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1.
Anal Methods ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043955

RESUMO

Oriented zinc oxide nanosheets (ZnONSs) were directly grown on pretreated nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi) fiber substrates without a traditional seeding layer of ZnO by electrochemical deposition for the first time. The fiber coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Direct growth of ZnONSs on the NiTi fiber substrate was dependent on the type of zinc salt. The adsorption performance of the ZnONSs coatings was evaluated using representative aromatic compounds as model analytes together with high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The as-prepared fiber shows higher extraction capability for the selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) than for ultraviolet filters in water samples, and better extraction selectivity for PAHs. For this purpose, the important experimental parameters were optimized for the extraction of PAHs. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration curves are linear in the range of 0.03-200 µg L-1 with correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. Limits of detection ranged from 0.011 µg L-1 to 0.082 µg L-1. Intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the developed method with a single fiber ranged from 2.69% to 4.18% and from 4.44% to 5.40%, respectively. RSDs for the fiber-to-fiber reproducibility varied between 5.57% and 7.66%. The developed method was successfully applied for selective preconcentration and determination of trace PAHs in five real water samples. Relative recoveries varied from 84.5% to 104% with RSDs between 1.65% and 8.30%. Furthermore, the as-prepared fiber is highly stable.

2.
J Food Prot ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003195

RESUMO

Shewanella baltica , as one of the dominant spoilers in seafoods where they encounter acidic environments during spoilage, can synthesize putrescine from ornithine and cause food spoilage as well as health problems. Here, the ornithine decarboxylation (ODC) pathway composed of ornithine decarboxylases SpeC and SpeF and an ornithine-putrescine transporter PotE were identified in S. baltica by database searches and further by molecular biology operations, and SpeC functioned as an auxiliary adjusting component of ODC system. Ornithine and putrescine were found to promote putrescine accumulation through up-regulating the expression of speF and potE rather than speC . In addition, increased putrescine biosynthesis and alkalization of cytoplasm was detected at acidic pH especially at pH 6.0 compared to neutral pH. Particularly, the maximum up-regulation of ODC genes and the optimum decarboxylation activity of SpeF were detected at acidic pH around 6.0. It's concluded that the ODC pathway plays dual roles in cytoplasmic acid counteraction and putrescine production of S. baltica . This study contributes to our understanding of the spoilage mechanism of spoilers in the food system, and provides a novel target for seafoods preservation.

3.
Jpn J Nurs Sci ; : e12382, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985089

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the effect of continuous nursing based on wechat platform on postoperative rehabilitation of patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH). METHODS: A total of 95 patients with LDH who underwent surgery in Suzhou BenQ Medical Center from March 2, 2016 to June 23, 2018 were enrolled and randomly divided into the control group (routine continuous nursing) and the study group (continuous nursing based on wechat platform). During the follow-up, the patients' compliance and the effectiveness were recorded. The 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey scale (SF-36 score) was used to evaluate quality of life. The spinal nerve function was evaluated with Japanese Orthopedics Association (JOA) score while the lumbar function was determined with Oswestry dysfunction index (ODI). RESULTS: There were 48 patients in the control group and 47 patients in the study group. The results showed that the compliance rate of the study group was 89.36%, significantly higher than that of the control group (60.42%). The effective rate of the study group was 95.74%, significantly higher than that of the control group (81.25%). Further, continuous nursing based on wechat platform brought more obvious improvement in the SF-36 scores as well as the JOA score and ODI. CONCLUSION: The compliance rate and the effectiveness rate of patients received continuous nursing based on wechat platform were higher than those of patients who received routine continuous nursing, which further brought more obvious improvement in the quality of life as well as the JOA scores and ODI.

4.
Mol Plant ; 13(10): 1485-1498, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889174

RESUMO

The transmission of mobile wound signals along the phloem pathway is essential to the activation of wound-induced systemic response/resistance, which requires an upsurge of jasmonic acid (JA) in the distal undamaged leaves. Among these mobile signals, the electrical signal mediated by the glutamate-dependent activation of several clade three GLUTAMATE RECEPTOR-LIKE (GLR3) proteins is involved in the stimulation of JA production in distal leaves. However, whether JA acts as a mobile wound signal and, if so, how it is transmitted and interacts with the electrical signal remain unclear. Here, we show that JA was translocated from the local to distal leaves in Arabidopsis, and this process was predominantly regulated by two phloem-expressed and plasma membrane-localized jasmonate transporters, AtJAT3 and AtJAT4. In addition to the cooperation between AtJAT3/4 and GLR3.3 in the regulation of long-distance JA translocation, our findings indicate that importer-mediated cell-cell JA transport is important for driving the loading and translocation of JA in the phloem pathway in a self-propagating manner.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960563

RESUMO

Nanomanipulation provides high operating accuracy and has been successfully applied in many fields such as nanoparticle assembly, nanowire alignment, and semiconductor device manufacturing. However, because of the limits of optical diffraction, the use of nanomanipulation is challenged by a lack of visual feedback at the nanoscale, and thus, its efficiency is difficult to be improved. In this study, we developed a novel method of microlens-enhanced nanomanipulation capable of real-time super-resolution imaging. Nanomanipulation was performed using the atomic force microscopy (AFM) mechanism by coupling a microlens to an AFM probe, and optical imaging with a minimum characteristic size of 80 nm is realized by combining the microlens with the optical imaging system. Under the conditions of fluorescent illumination and white light illumination, nanomanipulations were achieved under real-time visual guidance for fluorescent nanoparticles with a diameter of 100 nm and silver nanowires with a diameter of 80 nm, respectively. This method enables the possibility of in situ observation and manipulation, which can potentially be used for biological samples.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21940, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871939

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is a group of autosomal dominant genetic diseases with persistent hypercalcemia and hypocalciuria. The calcium-sensitive receptor (CaSR) plays an important role in calcium and phosphorus metabolism. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 32-year-old man who had diabetes was admitted to our hospital due to poor glycemic control, and was found to have hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, and hyperparathyroidism. Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) (99-mTcMIBI) examination result was negative. The result of 24-h urine calcium was 2.18 mmol/24 h, and the 24-h urinary calcium to creatinine ratio (UCCR) was 0.006. Family survey showed that all of the family members had hypercalcemia. DIAGNOSIS: The CaSR gene mutation study revealed that the proband had a homozygous mutation for a T>C nucleotide substitution at c.1664 in exon 6, while both the mother and the father had heterozygous mutations at the same site of exon 6. The clinical diagnosis was considered to be FHH type1. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated with conventional calcium-lowering therapy which was not effective. Cinacalcet was suggested but not used. The patient received salmon calcitonin nasal spray and furosemide tablets treatment for 1 month after discharge, and then stopped the medication. OUTCOMES: On follow up 4 months after being discharged, the serum calcium level was 3.18 mmol/L, and the PTH level was 275.4 ng/mL. He had felt fatigued, intermittent abdominal pain and lost 3.9 kg of weight. CONCLUSION: This case studied a family with FHH, and the CaSR gene c.1664T>c mutation was the possible pathogenic cause. If parathyroid location examination is unclear for hyperparathyroidism, the possibility of FHH should be considered. For FHH patients, conventional calcium reduction therapy was ineffective and parathyroid surgery cannot alleviate their hypercalcemia.


Assuntos
Hipercalcemia/congênito , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/genética , Adulto , Complicações do Diabetes/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercalcemia/genética , Hipercalcemia/terapia , Masculino
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929674

RESUMO

Excessive growth of filamentous green algae in rivers has attracted much attention due to their functional importance to primary production and carbon cycling. However, comprehensive knowledge of how filamentous green algae affect carbon cycling, especially the CH4 emissions from river ecosystems, remains limited. In this study, incubation experiments were conducted to examine the factors regulating CH4 emissions from a eutrophic river with dense growth of filamentous green algae Spirogyra through combinations of biogeochemical, molecular biological, and stable carbon isotope analyses. Results showed that although water dissolved oxygen (DO) in the algae+sediment (A+S) incubation groups increased up to 19 mg L-1, average CH4 flux of the groups was 13.09 µmol m-2 day-1, nearly up to two times higher than that from sediments without algae (S groups). The significant increase of sediment CH4 oxidation potential and methanotroph abundances identified the enhancing sediment CH4 oxidation during Spirogyra bloom. However, the increased water CH4 concentration was consistent with depleted water [Formula: see text] and decreased apparent fractionation factor (αapp), suggesting the important contribution of Spirogyra to the oxic water CH4 production. It can thus be concluded that high DO concentration during the algal bloom promoted the CH4 consumption by enhancing sediment CH4 oxidation, while algal-linked oxic water CH4 production as a major component of water CH4 promoted the CH4 emissions from the river. Our study highlights the regulation of Spirogyra in aquatic CH4 fluxes and will help to estimate accurately CH4 emissions from eutrophic rivers with dense blooms of filamentous green algae. Graphical abstract.

8.
Adv Colloid Interface Sci ; 284: 102244, 2020 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871405

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM), which is the primary contributor to air pollution, has become a pervasive global health threat. When PM enters into a respiratory tract, the first body tissues to be directly exposed are the cells of respiratory tissues and pulmonary surfactant. Pulmonary surfactant is a pivotal component to modulate surface tension of alveoli during respiration. Many studies have proved that PM would interact with pulmonary surfactant to affect the alveolar activity, and meanwhile, pulmonary surfactant would be adsorbed to the surface of PM to change the toxic effect of PM. This review focuses on recent studies of the interactions between micro/nanoparticles (synthesized and environmental particles) and pulmonary surfactant (natural surfactant and its models), as well as the health effects caused by PM through a few significant aspects, such as surface properties of PM, including size, surface charge, hydrophobicity, shape, chemical nature, etc. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that PM leads to oxidative stress, inflammatory response, fibrosis, and cancerization in living bodies. By providing a comprehensive picture of PM-surfactant interaction, this review will benefit both researchers for further studies and policy-makers for setting up more appropriate regulations to reduce the adverse effects of PM on public health.

9.
Exp Ther Med ; 20(3): 2684-2690, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32765762

RESUMO

In the present study, the ability of baicalin to relieve neuropathic pain due to spinal nerve ligation in rats was explored, and the relationship between baicalin and α2-adrenoceptors (α2-AR) was determined. The neuropathic pain model was established by ligating the L5-L6 spinal nerves in Sprague-Dawley rats. Several α2-AR antagonists were injected into the intramedullary sheath to evaluate the role of baicalin in neuropathic pain. The antagonists included nonselective α2-AR antagonist idazoxan, α2a-AR antagonist BRL 44408, α2b-AR antagonist ARC 239 and α2c-AR antagonist JP 1302. The rats were divided into an untreated control group, saline group, baicalin group and baicalin + α2-AR antagonist groups. Paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) was tested to assess the level of pain felt by the rats. The levels of α2-AR mRNA were tested by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17 and IL-1ß, were analyzed by ELISA. The histopathological changes were assessed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Flow cytometry was used to examine the percentage of CD4+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Compared with the saline group, the PWT value increased after treating with baicalin. However, intrathecal injection of α2-AR antagonist reversed the antinociceptive effects of baicalin. Compared with the saline group, the expression of α2a-AR and α2c-AR mRNA was upregulated significantly in the baicalin group (P<0.05). Levels of α2-AR mRNA were also decreased in the baicalin + idazoxan group compared with the baicalin group (P<0.05). The levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17 and IL-1ß were raised after treatment with baicalin. In addition, baicalin treatment ameliorated the histological damage in the spinal cord. The percentage of CD4+ PBMCs was increased in the saline group compared with the control group (P<0.05). Compared with the baicalin group, the percentage of CD4+ PBMCs was raised after treatment with the α2-AR antagonists. In conclusion, intrathecal injection of baicalin produced an antiallodynic effect in a spinal nerve ligation-induced neuropathic pain model. The mechanism may be related to the regulation of a2-AR expression.

10.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 106: 656-665, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858183

RESUMO

p70S6K is involved in cellular response, such as tumor metastases, the immune response and tissue repair in vertebrates. The role of p70S6K in these physiological processes in crustaceans remains, however, unknown. In this study, the Lvp70S6K was identified, containing a 5' UTR of 294 bp, an ORF of 1494 bp ad a 3' UTR of 211 bp, encoding 497 amino acids with a theoretical molecular weight of 70 kDa and an estimated isoelectric point of (pI) of 5.16. The multiple alignment found that Lvp70S6K was highly homologous with other invertebrates. Lvp70S6K mRNA was detected in all the tested tissues and the Lvp70S6K expression levels was significantly down-regulated and reached the lowest level (0.44-fold, p < 0.01) at 1.5 h after low temperature stress. The subcellular localization of Lvp70S6K could be detected in cytoplasm. ROS production was significantly up-regulation (1.19-fold, p < 0.01), total hemocyte count (THC) was significantly down-regulation (0.22-fold, p < 0.01), apoptosis rate was markedly increased (1.09-fold, p < 0.01), apoptosis-related genes of LvPDCD4 (1.61-fold, p < 0.01) and LvCyt.C (1.23-fold, p < 0.01) were up-regulated, and anti-apoptotic gene of LvBcl-2 (0.69-fold, p < 0.01), LvIAP1 (0.68-fold, p < 0.01) and LvIAP2 (0.45-fold, p < 0.01) were decreased after low temperature stress in hemolymph of Lvp70S6K-silenced shrimp at 1.5 h. Silencing of LvPTEN significantly increased Lvp70S6K, LvPI3K, LvAKT and LvmTOR expression. In summary, these results indicated that Lvp70S6K play a crucial role in oxidative and apoptosis, which was able to negatively regulate by PTEN.

11.
Bioresour Technol ; 316: 123902, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738560

RESUMO

Tribonema minus was cultivated in different concentrations of sugarcane wastewater (SW) diluted with mBG-11 medium to produce biomass for biodiesel, bioproduct, and biomaterial production. The results showed that T. minus grew mixotrophically in 50%SW, with the highest biomass accumulation (7.86 g/L) and nutrient removal efficiency (84.85% of nitrogen, 62.57% of phosphorus, and 44.72% of COD). Excluding 100%SW, the chrysolaminarin and cellulose contents increased with increasing SW concentration; the highest contents of 8.11% and 25.69% dry weight were reached in 75%SW, respectively. Although fewer lipids and palmitoleic acid accumulated at higher SW concentrations, their productivities were significantly higher than those in the control due to the higher contribution of biomass. Moreover, the fatty acid profiles produced at the tested concentrations showed superior biodiesel properties. These findings suggested that the addition of mBG-11 medium to SW might be an effective strategy for valuable biomass production in T. minus and SW bioremediation.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Águas Residuárias , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Bengala , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo , Açúcares
12.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 1): 115360, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836015

RESUMO

In this study, the Songgang River (SR) was selected as a typical tributary that is heavily polluted by rapid urbanization and industrialization. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) distribution at five representative sampling sites from different urban functional areas was studied. The chemical and physical properties and spatial and vertical distribution of PAHs in sediments were investigated. PAH source identification and the ecological risks of the sediments were evaluated. The results suggested that the industrial zone and dense residential and commercial areas were the most contaminated areas of the SR, as the chemical and physical properties of total organic carbon content in sediments was the highest at the dense residential and commercial areas (0.1-4.5%); however, the acid volatile sulfide, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus contents were the highest in the industrial zone, with ranges of 700.0-1618.4 mg/kg dw, 22.4-3543.9 mg/kg dw, and 82.3-4550.7 mg/kg dw, respectively. The spatial distribution of residual PAHs in the sediment cores showed a wide variation among different urban functional areas, and the vertical characterization (0-300 cm) depicted a significant decreasing trend with depth and with an abrupt increase at 180 cm. The concentration of ∑16 PAHs ranged from 208.7 to 7709.8 ng/g dw, with the highest concentrations obtained in the industrial zone. The low molecular weight-PAHs (153-6720 ng/g dw) were predominant in the sediments. Furthermore, there were combined sources (biomass burning: 40.3%; fossil fuel combustion: 25.5%; mixed source: 21.5%; oil pollution: 12.7%) and a long term accumulation effect, with anthropogenic activities and industrial pollution as the major contributing sources. The concentrations of Nap, Acy, Ace, Flu, and Ant exceeded the lower limit of the sediment quality criteria, and higher toxic equivalent concentration values of the total carcinogenic PAHs were observed nearby the midstream of the SR, which may cause adverse biological effects and implies a need for regular monitoring.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Medição de Risco
13.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(8): 622, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796813

RESUMO

Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) often develop malignant regrowth of metastatic dormant tumor cells in liver years after primary treatment. FBX8 is involved in suppressing tumor metastasis. Short-term chemotherapy experiments and liver metastasis mice model of orthotopic injection into the cecum were performed to construct the dormant models. GST-pull-down assay, Co-IP and immunofluorescence were used to confirm the bindings among FBX8 and its substrates. FBX8 upregulated the expression of epithelial and stemness markers, while downregulated the expression of mesenchymal and proliferative markers associated with tumor cell dormancy. FBX8 promoted the maintenance of metastatic dormancy of CRC cells. Mechanistically, FBX8 directly bound to HIF-1α, CDK4 and C-myc through its Sec7 domain and led to the ubiquitin degradation of these proteins, thereby inhibiting cell cycle progression, proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Clinically, FBX8 expression was negatively correlated with the HIF-1α, CDK4, and c-Myc in CRC tissues. Our study reveals a novel mechanism of FBX8 in regulating tumor metastatic dormancy in liver and provides new strategies for the treatment of CRC metastasis.

14.
Water Res ; 185: 116099, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739696

RESUMO

In addition to surface water and groundwater, rainwater is used as an important drinking water source in many parts of the world, especially in areas with serious water pollution or insufficient water resources. Conventional drinking water treatment technologies can remove dissolved organic matter and therefore reduce the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during subsequent disinfection using surface water or groundwater as drinking water sources. However, little information has been known about the effect of conventional water treatment processes on DBP formation when rainwater is used as drinking water source. This study evaluated CX3R-type DBP precursors removal from rainwater by conventional drinking water treatments and the corresponding decrease of CX3R-type DBP (trihalomethanes (THMs), haloaldehydes (HALs), haloacetonitriles (HANs) and haloacetamides (HAMs)) formation and toxicity during the subsequent chlor(am)ination. The result showed that both sand filtration (SF) and activated carbon filtration (GAC) were able to remove DBP precursors and GAC outperformed SF, but no DBP precursors removal was observed during coagulation-sedimentation treatment. Among all treatments, SF + GAC was the most effective for DBP precursors removal, with removal efficiencies of 64.2% DOC, 98% DON and 76.6% UV254. Correspondingly, both SF and GAC decreased the formation of THMs, HALs, HANs and HAMs, and GAC performed better than SF. The combination of SF and GAC, especially SF + GAC, greatly decreased DBP formation, with average reduction of 79.2% and 85% during chlorination and chloramination respectively. After different treatments, the comprehensive toxicity risk of CX3R-type DBPs was all reduced, among which GAC + SF exhibited superior performance. Generally, the main contribution of integrated toxicity was HANs during chlor(am)ination. The formation potential of THMs, HALs, HANs and HAMs and the corresponding integrated toxicity were greater during chlorination than that during chloramination. Therefore, the combination of GAC and chloramination was promising in mitigating the comprehensive toxicity risk of THMs, HALs, HANs and HAMs for rainwater.

15.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 884: 173369, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712092

RESUMO

Glaucoma is a progressive optic neuropathy that has become the most common cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Studies have shown that the protein mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that plays a central role in regulating numerous functions, such as growth, proliferation, cytoskeletal organization, metabolism, and autophagy. Clinical trials have shown that Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitors reduced intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with glaucoma and ocular hypertension (OHT). In this study, we explored whether rapamycin (RAPA) eye drops can reduce IOP and protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Our results indicated that in rats treated with RAPA, the drug was detected in the aqueous humor (AH), and the IOP was reduced. This may be related to the inhibition of RhoA protein activation by RAPA and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells. In addition, the retinal thickness and the survival rate of RGCs were significantly reduced in the OHT group compared with the control group. These changes in the OHT group were significantly improved after treatment with RAPA. This may be because RAPA inhibited the activation of glial cells and the release of proinflammatory factors, thereby attenuating further damage to the retina and RGCs. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrated that RAPA not only reduced IOP but also protected RGCs, suggesting that RAPA is likely to be an effective strategy for the treatment of glaucoma.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681553

RESUMO

Most NIR-IIb fluorophores are nanoparticle-based probes with long retention (≈1 month or longer) in the body. Here, we applied a novel cross-linked coating to functionalize core/shell lead sulfide/cadmium sulfide quantum dots (PbS/CdS QDs) emitting at ≈1600 nm. The coating was comprised of an amphiphilic polymer followed by three crosslinked amphiphilic polymeric layers (P3 coating), imparting high biocompatibility and >90 % excretion of QDs within 2 weeks of intravenous administration. The P3 -QDs were conjugated to an engineered anti-CD8 diabody (Cys-diabody) for in vivo molecular imaging of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in response to anti-PD-L1 therapy. Two-plex molecular imaging in combination with down-conversion Er nanoparticles (ErNPs) was performed for real-time in vivo monitoring of PD-L1 positive tumor cells and CTLs with cellular resolution by non-invasive NIR-IIb light sheet microscopy. Imaging of angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment and of lymph nodes deep in the body with a signal-to-background ratio of up to ≈170 was also achieved using P3 -QDs.

17.
Water Res ; 184: 116148, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698091

RESUMO

Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are associated with various adverse health effects. Diversiform advanced treatment processes have been applied for the control of DBPs, but DBPs can still be frequently detected in tap water. Tea-leaves can be made into popular beverage and is itself a porous bio-adsorbent. By simulating tea brewing process, this study evaluated the removal of DBPs from drinking water during the tea brewing process. Removal of four trihalomethanes (THMs) and four haloacetamides (HAMs) by different fermentation degree tea-leaves was investigated. Little DBPs were removed by unfermented and semi-fermented tea-leaves (i.e., Meitan turquoise bud and Dahongpao tea) with less than 5% removal of HAMs, whereas 40% HAMs can be removed by fermented tea (i.e., Jinjunmei tea and Shuixian tea). Tea soup is neutral and slightly acidic, so little DBP hydrolysis was observed under typical tea-leaf brewing process. DBPs were mainly removed by volatilization and adsorption during tea brewing. Removal difference caused by DBP volatilization is very small. The DBP removal difference of four kinds of tea-leaves may be caused by fermentation degree. The surface of unfermented Meitan turquoise bud had a smooth and regular morphology, whereas a rough, irregular, hollow and spongy surface of fermented tea (i.e., Jinjunmei and Shuixian tea) was observed. Generally, the higher the degree of tea fermentation, the more adsorption sites, and the more removal of DBPs. Finally, the model, which takes the DBP initial concentration, tea-leaf dose and brewing time into account, was established under the experimental conditions to predict the variation of DBP concentration during tea brewing, and suggestions for DBP removal were provided to reduce DBP exposure risk. The integrated toxic risk during tea brewing was also investigated, and about 30% integrated cytotoxicity and 26% genotoxicity was reduced during Jinjunmei and Shuixian tea-leaf brewing.

18.
Neurosci Lett ; 735: 135220, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615246

RESUMO

Recent studies have showed that ketamine is a rapid and efficient antidepressant, but the mechanism of its antidepressant effect is not fully clear. It is still lack of the research investigating the relation between depressive-like behaviors and neuronal activities in specific brain area after administration of ketamine in vivo. Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) involved in the pathogenesis of depression. As a result of effective assessments after behavioral test, most studies lack of direct evidence of the relation between efficacy and the activity of specific brain area. Therefore, we used fiber photometry to explore the alteration of Ca2+ transient in the prelimbic (PrL) area of mPFC during behavioral tests in freely moving mice. Our results showed that the chronic corticosterone (CORT) protocol induced depressive-like behaviors. Administration of ketamine reversed these effects. The activation of Ca2+ transients was associated with some behaviors during behavioral tests. Struggling, rearing and exploring evoked strong Ca2+ transients, but moving and grooming did not. The Ca2+ transients amplitude reductions of struggling, rearing and exploring induced by CORT were reversed by ketamine. The results indicated that ketamine ameliorated depressive-like behaviors via mediating neural activation in PrL.

19.
FASEB J ; 2020 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652689

RESUMO

Episodic memory refers to the recollection of previous experiences containing specific temporal, spatial, and emotional information. The ability to recollect episodic memory requires coordination of multiple brain regions, including the hippocampus (HPC) and the cingulate cortex. While the afferents into HPC and cingulate cortex that orchestrate the episodic memory remain unclear. The medial septum (MS), one of the anatomical location of cholinergic centers, innervates not only the dorsal HPC (dHPC), but also the cingulate and entorhinal cortices. By using "What-Where-When" episodic-like memory (ELM) behavioral model and viral tracing, we found that MS neurons projected to dHPC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which exerted distinct impacts on ELM recollection. Chemogenetic inhibition of the dHPC-projecting MS neurons disrupted "What-Where-When" ELM recollection as well as object location, object-in-place, and recency recognition memories recollection, while chemogenetic inhibition of the ACC-projecting MS neurons only disrupted "What-Where-When" ELM recollection. Moreover, neither dHPC- nor ACC-projecting MS neurons were involved in novel object recognition memory recollection or locomotor activity. Immunostaining showed that ACC- and dHPC-projecting MS neurons are partially overlapped populations. These findings reveal an unsuspected division of ELM processing and provide the potential mechanism that the recollection of episodic memory need the coordination of MS neurons projecting to dHPC and ACC.

20.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 21(1): 443, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Making decisions in alignment techniques in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains controversial. This study aims to identify the potential patients who were suitable for the kinematic (KA) or mechanical alignment (MA). METHODS: We reviewed 296 consecutive patients (296 TKAs, including 114 KA-TKAs and 182 MA-TKAs) who underwent unilateral TKA using a computer-assisted navigation from 2016 to 2018 in our prospectively maintained database. The minimum followup was 1 year. Clinical outcomes including the range of motion (ROM) and knee society score (KSS) were compared between KA-TKAs and MA-TKAs. Multiple regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between alignment techniques and KSS at the 1-year followup. Interaction and stratified analyses were conducted according to gender, age, body mass index (BMI), preoperative hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle, ROM and KSS. RESULTS: ROM and KSS at the 1-year followup didn't differ between MA-TKAs and KA-TKAs (all p > 0.05). Alignment techniques did not associate with postoperative ROM (Adjusted ß = 0.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: - 0.3, 1.6; p = 0.752) or 1-year KSS (Adjusted ß = 2.2, 95%CI: - 0.7, 5.6; p = 0.107). Patients with a BMI more than 30 kg/m^2 achieved better 1-year KSS when using MA than KA (p for interaction< 0.05). Additionally, patients with preoperative HKA angle more than 10 degrees varus benefited more from KA than MA (p for interaction< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with severe varus deformity may be suitable for the KA technique, whereas MA should be used in obese patients.

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