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1.
Small ; : e2102532, 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302441

RESUMO

For the proliferation of the supercapacitor technology, it is essential to attain superior areal and volumetric performance. Nevertheless, maintaining stable areal/volumetric capacitance and rate capability, especially for thick electrodes, remains a fundamental challenge. Here, for the first time, a rationally designed porous monolithic electrode is reported with high thickness of 800 µm (46.74 mg cm-2 , with high areal mass loading of NiCo2 S4 6.9 mg cm-2 ) in which redox-active Ag nanoparticles and NiCo2 S4 nanosheets are sequentially decorated on highly conductive wood-derived carbon (WC) substrates. The hierarchically assembled WC@Ag@NiCo2 S4 electrode exhibits outstanding areal capacitance of 6.09 F cm-2 and long-term stability of 84.5% up to 10 000 cycles, as well as exceptional rate capability at 50 mA cm-2 . The asymmetric cell with an anode of WC@Ag and a cathode of WC@Ag@NiCo2 S4 delivers areal/volumetric energy density of 0.59 mWh cm-2 /3.93 mWh cm-3 , which is much-improved performance compared to those of most reported thick electrodes at the same scale. Theoretical calculations verify that the enhanced performance could be attributed to the decreased adsorption energy of OH- and the down-shifted d-band of Ag atoms, which can accelerate the electron transport and ion transfer.

2.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(7): e1009168, 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310591

RESUMO

In Arabidopsis thaliana, the Light-Oxygen-Voltage (LOV) domain containing protein ZEITLUPE (ZTL) integrates light quality, intensity, and duration into regulation of the circadian clock. Recent structural and biochemical studies of ZTL indicate that the protein diverges from other members of the LOV superfamily in its allosteric mechanism, and that the divergent allosteric mechanism hinges upon conservation of two signaling residues G46 and V48 that alter dynamic motions of a Gln residue implicated in signal transduction in all LOV proteins. Here, we delineate the allosteric mechanism of ZTL via an integrated computational approach that employs atomistic simulations of wild type and allosteric variants of ZTL in the functional dark and light states, together with Markov state and supervised machine learning classification models. This approach has unveiled key factors of the ZTL allosteric mechanisms, and identified specific interactions and residues implicated in functional allosteric changes. The final results reveal atomic level insights into allosteric mechanisms of ZTL function that operate via a non-trivial combination of population-shift and dynamics-driven allosteric pathways.

3.
Cell Rep ; 36(2): 109391, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242574

RESUMO

The immunogenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 proteome is largely unknown, especially for non-structural proteins and accessory proteins. In this study, we collect 2,360 COVID-19 sera and 601 control sera. We analyze these sera on a protein microarray with 20 proteins of SARS-CoV-2, building an antibody response landscape for immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM. Non-structural proteins and accessory proteins NSP1, NSP7, NSP8, RdRp, ORF3b, and ORF9b elicit prevalent IgG responses. The IgG patterns and dynamics of non-structural/accessory proteins are different from those of the S and N proteins. The IgG responses against these six proteins are associated with disease severity and clinical outcome, and they decline sharply about 20 days after symptom onset. In non-survivors, a sharp decrease of IgG antibodies against S1 and N proteins before death is observed. The global antibody responses to non-structural/accessory proteins revealed here may facilitate a deeper understanding of SARS-CoV-2 immunology.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/imunologia , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Formação de Anticorpos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Serial de Proteínas
4.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(7)2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Death receptor 5 (DR5) is a promising therapeutic target for cancer therapy. However, many clinical trials of DR5 agonists failed to show significant therapeutic efficacy in patients with cancer. The study aimed to investigate the feasibility of using 89Zr-CTB006 positron emission tomography (PET) for noninvasive imaging of DR5 expression in preclinical models and patients with gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. METHODS: Balb/c, Sp2/0 xenograft and patient-derived tumor xenograft were employed for micro-PET/CT imaging in vivo. In the clinical study, patients with GI cancers planning to undergo surgical operation were enrolled and underwent 18F-FDG and 89Zr-CTB006 PET/CT. The tumor tissues were obtained through surgical operation and DR5 expression levels were confirmed by RNAscope. RESULTS: Preclinical studies showed that 89Zr-CTB006 PET could specifically detect DR5 expression levels in vivo. Twenty-one patients, including nine gastric cancers and 12 colorectal cancers, were enrolled. The biodistribution showed high uptake in the liver and spleen and low uptake in the brain, lung and muscle with an acceptable whole-body dosimetry of 0.349 mSv/MBq. Strikingly, the adrenal glands maintained stable high uptake over the entire examination in all patients. The tumor lesions showed different levels of uptake of 89Zr-CTB006 with a mean maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of 6.63±3.29 (range 1.8-13.8). Tumor tissue was obtained from 18 patients, and 89Zr-CTB006 uptake in patients with RNAscope scores of 3-4 was significantly higher than that in patients with scores of 0-2. An SUVmax of 9.3 at 48 hours and 6.3 at 72 hours could be used to discriminate the DR5 expression status of tumors both with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 92.9%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: 89Zr-CTB006 PET/CT is capable of detecting DR5 expression in cancer patients and is a promising approach to screen patients with DR5 overexpression.

5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; : 1-17, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288833

RESUMO

More sensitive, rapid, and affordable diagnostic tools for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) are urgently needed. This study aimed to assess the performance of EasyNAT MTC(abbreviation: EasyNAT) (Ustar Biotechnologies, China), a novel isothermal amplification method with a turnaround time of less than two hours that requires a few manual steps to process the sputum. Sputum samples from 249 patients with suspected PTB were subjected to smear, culture, Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, USA) and EasyNAT assay testing. Of the 169 PTB patients, EasyNAT detected more PTB patients than Xpert (72.19% vs. 61.54%, P<0.05, χ2 = 4.326). Both the Xpert assay and EasyNAT assay detected almost all the culture-positive sputa successfully, but EasyNAT yielded more positive results among the smear-negative and culture-negative PTB cases (44.59% (33/74) vs. 22.97% (17/74), P< 0.01, χ2 = 7.732). Although the specificity of EasyNAT was lower in contrast to Xpert [95.00% (76/80) vs. 98.75% (79/80)], the difference was not significant (P = 0.363, χ2 = 0.826). EasyNAT could be used as an initial test for PTB diagnosis due to its simplicity, rapid turnaround time, high sensitivity, and low cost.

6.
Cell Rep ; 36(3): 109399, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289347

RESUMO

The pathogenic mechanism by which dominant mutations in VCP cause multisystem proteinopathy (MSP), a rare neurodegenerative disease that presents as fronto-temporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 inclusions (FTLD-TDP), remains unclear. To explore this, we inactivate VCP in murine postnatal forebrain neurons (VCP conditional knockout [cKO]). VCP cKO mice have cortical brain atrophy, neuronal loss, autophago-lysosomal dysfunction, and TDP-43 inclusions resembling FTLD-TDP pathology. Conditional expression of a single disease-associated mutation, VCP-R155C, in a VCP null background similarly recapitulates features of VCP inactivation and FTLD-TDP, suggesting that this MSP mutation is hypomorphic. Comparison of transcriptomic and proteomic datasets from genetically defined patients with FTLD-TDP reveal that progranulin deficiency and VCP insufficiency result in similar profiles. These data identify a loss of VCP-dependent functions as a mediator of FTLD-TDP and reveal an unexpected biochemical similarity with progranulin deficiency.

7.
Biomed Chromatogr ; : e5218, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291843

RESUMO

A simple, efficient and stable detection method of two-dimensional liquid chromatography(2D-LC) was established and validated for the determination of anlotinib in human plasma. The 2D-LC system comprises a first-dimensional column (LC1), an intermediate transfer column and a second-dimensional column (LC2). With simple protein precipitation treatment, the samples were processed directly for detecting. The analysis cycle time was completed within 9.50 min. The calibration curve was linear over the 5.00-320.00 ng/mL range for the anlotinib concentrations. The intra-day and inter-day precisions ranges were 0.77-6.22% and 1.92-4.26% for anlotinib concentration. The recoveries were in the range from 97.85 to 102.50%. A total of 135 plasma samples from 94 patients were analyzed by our method. The plasma concentrations of patients were in the range 5.17-106.38 ng/mL in which the female had higher plasma concentration (6.44-106.38 ng/mL). The simultaneous application of dexamethasone can increase the plasma drug of anlotinib concentration. In our clinical application, we found that the factors which affect plasma concentration include time and dose of medication, gender and drug interactions. The method appears to be sensitive, precise, selective, and suitable for determining the concentration of anlotinib in plasma sample.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 795: 148796, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246145

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely applied in industrial products and household products, leading to ubiquitous occurrences in environmental and biological samples. However, knowledge on human internal exposure to bisphenol analogues remains limited. Our study determined nine bisphenol analogues in urine samples collected from 1168 South China adults. BPA and bisphenol F (BPF) exhibited the highest detection frequencies in urine, i.e., 99.4% and 74.6%, respectively. BPA dominated over other analogues, with a median concentration of 1.74 µg/L, while BPF had a median concentration of 0.08 µg/L. Significant positive correlation was observed between urinary BPA and BPF (r = 0.201, p < 0.01), indicating similar exposure sources or pathways of these two chemicals. Urinary BPA concentrations were significantly correlated with age, marital status, drinking status and history of hyperlipidemia (p < 0.05). The median estimated daily intake (EDI) of Σ3BPs (the sum concentrations of BPA, BPF and BPAF) was determined to be 53.6 ng/kg-bw/day for adults. The EDIs were much lower than the temporary tolerable reference dose of BPA recommended by the European Food Safety Authority, indicating the bisphenol analogues presented no obvious health risks to South China adults.

9.
Bioconjug Chem ; 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260853

RESUMO

Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) provides new and safe opportunities for cancer treatment and management with high precision and efficiency. Here we have designed a novel semiconducting polymer nanoparticle (SPN)-based radiopharmaceutical (211At-MeATE-SPN-GIP) for TRT against glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPR)-positive cancers to further explore the applications of nanoengineered TRT. 211At-MeATE-SPN-GIP was engineered via nanoprecipitation, followed by its functionalization with a glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) to target GIPR and deliver 211At for α therapy. The therapeutic effect and biological safety of 211At-MeATE-SPN-GIP were investigated using GIPR-overexpressing human pancreatic cancer CFPAC-1 cells and CFPAC-1-bearing mice. In this work, 211At-MeATE-SPN-GIP was produced with a radiochemical yield of 43% and radiochemical purity of 98%, which exhibited a specifically high uptake in CFPAC-1 cells, inducing cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and extensive DNA damage. In the CFPAC-1-bearing tumor model, 211At-MeATE-SPN-GIP exhibited high therapeutic efficiency, with no obvious side effects. The GIPR-specific binding of 211At-MeATE-SPN-GIP combined with effective inhibition of tumor growth and fewer side effects compared to control suggests that 211At-MeATE-SPN-GIP TRT holds great potential as a novel nanoengineered TRT strategy for patients with GIPR-positive cancer.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228610

RESUMO

A novel Gram-stain-negative, short rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, non-gliding, oxidase-positive and catalase-negative bacterium, designated ML27T, was isolated from oyster homogenate in Rushan, Weihai, PR China. Growth occurred at 20-33 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 7.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.5-8.0) and in the presence of 1-6 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 3 %). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain ML27T was 90.7 % similar to Suttonella ornithocola DSM 18249T, 89.2 % to Suttonella indologenes JCM 1478T and 88.2 % to Cardiobacterium hominis DSM 8339T; similarities to other species were less than 90 %. The average amino acid identity between strain ML27T, S. indologenes JCM 1478T, S. ornithocola DSM 18249T, C. hominis DSM 8339T and Dichelobacter nodosus ATCC 25549T were 46.23, 45.86, 45.54 and 45.84 %, respectively. Phylogenomic tree and phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate formed a novel family-level clade in the order Cardiobacteriales. The sole respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-7 (Q-7). The dominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 (C18 : 1 ω7c/C18 : 1 ω6c; 46.3 %), C16 : 0 (17.8 %) and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c/C16 : 1 ω6c; 13.5 %). The DNA G+C content of strain ML27T was 45.6 mol%. Polar lipids included phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and one unidentified lipid. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences, genomic distinctiveness and characterization indicated that strain ML27T represents a novel species of a new genus within a novel family of the order Cardiobacteriales, for which the name Ostreibacterium oceani gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Ostreibacterium oceani is ML27T (=MCCC 1H00372T=KCTC 72155T). In addition, a novel family, Ostreibacteriaceae fam. nov., is proposed to accommodate the genus Ostreibacterium.


Assuntos
Gammaproteobacteria/classificação , Ostreidae/microbiologia , Filogenia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Gammaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ubiquinona/química
11.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 524, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) has been found in the extreme cold area of northeast China. The third-stage dispersal juvenile (DJ3) of PWN, which is a long-lived stress-resistant stage, plays an important role in the process of PWN spreading to low-temperature areas, as this stage can survive under unfavorable conditions. RESULTS: Weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) was used to analyze the expression patterns of 15,889 genes included in 21 RNA-Seq results of PWN at DJ3 and the other 6 different stages, and a total of 12 coexpression modules were obtained. Among them, the magenta module has the highest correlation with DJ3, which included a total of 652 genes. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that most of the genes in the magenta module were involved in metabolic processes, which were related to autophagy and longevity regulation. These pathways included starch and sucrose metabolism, which contains trehalose metabolism. To explore the function of trehalose in DJ3 formation and survival under - 20 °C, a trehalose-6-phosphate synthase encoding gene (Bx-tps), a trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase encoding gene (Bx-tpp) and 7 trehalase encoding genes (Bx-tres) were identified and investigated. The expression of these 9 genes was related to the formation of DJ3. A treatment under - 20 °C induced the accumulation of trehalose. The survival rate of DJ3 at -20 °C reduced after silencing of any of these trehalose metabolism genes. Further analysis suggested that two trehalose synthesis genes were highly correlated with DJ3 and might be involved in autophagy by regulating with energy conversion related genes. CONCLUSIONS: The above results indicated that trehalose metabolism promotes DJ3 formation and helps DJ3 survive at -20 °C. Although trehalose accumulation is favorable for DJ3 to cope with low-temperature stress, multiple trehalose metabolism genes need to work together. There may be a multi-path regulated physiological process involving trehalose synthesis genes under low-temperature stress resistance. This physiological process may regulate the formation and maintenance of DJ3 through autophagy and energy conversion.


Assuntos
Pinus , Tylenchida , Animais , China , Temperatura , Trealose
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 658843, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34276653

RESUMO

Background: Easily accessible tools that reliably stratify Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection are needed to facilitate the improvement of clinical management. The current study attempts to reveal lymphocyte-related immune characteristics of active tuberculosis (ATB) patients and establish immunodiagnostic model for discriminating ATB from latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and healthy controls (HC). Methods: A total of 171 subjects consisted of 54 ATB, 57 LTBI, and 60 HC were consecutively recruited at Tongji hospital from January 2019 to January 2021. All participants were tested for lymphocyte subsets, phenotype, and function. Other examination including T-SPOT and microbiological detection for MTB were performed simultaneously. Results: Compared with LTBI and HC, ATB patients exhibited significantly lower number and function of lymphocytes including CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and NK cells, and significantly higher T cell activation represented by HLA-DR and proportion of immunosuppressive cells represented by Treg. An immunodiagnostic model based on the combination of NK cell number, HLA-DR+CD3+ T cells, Treg, CD4+ T cell function, and NK cell function was built using logistic regression. Based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) of the diagnostic model was 0.920 (95% CI, 0.867-0.973) in distinguishing ATB from LTBI, while the cut-off value of 0.676 produced a sensitivity of 81.48% (95% CI, 69.16%-89.62%) and specificity of 91.23% (95% CI, 81.06%-96.20%). Meanwhile, AUC analysis between ATB and HC according to the diagnostic model was 0.911 (95% CI, 0.855-0.967), with a sensitivity of 81.48% (95% CI, 69.16%-89.62%) and a specificity of 90.00% (95% CI, 79.85%-95.34%). Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that the immunodiagnostic model established by the combination of lymphocyte-related indicators could facilitate the status differentiation of MTB infection.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279902

RESUMO

Particulate matter of 0.3 µm in diameter (PM0.3) poses a serious threat to the environment and human beings. Ultrathin and -light nanofibrous filters with excellent filtration properties can significantly prevent the detrimental effects of these particles. Here, we develop free-standing polyamide PA-66 ultrafine nanofiber papers for PM0.3 filtration using effective and scalable blow and electro-blow spinning techniques. The smallest average fiber diameter is 61.7 nm, which is 2-3 orders of magnitude smaller than that of conventional textiles. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) nonwovens are selected to fabricate free-standing nanofiber papers of various polymers, including polyamide, poly(methyl methacrylate), poly(vinylpyrrolidone), and poly(ethylene oxide) owing to the smooth surfaces of the nonwovens. This underlying principle can be used to create similar free-standing nanofiber papers from other commodity polymers in the future. Mechanisms of capturing particulate matter with different nanofiber morphologies are discussed. Salt and oil particulates are used to characterize the filtration properties. PA-66 papers are promising reusable filters owing to their mechanical particle-capture mechanism. The blow-spun PA-66 papers show filtration performance of 98.75% efficiency and a pressure drop of 125.44 Pa owing to the "slip" effect caused by the ultrasmall diameter. In the electro-blow spinning process, a supplementary voltage supply is conducive to separating nanofiber bundles into random-oriented nanofibers. Electro-blown spun papers possess an ultrahigh efficiency of 99.99% with a reduced areal density of 0.9 g m-2. These PA-66 papers can be used in a variety of applications, such as reusable personal protective equipment, industrial waste gas treatment, and central ventilation purification systems.

14.
J Exp Bot ; 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283216

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) target specific mRNA molecules based on sequence complementarity for their degradation or translation repression, thereby regulating various development and physiological processes in eukaryotic orgasms. Expressing the target mimicry (MIM) and short tandem target mimicry (STTM), can block endogenous mature miRNAs activity and eliminate the inhibition to their target genes, resulting in phenotypic changes due to higher expression of the target genes. Here, we report a strategy to achieve de-repression of interested miRNA-target genes through CRISPR/Cas9-based generation of in-frame mutants within the miRNA-complementary sequence of the target gene. We show that two rice genes, OsGRF4 and OsGRF8 carrying in-frame mutants with disrupting the miR396 recognition sites, escape from miR396-mediated post-transcriptional silence, resulting in enlarged grain size and increased the brown planthopper (BPH) resistance in their respective rice transgenic lines. These results demonstrate that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated disruption of miRNA target sites can be effectively employed to precisely de-repress particular target genes of functional importance for trait improvement in plants.

15.
Int J Mol Med ; 48(2)2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212983

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to be associated with the progression of coronary artery disease (CAD). In our previous study, the levels of lncRNA uc003pxg.1 were upregulated in patients with CAD compared with those in control subjects. However, the role and underlying mechanism of the effects of uc003pxg.1 in CAD remain unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the expression pattern and biological function of uc003pxg.1 in CAD. First, uc003pxg.1 expression levels were assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from patients with CAD by reverse transcription­quantitative (RT­q)PCR. The results demonstrated that the levels of uc003pxg.1 were significantly upregulated (~4.6­fold) in samples from 80 patients with CAD compared with those in 80 healthy subjects. Subsequently, the present study demonstrated that small interfering RNA­mediated uc003pxg.1 knockdown inhibited human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and migration, which was analyzed using the Cell Counting Kit­8, cell cycle, EdU and Transwell assays. Additionally, the results of RT­qPCR and western blot analyses revealed that uc003pxg.1 regulated the mRNA and protein levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin­dependent kinase. Through high­throughput sequencing and dual­luciferase reporter assays, the present study demonstrated that microRNA (miR)­25­5p was a downstream target of uc003pxg.1. Further experiments verified that uc003pxg.1 regulated HUVEC proliferation and migration via miR­25­5p. The results of the present study may enhance the current understanding of the role of lncRNA uc003pxg.1 in CAD.

16.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264377

RESUMO

Cigarette smoke has been identified as a major risk factor for the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). As an alternative to conventional cigarettes (C-cigarette), electronic cigarettes (E-cigarette) have been globally promoted and are currently widely used. The increasing usage of E-cigarettes raises concerns with regard to short- (2 weeks), medium- (3 months), and long- (8 months) term consequences related to retinal tissue. In this report, a controlled study in mouse models was conducted to probe the comprehensive effects of E-cigarette vapor on retina, retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), and choroidal tissues by (1) comparing the effects of C-cigarette smoke and E-cigarette vapor on retina separately and (2) determining the effects of E-cigarette vapor on the RPE and analyzing the changes with regard to inflammatory (IL-1ß, TNFα, iNOS) and angiogenic (VEGF, PEDF) mediators in retina/RPE/choroid by ELISA assays. The data showed that C-cigarette smoke exposure promoted an inflammatory reaction in the retina in vivo. Mice exposed to E-cigarette (nicotine-free) vapor developed inflammatory and angiogenic reactions more pronounced in RPE and choroid as compared to retinal tissue, while nicotine-containing E-cigarette vapor caused even a more serious reaction. Both inflammatory and pro-angiogenic reactions increased with the extension of exposure time. These results demonstrate that exposure to C-cigarette smoke is harmful to the retina. Likewise, the exposure to E-cigarette vapor (with or without nicotine) increases the occurrence and progression of inflammatory and angiogenic stimuli in the retina, which might also be related to the onset of wet AMD in humans. KEY MESSAGES: C-cigarette smoke exposure promotes an inflammatory reaction in the retina in vivo. Mice exposed to E-cigarette (nicotine-free) vapor develop inflammatory and angiogenic reactions more pronounced in RPE and choroid compared to retinal tissue, while nicotine-containing E-cigarette vapor causes even a more serious reaction. Both inflammatory and pro-angiogenic reactions increase with the extension of E-cigarette vapor exposure time.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286424

RESUMO

Use of soil adsorbent is an effective method for the promotion of phosphorus adsorption capacity of soil, though most of the soil adsorbents have weak phosphorus retention ability. Herein, we compared the traditional gypsum (GP) and zeolite (ZP) adsorbents to explore the phosphorus retention ability of lanthanum modified walnut shell biochar (La-BC) in soil. The results showed that with the increase of exogenous phosphorus concentration, the adsorption amount of phosphorus by adsorbents in soil increased at first and then tended to be stable. The maximum adsorption capacity of soil to phosphorus is gypsum, lanthanum-modified biochar > zeolite, and the addition of lanthanum-modified biochar can improve the adsorption capacity of soil to phosphorus, enhance the binding strength of soil and phosphorus, improve the ability of soil to store phosphorus, reducing phosphorus adsorption saturation, and is beneficial to control the leaching of soil phosphorus. FTIR and XRD analysis showed that the adsorption of phosphorus by each adsorbent in soil was mainly chemical precipitation. The response surface analysis showed that the adsorption performance of La-BC+S was the best when the concentration of exogenous phosphorus was 50.0 mg/L, pH was 6.47, and the reaction time was 436.98 min. This study provides a reference for soil adsorbents to hold phosphorus and reduce the risk of phosphorus leaching to avoid groundwater pollution.

18.
Neuroimage ; 240: 118391, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271158

RESUMO

Spontaneous fluctuations of Blood Oxygenation-Level Dependent (BOLD) MRI signal in a resting state have previously been detected and analyzed to describe intrinsic functional networks in the spinal cord of rodents, non-human primates and human subjects. In this study we combined high resolution imaging at high field with data-driven Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to i) delineate fine-scale functional networks within and between segments of the cervical spinal cord of monkeys, and also to ii) characterize the longitudinal effects of a unilateral dorsal column injury on these networks. Seven distinct functional hubs were revealed within each spinal segment, with new hubs detected at bilateral intermediate and gray commissure regions in addition to the bilateral dorsal and ventral horns previously reported. Pair-wise correlations revealed significantly stronger connections between hubs on the dominant hand side. Unilateral dorsal-column injuries disrupted predominantly inter-segmental rather than intra-segmental functional connectivities as revealed by correlation strengths and graph-theory based community structures. The effects of injury on inter-segmental connectivity were evident along the length of the cord both below and above the lesion region. Connectivity strengths recovered over time and there was revival of inter-segmental communities as animals recovered function. BOLD signals of frequency 0.01-0.033 Hz were found to be most affected by injury. The results in this study provide new insights into the intrinsic functional architecture of spinal cord and underscore the potential of functional connectivity measures to characterize changes in networks after an injury and during recovery.

19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281226

RESUMO

Patients with Rett syndrome (RTT) show severe difficulties with communication, social withdrawl, and learning. Music-based interventions improve social interaction, communication skills, eye contact, and physical skills and reduce seizure frequency in patients with RTT. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which music-based interventions compromise sociability impairments in mecp2 null/y mice as an experimental RTT model. Male mecp2 null/y mice and wild-type mice (24 days old) were randomly divided into control, noise, and music-based intervention groups. Mice were exposed to music or noise for 6 h/day for 3 consecutive weeks. Behavioral patterns, including anxiety, spontaneous exploration, and sociability, were characterized using open-field and three-chamber tests. BDNF, TrkB receptor motif, and FNDC5 expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, basal ganglia, and amygdala were probed using RT-PCR or immunoblotting. mecp2 null/y mice showed less locomotion in an open field than wild-type mice. The social novelty rather than the sociability of these animals increased following a music-based intervention, suggesting that music influenced the mecp2-deletion-induced social interaction repression rather than motor deficit. Mechanically, the loss of BDNF signaling in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampal regions, but not in the basal ganglia and amygdala, was compromised following the music-based intervention in mecp2 null/y mice, whereas TrkB signaling was not significantly changed in either region. FNDC5 expression in the prefrontal cortex region in mecp2 null/y mice also increased following the music-based intervention. Collective evidence reveals that music-based interventions improve mecp2-loss-induced social dysfunction. BDNF and FNDC5 signaling in the prefrontal cortex region mediates the music-based-intervention promotion of social interactions. This study gives new insight into the mechanisms underlying the improvement of social behaviors in mice suffering from experimental Rett syndrome following a music-based intervention.

20.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 575650, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34277462

RESUMO

Background: Distinguishing between active tuberculosis (ATB) and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) remains challenging. Methods: Between 2013 and 2019, 2,059 (1,097 ATB and 962 LTBI) and another 883 (372 ATB and 511 LTBI) participants were recruited based on positive T-SPOT.TB (T-SPOT) results from Qiaokou (training) and Caidian (validation) cohorts, respectively. Blood routine examination (BRE) was performed simultaneously. Diagnostic model was established according to multivariate logistic regression. Results: Significant differences were observed in all indicators of BRE and T-SPOT assay between ATB and LTBI. Diagnostic model built on BRE showed area under the curve (AUC) of 0.846 and 0.850 for discriminating ATB from LTBI in the training and validation cohorts, respectively. Meanwhile, TB-specific antigens spot-forming cells (SFC) (the larger of early secreted antigenic target 6 and culture filtrate protein 10 SFC in T-SPOT assay) produced lower AUC of 0.775 and 0.800 in the training and validation cohorts, respectively. The diagnostic model based on combination of BRE and T-SPOT showed an AUC of 0.909 for differentiating ATB from LTBI, with 78.03% sensitivity and 90.23% specificity when a cutoff value of 0.587 was used in the training cohort. Application of the model to the validation cohort showed similar performance. The AUC, sensitivity, and specificity were 0.910, 78.23%, and 90.02%, respectively. Furthermore, we also assessed the performance of our model in differentiating ATB from LTBI with lung lesions. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the AUC of established model was 0.885, while a threshold of 0.587 yield a sensitivity of 78.03% and a specificity of 85.69%, respectively. Conclusions: The diagnostic model based on combination of BRE and T-SPOT could provide a reliable differentiation between ATB and LTBI.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Latente , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose , Antígenos de Bactérias , Humanos , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tuberculose/diagnóstico
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