural-urban migrant children was 10%, which was higher than that of local children (5.9%; p<0.001). Compared with rural-urban migrant children in public schools, the SWLS, prosocial behaviour and Family APGAR Index scores of the children in migrant schools were higher and the prevalence rate of abnormal prosocial behaviour was lower (p<0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that the self-esteem and Family APGAR Index had predictive effects on subjective well-being and prosocial behaviour scores of rural-urban migrant children. CONCLUSIONS: Rural-urban migrant children are susceptible to mental health problems. Additional public policy and interventions by practitioners are needed to support rural-urban migrant children.

5.
Int Health ; 11(S1): S45-S54, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2018 to investigate the mental health status of internal migrant workers (IMWs) in Shanghai to understand basic information and the mental health status of IMWs. METHODS: The total number of IMWs in the study was 4793 and 4648 questionnaires were valid. We used χ2 test, t test, analysis of variance, linear regression and logistic regression to analyse the data. RESULTS: Mental health, represented by the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire score (≥10), was significantly correlated with self-rated income-expenditure status, living with family, job type and alcohol use. The total depression prevalence of IMWs in this study was 20.1%. Subjective well-being (SWB) was significantly correlated with marital status, educational attainment, self-reported income-expenditure status, living with family and job type. Those who were female, had a high school education or above, self-reported inadequate income, did not live with family, had poor self-rated health and had moderate or severe depression were more likely to have lower SWB. Promoting the mental health of IMWs also benefited their physical health. CONCLUSIONS: Chinese migrant workers who were younger, had insufficient self-rated income, had worse self-reported health, used alcohol and were unmarried had a high risk of mental health disorders.

6.
J Mol Model ; 25(12): 351, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748907

RESUMO

The binary and ternary complexes composed of GeH3F, AsH2F and ring compounds (benzene, borazine and cyclopentadienyl anion) have been studied by theoretical calculations to understand the interplay between the tetrel bond and pnicogen bond interactions. The bonding strength of intermolecular interactions in these complexes is analyzed by means of atoms in molecules (AIM), natural bond orbital (NBO) and noncovalent interaction (NCI) index methods. The binary tetrel-bonded and pnicogen-bonded complexes can be classified as an n-type or π-type complex according to the orbital interactions involved in the complexes. Three binding modes can be distinguished according to the interplay between interactions for the ternary complexes. The binding mode A is characterized by the interplay between π-type tetrel bond and n-type pnicogen bond; binding mode B is characterized by the interplay between π-type pnicogen bond and n-type tetrel bond, and binding mode C is characterized by the interplay between π-type tetrel bond and π-type pnicogen bond. The binding modes A and B exhibit the synergistic interplay effect, while the antagonistic effect is reflected in mode C. The synergistic effect in binding modes A and B is stronger than antagonistic effect in mode C, and the synergistic effect in binding mode B is stronger than that in mode A.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I (ApoB/ApoA-I) and insulin resistance has been recognized as common cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors. However, whether they were biomarkers for 10-year CVD risk in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) had been rarely studied. Besides, interrelationships between the ApoB/ApoA-I, insulin resistance and OSA remain unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 4010 subjects were finally included. Anthropometric, fasting biochemical, and polysomnographic parameters were collected. 10-year Framingham CVD risk score (FRS) was calculated for each subjects. The relationships between insulin resistance, OSA risk and the ApoB/ApoA-I was evaluated through logistic regressions analysis, restricted cubic spline (RCS) analysis and mediation analysis. ApoB/ApoA-I, HOMA-IR and AHI were all risk factors for high10-year CVD risk as assessed by FRS (odds ratios (OR) = 5.365, 1.094, 1.010, respectively, all P < 0.001)). The fully adjusted OR (95% confidence intervals) for both OSA [1 (reference), 1.308 (1.027-1.665), 1.517 (1.178-1.953), and 1.803 (1.371-2.372)] and insulin resistance [1 (reference), 1.457 (1.173-1.711), 1.701 (1.369-2.113), 2.051(1.645-2.558)] increased from the first to the fourth quartiles of the ApoB/ApoA-I. The RCS mapped a nonlinear dose-effect relationship between the ApoB/ApoA-I and risk of insulin resistance and OSA. Mediation analyses showed HOMA-IR explain 9.7%, 4.7% and 10.8% of the association between apnea-hypopnea index, oxygen desaturation index, micro-arousal index and ApoB/ApoA-I, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that ApoB/ApoA-I, insulin resistance and OSA were risk factors for CVD. Insulin resistance may serve as a potential mediator in OSA-related lipoprotein disorders and further increase CVD risk.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17261, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754116

RESUMO

As an important physical property of molecules, absorption energy can characterize the electronic property and structural information of molecules. Moreover, the accurate calculation of molecular absorption energies is highly valuable. Present linear and nonlinear methods hold low calculation accuracies due to great errors, especially irregular complicated molecular systems for structures. Thus, developing a prediction model for molecular absorption energies with enhanced accuracy, efficiency, and stability is highly beneficial. By combining deep learning and intelligence algorithms, we propose a prediction model based on the chaos-enhanced accelerated particle swarm optimization algorithm and deep artificial neural network (CAPSO BP DNN) that possesses a seven-layer 8-4-4-4-4-4-1 structure. Eight parameters related to molecular absorption energies are selected as inputs, such as a theoretical calculating value Ec of absorption energy (B3LYP/STO-3G), molecular electron number Ne, oscillator strength Os, number of double bonds Ndb, total number of atoms Na, number of hydrogen atoms Nh, number of carbon atoms Nc, and number of nitrogen atoms NN; and one parameter representing the molecular absorption energy is regarded as the output. A prediction experiment on organic molecular absorption energies indicates that CAPSO BP DNN exhibits a favourable predictive effect, accuracy, and correlation. The tested absolute average relative error, predicted root-mean-square error, and square correlation coefficient are 0.033, 0.0153, and 0.9957, respectively. Relative to other prediction models, the CAPSO BP DNN model exhibits a good comprehensive prediction performance and can provide references for other materials, chemistry and physics fields, such as nonlinear prediction of chemical and physical properties, QSAR/QAPR and chemical information modelling, etc.

9.
Stress Health ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714017

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to examine the association of life events stressors with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) by using the multilevel sample from the 2007 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby (LAMB)survey. Four multilevel logistic regression models were applied while accounting for the multilevel design of the LAMB study. The following demographic variables were used as covariates: maternal age, race/ethnicity, maternal educational attainment, household income level in the previous year,physical exercise and pre-pregnancy bodyweight status. The scale for total number of stressors was positively associated with GDM in Model 1,but the association did not reach the significance threshold of 0.05. In Model 2 where four specific domains of stressors (financial,traumatic,spousal and emotional stressors)were used as the key exposure variables, the number of financial stressors during pregnancy was significantly associated with a higher risk of GDM. The scale for total number of stressors was associated with HDP in Model 3. Experience of financial stressors during pregnancy was significantly associated with a higher risk of HDP in Model 4.In conclusion, exposure to higher number of financial stressors was associated with an elevated risk of GDM and HDP.

10.
Cell Prolif ; : e12718, 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated the anti-cancer activity of pentamidine, an anti-protozoal cationic aromatic diamidine drug, in prostate cancer cells and aimed to provide valuable insights for improving the efficacy of prostate cancer treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prostate cancer cell lines and epithelial RWPE-1 cells were used in the study. Cell viability, wound-healing, transwell and apoptosis assays were examined to evaluate the influences of pentamidine in vitro. RNA-seq and qPCR were performed to analyse changes in gene transcription levels upon pentamidine treatment. Mitochondrial changes were assessed by measuring mitochondrial DNA content, morphology, membrane potential, cellular glucose uptake, ATP production and ROS generation. Nude mouse xenograft models were used to test anti-tumour effects of pentamidine in vivo. RESULTS: Pentamidine exerted profound inhibitory effects on proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells. In addition, the drug suppressed growth of xenograft tumours without exhibiting any obvious toxicity in nude mice. Mechanistically, pentamidine caused mitochondrial DNA content reduction and induced mitochondrial morphological changes, mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, ATP level reduction, ROS production elevation and apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS: Pentamidine can efficiently suppress prostate cancer progression and may serve as a novel mitochondria-targeted therapeutic agent for prostate cancer.

11.
Toxins (Basel) ; 11(12)2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766712

RESUMO

Our previous study showed that the srfABC operon, which was originally identified in Salmonella enterica as an SsrB-regulated operon clustered with the flagellar class 2 operon, exhibited significant cytotoxicity against insect midgut CF-203 cells and injectable insecticidal activity against Helicoverpa armigera larvae. The srfABC operon was widely distributed among bacteria, which raises the question of their biological roles in different species. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of SrfABC toxin on mammalian cell lines. When simultaneously expressed in the Escherichia coli cytoplasm, SrfABC exhibited cytotoxicity against all tested mammalian cancer cell lines (B16, 4T-1, Hep-3B, and HeLa) in a dose-dependent manner. Intracellular expression of SrfA-FLAG, SrfB-FLAG, or SrfC-FLAG also resulted in inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis on HeLa cells. When incubated with HeLa cells separately, SrfA, SrfB, and SrfC proteins alone could enter HeLa cells, then induce apoptosis and cytotoxicity. SrfC protein shifts its localization from cytoplasm to nucleus with the aid of SrfA and/or SrfB protein. Although SrfA, SrfB, and SrfC proteins alone exhibited a cytotoxic effect against HeLa cells, all three components were essential for the full cytotoxicity. Native PAGE and co-immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that SrfA, SrfB, and SrfC proteins could interact with each other and form a heteromeric complex.

12.
Curr Pharm Des ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769360

RESUMO

AIMS: To compare the efficacy of pemafibrate (PF) and fenofibrate (FF) in treating dyslipidemia. METHODS: A comprehensive search was performed in public database to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which compared the effects of PF and FF treatment in lipid parameters among patients with dyslipidemia. Mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were pooled for the continuous outcomes, whereas odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI were calculated for dichotomous outcomes. RESULTS: Three RCTs were included with a total of 744 patients (PF=547 and FF=197). Compared with the FF group (100mg/day), PF group (0.05 to 0.4mg/day) had a better effect on reducing triglycerides (TGs) (MD, -8.66; 95%CI, -10.91 to -6.41), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, MD, -12.19; 95%CI, -15.37 to -9.01), remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (MD, -13.16; 95%CI, -17.62 to -8.69), apolipoprotein-B48 (ApoB48, MD, -12.74; 95%CI, -17.71 to -7.76) and ApoCIII (MD, -6.25; 95%CI, -11.85 to -0.64). Although a slightly LDL-C-increasing effect was found in PF-treated group (MD, 3.10; 95%CI, -0.12 to 6.09), the levels of HDL-C (MD, 3.59; 95%CI, 1.65 to 5.53) and ApoAI (MD, 1.60; 95%CI, 0.38 to 2.82) were significantly increased in the PF group. However, no significant difference was found in the level of total cholesterol (MD, 0.01; 95%CI, -1.37 to -1.39), non-HDL-C (MD, -0.06; 95%CI, -1.75 to 1.63), ApoB (MD, 0.39; 95%CI, -1.37 to 2.15) and ApoAII (MD, 3.31; 95%CI, -1.66 to 8.29) between the two groups. In addition, the incidence of total adverse events (OR, 0.68; 95%CI, 0.53 to 0.86) and adverse drug reactions (OR, 0.36; 95%CI, 0.24 to 0.54) were lower in the PF group than that in the FF group. CONCLUSIONS: Pemafibrate tends to have a better efficacy in treating dyslipidermia than fenofibrate.

13.
EBioMedicine ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mesoderm Posterior 1 (MESP1) belongs to the family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. It is a master regulator of mesendoderm development, leading to formation of organs such as heart and lung. However, its role in adult pathophysiology remains unknown. Here, we report for the first time a previously-unknown association of MESP1 with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: MESP1 mRNA and protein levels were measured in NSCLC-derived cells by qPCR and immunoblotting respectively. Colony formation assay, colorimetric cell proliferation assay and soft agar colony formation assays were used to assess the effects of MESP1 knockdown and overexpression in vitro. RNA-sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-qPCR were used to determine direct target genes of MESP1. Subcutaneous injection of MESP1-depleted NSCLC cells in immuno-compromised mice was done to study the effects of MESP1 mediated tumor formation in vivo. FINDINGS: We found that MESP1 expression correlates with poor prognosis in NSCLC patients, and is critical for proliferation and survival of NSCLC-derived cells, thus implicating MESP1 as a lung cancer oncogene. Ectopic MESP1 expression cooperates with loss of tumor suppressor ARF to transform murine fibroblasts. Xenografts from MESP1-depleted cells showed decreased tumor growth in vivo. Global transcriptome analysis revealed a MESP1 DNA-binding-dependent gene signature associated with various hallmarks of cancer, suggesting that transcription activity of MESP1 is most likely responsible for its oncogenic abilities. INTERPRETATION: Our study demonstrates MESP1 as a previously-unknown lineage-survival oncogene in NSCLC which may serve as a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target for lung cancer in the future.

15.
Science ; 366(6467): 856-860, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727831

RESUMO

The terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum has been the least utilized owing to inadequacies of available sources. We introduce a compact, widely frequency-tunable, extremely bright source of terahertz radiation: a gas-phase molecular laser based on rotational population inversions optically pumped by a quantum cascade laser. By identifying the essential parameters that determine the suitability of a molecule for a terahertz laser, almost any rotational transition of almost any molecular gas can be made to lase. Nitrous oxide is used to illustrate the broad tunability over 37 lines spanning 0.251 to 0.955 terahertz, each with kilohertz linewidths. Our analysis shows that laser lines spanning more than 1 terahertz with powers greater than 1 milliwatt are possible from many molecular gases pumped by quantum cascade lasers.

16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(22)2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731740

RESUMO

Due to the influence of altitude change on a driver's heart rate, it is difficult to estimate driving fatigue using heart rate variability (HRV) at a road segment with frequent and rapid altitude change. Accordingly, a novel method of driving fatigue estimation for driving at plateau area with frequent altitude changes is proposed to provide active safety monitoring in real time. A naturalistic driving experiment at Qinghai-Tibet highway was conducted to collect drivers' electrocardiogram data and eye movement data. The results of the eye movement-based method were selected to enhance the HRV-based driving fatigue degree estimation method. A correction factor was proposed to correct the HRV-based method at the plateau area so that the estimation can be made via common portable devices. The correction factors for both upslope and downslope segments were estimated using the field experiment data. The results on the estimation of revised driving fatigue degree can describe the driver's fatigue status accurately for all the road segments at the plateau area with altitudes from 3540 to 4767 m. The results can provide theoretical references for the design of the devices of active safety prevention.

17.
J Hered ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587057

RESUMO

Samoyeds and Australian Terriers are the two dog breeds at highest risk (>10 fold) for diabetes mellitus in the United States. It is unknown if the INS gene is involved in the pathophysiology of diabetes in Samoyeds and Australian Terriers. It was hypothesized that the INS gene region provides a common genetic causality for diabetes in Samoyeds and Australian Terriers. We conducted a two-stage genetic association study involving both breeds. In the discovery stage (Stage 1), Samoyeds with and without diabetes were compared in the frequencies of 447 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 2.5Mb up- and down-stream of the INS gene on the Illumina CanineHD BeadChip. SNPs yielding a p-value <0.005 were selected for further followup. In the validation stage (Stage 2), Australian Terriers with and without diabetes were compared in the SNPs genotyped by the Affymetrix GeneChip Canine Genome 2.0 Array and within 1Mb up- and down-stream of the selected SNPs from Stage 1. Two SNPs that were in high linkage disequilibrium (LD, r2=0.7) were selected from Stage 1. In Stage 2, among the 76 SNPs examined, 5 were significantly associated with diabetes after Bonferroni's correction for multiple comparisons. Three of these 5 SNPs were in complete LD (r2=1 for all associations) and the two remaining SNPs were in moderate LD (r2=0.4). In conclusion, an association between the INS gene region and diabetes was suggested in two dog breeds of different clades. This region could have importance in diabetes in other breeds or in canine diabetes at large.

18.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1087: 20-28, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585562

RESUMO

Physical properties such as particle size distribution and compactness have significant confounding effects on the spectral signals of complex mixtures, which multivariate linear calibration methods such as partial least-squares (PLS) cannot effectively model or correct. Therefore, these effects significantly deteriorate calibration models' predictive abilities for spectral quantitative analysis of complex mixtures. Here, new scattering correction methods were proposed to estimate the additive and multiplicative parameters considering light scattering effects in each spectrum and hence mitigate the detrimental influence of additive and multiplicative effects on quantitative spectroscopic analysis of complex mixtures. Three different correction methods were proposed to estimate the addition coefficient based on two different underlying assumptions, namely, whether this coefficient is related to the wavelength. After addition coefficient elimination, the multiplicative parameter can be eliminated by a simple but very efficient spectral ratio method. Furthermore, linear models are built with key variables, and the predictive performance of these models is verified using the root-mean-square error of prediction datasets. The proposed methods were tested on one apple data set and two publicly available benchmark datasets (i.e., near-infrared spectral data of meat and powder mixture samples) and compared with some existing correction methods. The results showed that (1) additive effects of different types of samples can be eliminated by different methods and (2) these methods can appreciable improve quantitative spectroscopic analysis of complex mixture samples. This study indicates that accurate quantitative spectroscopic analysis of complex mixtures can be achieved through the combination of additive effect elimination and the spectral ratio method.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640111

RESUMO

This study evaluated compliance with the comprehensive smoke-free law in public indoor places introduced in Shanghai in March 2017. Observations and PM2.5 monitoring over 30 min intervals in 8 types of the venue were conducted three times: within a month before implementation and 3- and 12-months post implementation. Observations of evidence of smoking decreased from 66.2% before legislation to 52.8% three months after (p = 0.002) and 49.7% one year after (p < 0.001). The density of lit cigarettes also reduced significantly after implementation (p < 0.001). When adjusting for outdoor, indoor PM2.5 levels were significantly lower after the legislation, but only by a small amount (three months later: -0.27, p = 0.08; one year later: -0.12; p = 0.03). Evidence of compliance was weakest in farmer's markets and bars, and smoking in male toilets did not change significantly. The reduction in smoking was affected by the management performance of their obligations. The comprehensive smoke-free law led to modest reductions in smoking and PM2.5 levels as a result, but from levels suggesting quite high levels of pre-compliance. However, compliance was limited in some areas, suggesting more effort is required on management to gain better compliance in some places like farmer's markets, bars, and toilets.

20.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665430

RESUMO

Enhancers are a class of cis-regulatory elements that can increase gene transcription by forming loops in intergenic regions, introns and exons. Enhancers, as well as their associated target genes, and transcription factors (TFs) that bind to them, are highly associated with human disease and biological processes. Although some enhancer databases have been published, most only focus on enhancers identified by high-throughput experimental techniques. Therefore, it is highly desirable to construct a comprehensive resource of manually curated enhancers and their related information based on low-throughput experimental evidences. Here, we established a comprehensive manually-curated enhancer database for human and mouse, which provides a resource for experimentally supported enhancers, and to annotate the detailed information of enhancers. The current release of ENdb documents 737 experimentally validated enhancers and their related information, including 384 target genes, 263 TFs, 110 diseases and 153 functions in human and mouse. Moreover, the enhancer-related information was supported by experimental evidences, such as RNAi, in vitro knockdown, western blotting, qRT-PCR, luciferase reporter assay, chromatin conformation capture (3C) and chromosome conformation capture-on-chip (4C) assays. ENdb provides a user-friendly interface to query, browse and visualize the detailed information of enhancers. The database is available at http://www.licpathway.net/ENdb.

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