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1.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(8): 3816-3824, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854792

RESUMO

The distribution and stability of soil aggregates under different land use types, and the distribution of organic carbon in various aggregates, were explored in order to provide a basis for the improvement of soil structure and the maintenance and improvement of soil organic carbon in Chongqing. Focusing on six representative subtropical land use types in the Beibei District of Chongqing (coniferous and broadleaf mixed forest, bamboo forest, orchard, dryland, paddy field, and waste grassland), soils were sorted using the wet sieving method and the six soil types were compared and analyzed. The distribution of aggregates and their organic carbon content were determined at soil profile depths of 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, and 60-100 cm for each land use type. The results showed that there were significant differences in soil structure and fertility levels under the different land use types. Among the particle size aggregates of the 0-100 cm soil layer, the aggregate particle size of the six land use types was mainly >0.25 mm; the content of >0.25 mm aggregate fraction of bamboo forest soil is the highest, followed by the grassland soil, and the dryland and orchard soils is the lowest. Granular aggregates in the size class 0.25-2 mm were mainly distributed in the 0-20 cm soil layers (28.78%-50.08%), while the aggregate size fractions 0.053-0.25 mm and<0.053 mm were mainly concentrated in the 40-60 cm soil layers. Across the entire profile depth, the aggregate MWD and GMD of the bamboo forest and barren grassland soils were higher than the other land use types, i. e., the soil aggregates in these soils were more stable. The stability of soil aggregates was significantly positively correlated with soil aggregate organic carbon content (r=0.569, P<0.01). In the 0-100 cm soil layer, the organic carbon content of soil aggregates was higher for the 0.25-2 mm and<0.053 mm fractions, with an average content of 56.54 g·kg-1 in the 0.25-2 mm fraction. Except for the organic carbon content of the soil aggregates with different particle size of dryland was the highest in the 20-40 cm soil layer, while under the other land use types, the organic carbon content in soil aggregates decreased with depth, showing significant surface enrichment. Overall, under the six different land use types, the soil aggregates in bamboo forest soils and waste grassland soils showed good stability, and at each soil depth, the organic carbon content of aggregates was highest in the bamboo forest soil.

2.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(9): 4270-4277, 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854894

RESUMO

Phytolith-occluded organic carbon (PhytOC) is a form of long-term storage of soil organic carbon, which is of great significance for soil carbon sequestration. Taking six land use patterns in southwest China as the research object, including coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, bamboo forest, orchard, dry land, paddy field, and grassland, we compare the distribution of the PhytOC content under the different land use patterns in different depth sections of 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, and 60-100 cm. In addition, we estimate the storage of phytOC and analyze the carbon sequestration characteristics of the terrestrial ecosystems. According to the results, the soil organic carbon and phytolith mean content in the bamboo forest were the highest in the soil profile, at 16.75 g·kg-1 and 59.66 g·kg-1, respectively. In all soil layers, the phytolith content of the bamboo forest soil was significantly higher than that in other land use patterns (P<0.05). The average content of soil phytOC in the six land use patterns ranged from 0.55 to 1.96 g·kg-1, and the phytOC content of each layer of bamboo forest was higher than that in other land uses. The total carbon storage of phytOC in the bamboo forest soil, at 23.45 t·hm-2, was significantly higher than that of other soil use methods (P<0.05). Statistical analysis showed that soil silicon had a significant positive correlation with the soil phytolith and the soil phytOC (P<0.01). The soil phytolith and phytolith carbon content in different land use patterns generally showed a decrease with an increase in soil depth, and a certain surface enrichment phenomenon was noted.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5334, 2019 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767869

RESUMO

Protein products of the regenerating islet-derived (REG) gene family are important regulators of many cellular processes. Here we functionally characterise a non-protein coding product of the family, the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) REG1CP that is transcribed from a DNA fragment at the family locus previously thought to be a pseudogene. REG1CP forms an RNA-DNA triplex with a homopurine stretch at the distal promoter of the REG3A gene, through which the DNA helicase FANCJ is tethered to the core promoter of REG3A where it unwinds double stranded DNA and facilitates a permissive state for glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα)-mediated REG3A transcription. As such, REG1CP promotes cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenicity and its upregulation is associated with poor outcome of patients. REG1CP is also transcriptionally inducible by GRα, indicative of feedforward regulation. These results reveal the function and regulation of REG1CP and suggest that REG1CP may constitute a target for cancer treatment.

4.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(4): 551-555, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642234

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the status and influencing factors of the knowledge and behavior related to brucellosis among occupational workers in Jianyang city, and to provide basic information for developing regional specific strategies for brucellosis prevention and control. METHODS: With multistage cluster random sampling, occupational workers aged ≥18 yr. who had been in contact with sheep and their products were interviewed through a questionnaire about demographic characteristic, knowledge, and behavior related to brucellosis. The knowledge and practice scores were described as frequency and percentage, and the awareness rate of knowledge about brucellosis was calculated. Unconditional logistic regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors of knowledge and behavior related to brucellosis. RESULTS: In total, 378 workers were recruited. The minority (25.1%) of the workers had heard of brucellosis, and the awareness rate of brucellosis was 22.0%. Occupational protective behaviors were poor, and the scoring rates of wearing protective clothes, mask and gloves were 58.7%, 76.5%, 71.7% respectively. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the awareness rate of knowledge about brucellosis decreased with age, while the low educational level was found to be associated with low awareness of knowledge about brucellosis, and occupation type had association with the awareness rate of knowledge. Besides, the awareness of knowledge about brucellosis was a protective factor and occupation type were associated with the behavior related to brucellosis. CONCLUSIONS: The knowledge and behavior related to brucellosis are poor among occupational workers in Jianyang. It is necessary to continuously implement targeted health education and health promotion programs in this region, and the people with low education level and livestock farmers should be paid special attention to.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Animais , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Ovinos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(3): 1504-1511, 2019 Mar 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088003

RESUMO

This study was intended to explore the distribution and stability of soil aggregates and the organic carbon for different forest types and to provide a scientific basis for the efficient management of soil carbon pools in subtropical forest ecosystems. Four subtropical forest types, including bamboo forest, broad-leaf forest, coniferous forest, and a mixed coniferous and broad-leaf forest on Jinyun Mountain (Chongqing Municipality), were selected as research subjects to explore the distribution of soil aggregates and organic carbon in different layers (depths of 0-20, 20-40, 40-60, and 60-100 cm). The results showed:The content of >2 mm aggregates and mean weight diameter (MWD), geometric mean diameter (GMD), and >0.25 mm aggregate content (R0.25) in broad-leaf forests decreased with soil depth, while other forests did not have a similar distribution pattern. In each soil layer, bamboo forest soils were mainly composed of >2 mm fractions of aggregates, which made up 30.73%-53.08% of the total content; The content of 2-0.25 mm particle size aggregates of broad-leaf and mixed forest soils was higher than that for other sizes, and its content ranged from 36.27% to 44.67% and 48.69% to 52.44%, respectively. The 2-0.25 mm and <0.053 mm fractions of aggregates dominated conifer soils. In general, the MWD, GMD, and R0.25 of bamboo aggregates were higher than for other stands in each soil layer, and the fractal dimension (D) was lower than for other stands. This indicated that the soil aggregates of bamboo forest have better stability. As the soil layer deepened, the organic carbon content of soil aggregates in forest types, except for coniferous forest, gradually decreased. Among them all, bamboo forest aggregates had the highest organic carbon content, and this was significantly higher than that of coniferous forest and mixed forest. In the whole soil profile, as far as different aggregate size is concerned, there was no obvious regularity about organic carbon in the four forest types soil aggregates; the organic carbon content of the 2-0.25 mm and <0.053 mm fractions of aggregates was high in every soil layer. There was a significant difference in the relative contribution of organic carbon in soil aggregates for different forest stands, among these contributions, the contribution rate of organic carbon in the <0.053 mm fraction of aggregates in the coniferous forest was the highest. The organic carbon contribution rate of the >2 mm fraction of bamboo forest aggregates was as high as 27.44%-53.47%. Broad-leaf forests and mixed forests had the highest contribution to the organic carbon of the 2-0.25 mm fractions of soil aggregates. Among the four forest types on Jinyun Mountain, the soil aggregates in bamboo forest have better stability, but the stability of aggregates in coniferous forests is poor. In each soil layer, the content of bamboo forest organic carbon in the various aggregates was the highest, and that of coniferous forest was the lowest.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Florestas , Solo/química , China
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(11): 5160-5169, 2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30796190

RESUMO

Preclinical studies indicate that (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (HNK) is a putative fast-acting antidepressant candidate. Although inhibition of NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) is one mechanism proposed to underlie ketamine's antidepressant and adverse effects, the potency of (2R,6R)-HNK to inhibit NMDARs has not been established. We used a multidisciplinary approach to determine the effects of (2R,6R)-HNK on NMDAR function. Antidepressant-relevant behavioral responses and (2R,6R)-HNK levels in the extracellular compartment of the hippocampus were measured following systemic (2R,6R)-HNK administration in mice. The effects of ketamine, (2R,6R)-HNK, and, in some cases, the (2S,6S)-HNK stereoisomer were evaluated on the following: (i) NMDA-induced lethality in mice, (ii) NMDAR-mediated field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in the CA1 field of mouse hippocampal slices, (iii) NMDAR-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) and NMDA-evoked currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons of rat hippocampal slices, and (iv) recombinant NMDARs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. While a single i.p. injection of 10 mg/kg (2R,6R)-HNK exerted antidepressant-related behavioral and cellular responses in mice, the ED50 of (2R,6R)-HNK to prevent NMDA-induced lethality was found to be 228 mg/kg, compared with 6.4 mg/kg for ketamine. The 10 mg/kg (2R,6R)-HNK dose generated maximal hippocampal extracellular concentrations of ∼8 µM, which were well below concentrations required to inhibit synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDARs in vitro. (2S,6S)-HNK was more potent than (2R,6R)-HNK, but less potent than ketamine at inhibiting NMDARs. These data demonstrate the stereoselectivity of NMDAR inhibition by (2R,6R;2S,6S)-HNK and support the conclusion that direct NMDAR inhibition does not contribute to antidepressant-relevant effects of (2R,6R)-HNK.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Ketamina/farmacologia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/química , Masculino , Camundongos , N-Metilaspartato/metabolismo , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Células Piramidais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Piramidais/metabolismo , Ratos , Xenopus laevis
7.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 39(6): 2827-2836, 2018 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29965641

RESUMO

China is the leading country for production of edible mushrooms and also outputs numerous mushroom residues. The recycling of mushroom residue can solve environmental pollution problems, provide nutrients for the farmland, and play an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and increasing soil carbon sequestration capacity. In order to investigate the effects of mushroom residue amounts on net greenhouse gas emissions in purple paddy soil, potted experiments using static opaque chamber and gas chromatography methods were used to study the changes of greenhouse gases, soil carbon sequestration, and net greenhouse gas emissions (NGHGE) in the paddy soil with five treatments: no fertilizer (CK), conventional fertilization (NPK), 9 t·hm-2 mushroom residue+NPK (LM), 18 t·hm-2 mushroom residue+NPK (MM), and 36 t·hm2 mushroom residue+NPK (HM) from March 2017 to September 2017.The results showed that: ① The greenhouse gas emissions (including CH4, CO2, and N2O) increased with increasing additions of mushroom residue. The emissions of CH4 from highest to lowest followed: HM > MM > LM≈NPK > CK. The HM treatment significantly increased the CH4 emission flux (P<0.01) more than the other treatments and showed an obvious single peak curve, while the CH4 emission flux with the LM treatment showed a bimodal curve, and the MM treatment showed a multiple peak curve. The CO2 emission flux followed: MM > NPK≈LM > HM > CK; and the curves for the LM, MM, and HM treatments were a single peak curve, bimodal curve, and multiple peak curve, respectively. The N2O cumulative emission from the NPK treatment was significantly higher than with the other treatments. The N2O emission flux of the NPK treatment was a bimodal curve and that of the HM treatment was a single peak curve, while the N2O emission flux of treatments LM and MM showed multiple peak curves. ② The carbon sequestration capacity with the LM treatment was lower than that of the other treatments and that from the MM treatment was the highest. The carbon sequestration capacity of the MM treatment increased by 59.2% compared to that of the NPK treatment and increased by 87.79% and 65.65% compared to that of the LM and HM treatments. The LM treatment has the highest carbon sequestration capacity, which was higher than that of the NPK and MM treatments and about 2.1 times greater than the CK treatment and HM treatment. ③ The minimum NGHGE value was -490.29 kg·hm-2 for the whole rice production period, and 18 t·hm-2 mushroom residue applied to the soil was the best way to reduce net greenhouse gas emissions in purple paddy soil.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Fertilizantes , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Solo/química , Agricultura , Dióxido de Carbono , Sequestro de Carbono , China , Metano , Óxido Nitroso , Oryza
8.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 10(10): 1611-1613, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29062783

RESUMO

Corneal diseases are currently the second main cause of blindness in China. Although most of the corneal blindness could be treated by corneal transplantation, only about 10 000 operations were carried out each year owing to the severe shortage of corneal donors and limited eye bank programs. A feasible cornea donation program was established through the organization of the Red Cross, and in situ corneal removal techniques were developed to avoid conflicts with Chinese traditions of keeping the deceased intact. The number of donated corneas, which had a safe and secure quality, increased significantly year by year.

10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 187(10): 650, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26412080

RESUMO

A simple and rapid method based on high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of imidacloprid and chlorfenapyr residues in chieh-qua. Field trials were designed to investigate the dissipation and terminal residue behavior of the mixed formulation of imidacloprid and chlorfenapyr in chieh-qua in Guangzhou and Nanning areas. Risk assessment was performed by calculating the risk quotient (RQ) values. The developed analytical method exhibited recoveries of 89.9-110.3% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.8-12.5% at the spiked levels of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/kg. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.003 mg/kg, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.01 mg/kg for both imidacloprid and chlorfenapyr. It was found that the half-lives of imidacloprid in chieh-qua under field conditions were 3.3 and 3.5 days in Guangzhou and Nanning at a dose of 180 g ai/ha, while the half-lives of chlorfenapyr were 3.3 and 2.6 days, respectively. The terminal residues of imidacloprid and chlorfenapyr were from 0.01 to 0.21 mg/kg and from 0.01 to 0.46 mg/kg, respectively. Results of dietary exposure assessment showed that the RQ values were much lower than 1, indicating that the risk of imidacloprid and chlorfenapyr applied in chieh-qua was negligible to human health under recommended dosage and good agricultural practices. The proposed study would provide guidance for safe and reasonable use of imidacloprid and chlorfenapyr in chieh-qua cultivation in China.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Cucurbitaceae/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Imidazóis/análise , Nitrocompostos/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Piretrinas/análise , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Limite de Detecção , Neonicotinoides , Medição de Risco , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
11.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(3): 432-6, 2013 Jun 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23774923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the status of free influenza vaccination rates for the elderly in Beijing. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was carried out among 1 000 old people in Beijing. Random sampling method was employed. Descriptive analysis and Chi square test were used for statistical analysis, and Logistic regression model was used to analyze the difference in free influenza vaccination rates between the urban and rural areas. RESULTS: The continuous influenza vaccination rate of the elderly from 2007 to 2010 was 46.4%, which was higher in the rural (70.9%) than in the urban (38.3%). The vaccination rate in the rural was 3.859 times that in the urban, after other variables were controlled. CONCLUSION: The vaccination rate among the elderly in Beijing has been raised after the implementation of free influenza vaccination policy in 2007, especially for the rural people. In the urban areas, concerning about the safety of the vaccine is one of the reasons why people chose not to take free influenza vaccination; while in the rural, the insufficient knowledge about the flu and influenza vaccine plays an important role.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , População Rural , População Urbana , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , China , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/psicologia
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 93(8): 1967-73, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23592555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human exposure to cadmium (Cd) is largely attributed to consumption of vegetables grown in polluted soils. In China, guidelines set for Cd in soils are uniform for different crops and diverse soil types, but not risk based. A high-density sampling of 711 paired soil and vegetables was carried out across Guangdong, South China. We aimed to model the transfer of Cd from soil to leafy, rootstalk and fruit vegetables, and to set regional guidelines of Cd [total and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) -extractable] in soil for vegetable safe production. RESULTS: Both total and DTPA-extractable Cd concentrations in soil were good predictors for Cd in vegetables. The transfer of Cd in soil to vegetables could be estimated by nonlinear models, with better fit when using DTPA-extractable Cd than total Cd in soil. The calculated thresholds of soil total Cd were 2.42, 0.94 and 1.57 mg kg(-1) whereas those of soil DTPA-extractable Cd were 1.08, 0.33 and 0.63 mg kg(-1) for leafy, rootstalk and fruit vegetable fields in Guangdong, respectively, all higher than the national soil Cd threshold. CONCLUSION: Cadmium-contaminated risk for vegetable production in Guangdong province might have been over-estimated according to the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for Soil.


Assuntos
Cádmio/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Solo/química , Verduras , Agricultura , China , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
13.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 49(10): 869-72, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24433686

RESUMO

Mitomycin C (MMC), as it could reduce tissue adhesions and scar formation, has been widely adopted in pterygium surgery to lower the recurrence rate.Upon a certain therapeutic effect obtained, a variety of ocular complications was combined and always occupies a quite long time after MMC application.once occurred, it was tough to cure. Compared to autologous limbal-conjunctival grafts, MMC has no apparent advantage to reduce reoccurrence of pterygium. Therefore, it is advised to abandon the use of MMC in pterygium surgery.


Assuntos
Mitomicina/efeitos adversos , Pterígio/cirurgia , Contraindicações , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias
14.
Eur J Neurosci ; 36(9): 3165-72, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22958226

RESUMO

Neuropil deposition of beta-amyloid (Aß) peptides is believed to be a key event in the neurodegenerative process of Alzheimer's disease (AD). An early and consistent clinical finding in AD is olfactory dysfunction with associated pathology. Interestingly, transgenic amyloid precursor protein (Tg2576) mice also show early amyloid pathology in olfactory regions. Moreover, a recent study indicates that axonal transport is compromised in the olfactory system of Tg2576 mice, as measured by manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). Here we tested whether the putative axonal transport deficit in the Tg2576 mouse model improves in response to a selective gamma-secretase inhibitor, N-[cis-4-[(4-chlorophenyl)-sulfonyl]-4-(2,5-difluorophenyl)cyclohexyl]-1,1,1-trifluoromethanesulfonamide (MRK-560). Tg2576 mice or wild-type (WT) littermates were treated daily with MRK-560 (30 µmol/kg) or vehicle for 4 (acute) or 29 days (chronic). The subsequent MEMRI analysis revealed a distinct axonal transport dysfunction in the Tg2576 mice compared with its littermate controls. Interestingly, the impairment of axonal transport could be fully reversed by chronic administration of MRK-560, in line with the significantly lowered levels of both soluble and insoluble forms of Aß found in the brain and olfactory bulbs (OBs) following treatment. However, no improvement of axonal transport was observed after acute treatment with MRK-560, where soluble but not insoluble forms of Aß were reduced in the brain and OBs. The present results show that axonal transport is impaired in Tg2576 mice compared with WT controls, as measured by MEMRI. Chronic treatment in vivo with a gamma-secretase inhibitor, MRK-560, significantly reduces soluble and insoluble forms of Aß, and fully reverses the axonal transport dysfunction.


Assuntos
Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/genética , Transporte Axonal/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Transporte Axonal/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Manganês , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Bulbo Olfatório/metabolismo
15.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 5(6): 681-6, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23275901

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the infiltration and activation of lymphocyte in iris-ciliary body and anterior chamber after allogenic penetrating keratoplasty (PK), for further revealing the role of iris-ciliary body in corneal allograft immune rejection. METHODS: In the mice models of PK, BALB/C mice received orthotopic isografts (n =35) or C57BL/6 donor allografts (n =25). Grafts were examined daily for 3 weeks by slit-lamp microscopy and scored for opacity. The infiltration of CD4(+) T lymphocyte in iris-ciliary body and anterior chamber was examined by immunohistology and the mRNA of CD80 and CD86 in both cornea graft and iris-ciliary body by RT-PCR was analyzed in allograft recipient at days 3, 6, 10 and the day when graft rejection occurred. Isograft recipients were examined as control at the corresponding time points. Transmission electron microscope was used to study the ultrastructure, especially cell infiltration, of iris-cilary body and corneal graft at day 3, 7 and the day when rejection occurred after allogenic PK. RESULTS: Rejection was observed in all the allograft recipients followed more than 10 days, at a median time of 15 days (range 12-18 days), but not in any of isografts. CD4(+) T cells were first detected at day 6 after transplantation in limbus and Ciliary body, and then in the stroma of recipient, iris, anterior chamber and corneal allograft with an increased number until graft rejection occurred. CD80 and CD86 mRNA were detected under RT-PCR examination in both graft and iris-ciliary body of allograft recipient, but not in any of isograft recipient. Three days after operation, lymphocytes and monocytes macrophages were visible in iris blood vessels and the anterior chamber, and vascular endothelial cell proliferation and activation were significant under transmission electron microscopy examination. At day 7, corneal endothelial cells became thinner. Lymphocytes and mononuclear macrophages were found with great number in the anterior chamber and adhered to the corneal endothelium. Blood vessels in iris increased and were filled with lymphocytes. And lymphocytes were detected to migrate through endothelial cell gap out of vessels. When allograft rejection occurred, macrophages attached to endothelial cells with large number of lymphocytes and macrophages infiltrating in iris. CONCLUSION: Lymphocyte infiltration and activation occurred in iris-ciliary body after allogenic PK, and the lymphocytes could migrate from iris blood vessel to the anterior chamber, which might play an important role in corneal allograft immune rejection.

16.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 11(12): 958-64, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21121075

RESUMO

Seed vigor is an important characteristic of seed quality, and rice cultivars with strong seed vigor are desirable in direct-sowing rice production for optimum stand establishment. In the present study, the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of three traits for rice seed vigor during the germination stage, including germination rate, final germination percentage, and germination index, were investigated using one recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between japonica Daguandao and indica IR28, and using the multiple interval mapping (MIM) approach. The results show that indica rice presented stronger seed vigor during the germination stage than japonica rice. A total of ten QTLs, and at least five novel alleles, were detected to control rice seed vigor, and the amount of variation (R(2)) explained by an individual QTL ranged from 7.5% to 68.5%, with three major QTLs with R(2)>20%. Most of the QTLs detected here are likely to coincide with QTLs for seed weight, seed size, or seed dormancy, suggesting that the rice seed vigor might be correlated with seed weight, seed size, and seed dormancy. At least five QTLs are novel alleles with no previous reports of seed vigor genes in rice, and those major or minor QTLs could be used to significantly improve the seed vigor by marker-assisted selection (MAS) in rice.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Plântula/genética , Germinação , Vigor Híbrido/genética , Fenótipo
17.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 20(7): 487-500, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20413275

RESUMO

The effects of the HT(1A) receptor antagonist NAD-299 on extracellular acetylcholine (ACh) and glutamate (Glu) levels in the frontal cortex (FC) and ventral hippocampus (HPC) of the awake rats were investigated by the use of in vivo microdialysis. Systemic administration of NAD-299 (0.3; 1 and 3micromol/kg s.c.) caused a dose-dependent increase in ACh levels in FC and HPC (peak value of 209% and 221%, respectively) and this effect was comparable to that induced by donepezil (2.63micromol/kg s.c.). Moreover, the ACh levels in the FC increased even after repeated (14days) treatment with NAD-299 and when NAD-299 was injected locally into the nucleus basalis magnocellularis or perfused through the microdialysis probe implanted in the cortex. In contrast, NAD-299 failed to alter the extracellular levels of glutamate after systemic (3micromol/kg s.c.) or local (100microM) administration. The present data support the hypothesis that cholinergic transmission in cortico-limbic regions can be enhanced via blockade of postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) receptors, which may underlie the proposed cognitive enhancing properties of NAD-299 in models characterized by cholinergic deficit.


Assuntos
Acetilcolina/metabolismo , Benzopiranos/farmacologia , Lobo Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas da Serotonina/farmacologia , Vigília , 8-Hidroxi-2-(di-n-propilamino)tetralina/farmacologia , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Donepezila , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Líquido Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Líquido Extracelular/metabolismo , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Indanos/farmacologia , Masculino , Microdiálise/métodos , Neostigmina/farmacologia , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Agonistas do Receptor de Serotonina/farmacologia
20.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 44(1): 56-60, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18510245

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the therapeutic effect of double-functioned CTLA4-FasL protein for the prevention of immune rejection in murine corneal allografts. METHODS: It was a experimental study. C57BL/6 mice (n = 45) were as donors and BALB/c mice (n = 90) as recipients. BALB/c mice accepted penetrating keratoplasty were randomly divided into 3 groups including no therapy (A), CsA DDS implanted in anterior chamber (B), 10 microg/mL CTLA4-FasL (C). Survival time of corneal allografts was observed and routine assays were performed including immunohistochemistry, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). RESULTS: Survival time of corneal transplants was (14.3 +/- 1.3) days, (58.0 +/- 2.8) days, (106.3 +/- 17.5) days respectively. There was significant difference between groups in statistics analysis (P = 0.000). Inflammatory cells, predominant for CD4 + T cells, showed an increasing tendency for rejected corneal allografts in A group, peaked on postoperative 7 d and then decreased in C group compared with invisible in B group. CD80 or CD86 was detected on postoperative 3 d or 7 d respectively in excised cornea and iris of both A and B group, while either showed weakening expression in C group. On postoperative 14 d, IL-10, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma mRNA were only detected in rejected cornea allograft of A group other than clear allografts of B or C group. Compared with no apoptosis in the other groups, abundant apoptosis cells were visible in cornea and iris of C group on postoperative 7 d. CONCLUSIONS: CTLA4-FasL is able to prolong survival time of corneal allografts by dual action mechanism to exert immunosuppressive effects, both blockade of CD28-CD80/86 pathway and induction of apoptosis of T cell.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/uso terapêutico , Proteína Ligante Fas/uso terapêutico , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Ceratoplastia Penetrante , Animais , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Apoptose , Antígeno B7-1/imunologia , Antígeno B7-2/imunologia , Antígenos CD28/imunologia , Antígeno CTLA-4 , Citocinas/imunologia , Proteína Ligante Fas/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transplante Homólogo
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