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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603807

RESUMO

Low-Dose CT (LDCT) can significantly improve the accuracy of lung cancer diagnosis and thus reduce cancer deaths compared to chest X-ray. The lung cancer risk population is also at high risk of other deadly diseases, for instance, cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, predicting the all-cause mortality risks of this population is of great importance. This paper introduces a knowledge-based analytical method using deep convolutional neural network (CNN) for all-cause mortality prediction. The underlying approach combines structural image features extracted from CNNs, based on LDCT volume in different scales, and clinical knowledge obtained from quantitative measurements, to predict the mortality risk of lung cancer screening subjects. The proposed method is referred as Knowledge-based Analysis of Mortality Prediction Network (KAMP-Net). It constitutes a collaborative framework that utilizes both imaging features and anatomical information, instead of completely relying on automatic feature extraction. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of incorporating quantitative clinical measurements to assist CNNs in all-cause mortality prediction from chest LDCT images. The results of this study confirm that radiologist defined features can complement CNNs in performance improvement. The experiments demonstrate that KAMP-Net can achieve a superior performance when compared to other methods.

2.
Pancreatology ; 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590960

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study was conducted to explore the diagnostic value of MUC2 gene methylation in pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Methylation restriction enzyme digestion (Msp I/Hap II) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to detect methylation of the MUC2 gene in fecal and blood specimens from seven study subjects with pancreatic cancer (PC), chronic pancreatitis (CP), or normal controls (CON). Simultaneously, blood CA 19-9 levels were detected as a positive indicator of PC. RESULTS: MUC2 methylation was detected in 50% of PC cell lines. In fecal samples, the MUC2 methylation rate in PC (n = 30) was 43.3%, which was significantly higher than those in CP (n = 8, 0%, P < 0.05) and CON (n = 20, 5.0%, P < 0.05). In blood samples, the MUC2 methylation rate in PC (n = 40) was 52.5%, which was significantly higher than those in CP (n = 15, 0%, P < 0.01) and CON (n = 25, 4.0%, P < 0.01). For PC diagnosis, MUC2 gene methylation in blood samples showed higher specificity and positive predictive value than CA 19-9. The combined detection in the feces and blood showed a 60% MUC2 methylation rate in PC (n = 10), which was higher than those in the CP (n = 5, 0%, P < 0.01) and CON (n = 12, 0%, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The study can clearly indicate that combined detection of MUC2 gene methylation in the peripheral blood and feces could be used as a new screening and early diagnosis method for pancreatic cancer.

3.
Phys Med Biol ; 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618724

RESUMO

Machine learning and deep learning are rapidly finding applications in the medical imaging field. In this paper, we address the long-standing problem of metal artifacts in computed tomography (CT) images by training a dual-stream deep convolutional neural network for streak removal. While many metal artifact reduction methods exist, even state-of-the-art algorithms fall short in some clinical applications. Specifically, proton therapy planning requires high image quality with accurate tumor volumes to ensure treatment success. We explore a dual-stream deep network structure with residual learning to correct metal streak artifacts after a first-pass by a state-of-the-art interpolation-based algorithm, NMAR. We provide the network with a mask of the streaks in order to focus attention on those areas. Our experiments compare a mean squared error loss function with a perceptual loss function to emphasize preservation of image features and texture. Both visual and quantitative metrics are used to assess the resulting image quality for metal implant cases. Success may be due to the duality of information processing, with one network stream performing local structure correction, while the other stream provides an attention mechanism to destreak effectively. This study shows that image-domain deep learning can be highly effective for metal artifact reduction (MAR), and highlights the benefits and drawbacks of different loss functions for solving a major CT reconstruction challenge.

4.
Life Sci ; 238: 116953, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626793

RESUMO

AIMS: This study focused on investigating whether NS8593 reverses airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction and the underlying mechanism. MAIN METHODS: ASM contraction in mouse tracheal rings and lung slices was measured. Currents mediated by voltage dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs) and ACH-activated channels were measured using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique in single tracheal smooth muscle cells (TSMCs). Intracellular Ca2+ level and cell length were measured using an LSM 700 laser confocal microscope and a Zen 2010 software. Mouse respiratory system resistance (Rrs) was assessed using a FlexiVent FX system. KEY FINDINGS: High K+ (80 mM K+) and ACH induced ASM contraction in mouse tracheal rings and lung slices, which was partially relaxed by nifedipine (blocker of L-type VDCCs, LVDCCs), YM-58483 (blocker of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), transient receptor potential C3 (TRPC3) and TRPC5 channels), respectively. However, the contraction was completely reversed by NS8593, whereas, slightly relaxed by formoterol. ACH activated inward currents, which displayed linear and reversed around 0 mV, indicating the currents were mediated by non-selective cation channels (NSCCs). Moreover, these currents were blocked by YM-58483. In addition, such currents were abolished by NS8593, implicating that NS8593 inhibits the same channels. Besides, NS8593 inhibited increases of intracellular Ca2+ and the associated cell shortening. Finally, NS8593 inhibited ACH-induced increases of mouse respirator system resistance (Rrs). SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that NS8593 inhibits LVDCCs and NSCCs, resulting in decreases of intracellular Ca2+ and then leading to ASM relaxation. These data suggest that NS8593 might be a new bronchodilator.

5.
Small ; 15(44): e1902945, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531961

RESUMO

Studies on distinctive performances and novel applications of amorphous inorganic nanomaterials are becoming attractive. Herein, Ag2 S amorphous and crystalline nanodots (ANDs and CNDs) are prepared via facile methods. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that Ag2 S ANDs, rather than CNDs, can induce the self-destruction of tumors, which can be attributed to their distinctive chemical properties, e.g., the higher electrochemical active surface area and lower redox potential well matching with the redox reaction requirement in the tumor microenvironment. Ag2 S ANDs can be oxidized by intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) to release Ag+ , which further stimulates high generation of intracellular ROS. This mutual stimulation damages the mitochondria, induces apoptosis, and leads to the self-destruction of the tumor. Moreover, Ag2 S ANDs do not show observable in vitro and in vivo side effects. These findings provide a promising self-destructive strategy for cancer therapy by utilizing distinctive chemical properties of inorganic nanomaterials, while avoiding complicated external assistance.

6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(38): 34989-34996, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487453

RESUMO

Preparing high-quality perovskite film with large grain size and fewer trap states is of vital importance in boosting the efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). However, it is still difficult to obtain perfect MAPbI3 films by antisolvent treatment so far because of the small grain size, pinholes, and numerous defects in perovskite layers. Herein, acetonitrile (ACN) was introduced into chlorobenzene (CB) antisolvent to modify the MAPbI3 active layer. The results show that the ACN could control the ratio of the DMSO in MAI-PbI2-DMSO intermediate phase film effectively and thus manipulate the formation of MAPbI3 film. Relatively high-quality perovskite films with larger grain size were obtained when we added 6% v/v ACN into CB antisolvent. Based on the ACN-modified MAPbI3 film, the n-i-p planar device with the structure of FTO/SnO2/MAPbI3/spiro-OMeTAD/Ag yields the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18.9%. It exhibited an enhancement of 16.6% in efficiency compared with the PCE of 16.2% for the control device. In addition, the device based on ACN-modified MAPbI3 also presents improved stability in air atmosphere.

7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499116

RESUMO

We employed a single factor and response surface methodology based on Box-Behnken design (BBD) to optimize the extraction of pumpkin polysaccharides. We then simulated pumpkin polysaccharide gastrointestinal digestion in vitro and investigated their biodistribution in mice. The optimal extraction conditions, with a yield of 7.382 ±â€¯0.21%, were as follows: a concentration of NaOH 1.20%, a ratio of material to liquid of 1:11, and an extraction time of 2.1 h, respectively, according to single factor and BBD experiments. In the gastrointestinal experiment in vitro, the molecular weight of the polysaccharides markedly decreased after gastric digestion for 30 min, suggesting the decline is due to the breakdown of polysaccharide glycosidic bonds. The simulated intestinal fluid had little effect on polysaccharides digestion within 240 min. Analysis of the biodistribution in mice indicated that the polysaccharides distribute in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum 30 to 60 min after intragastrical administration, and are absorbed in the jejunum and ileum after 60 to 360 min. These results provide information on the digestion and biodistribution of pumpkin polysaccharides and offer a theoretical basis for further understanding the absorption mechanisms in vivo.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485940

RESUMO

Urbanization is an important direction for China's future social development and an important focus of its carbon emission reduction path. China's current administrative management is a vertical nested structure, and the characteristics of high-scale regions have a non-negligible impact on low-scale areas. Taking the county scale of the basic unit of economic and social development as the research scale, according to the panel data of the Yangtze River Delta from 2008 to 2016, a two-level hierarchical linear model (HLM) for carbon emission intensity is constructed, especially considering the characteristics of high-scale regions (i.e., low-carbon pilot cities) at the second level, and is combined with the mediating effect test method to analyze the impact path of urban development on carbon emissions intensity. The results show that (1) there is a spatial nesting relationship between regions of different scales, and the city scale can explain 85.21% of the carbon emissions intensity, which is much higher than the county scale. (2) There is an N-shaped curve relationship between urban development and carbon emissions intensity. After considering the high-scale factor (low-carbon pilot cities) at the city scale (the second level of the HLM), if a high-scale city is a low-carbon pilot city, then improvement in the level of urbanization in the county can promote a reduction in carbon intensity. (3) The impact path of urban development ⇄ per capita gross domestic product (the proportion of secondary industry, patent application volume) → carbon emissions intensity and urban development → the proportion of tertiary industry → carbon emissions intensity is significant. However, the path of the proportion of tertiary industry → urban development → carbon emissions intensity is not significant.

10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(36): 10214-10221, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430143

RESUMO

5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) can undergo the Maillard reaction with amino acids. However, the safety of the products remains unknown. In this study, a HMF-lysine Schiff base named (E)-N6-((5'-(hydroxymethyl)furan-2'-yl)methylene)lysine (HML) was identified and detected for the first time in baked foods. HML formation significantly decreased the cytotoxicity (IC50) of HMF against GES-1 cells (81.81 versus 5.02 mM and 73.76 versus 2.94 mM for HML versus HMF at 24 and 48 h, respectively), EA.hy926 cells (86.05 versus 4.85 mM and 77.22 versus 0.71 mM, respectively), and Caco-2 cells (155.77 versus 36.84 mM and 112.70 versus 18.51 mM, respectively). Exposure of Caco-2 cells to HMF at 10.0 mM triggered cell apoptosis of 14.02% (versus 8.54% in the control), whereas exposure to HML at 10-15 mM hardly increased cell apoptosis. Moreover, the absorption capacities of HMF and HML by Caco-2 cells were equivalent (p > 0.05) at 7.23-12.57% after incubation at 2 mM for 30-150 min.


Assuntos
Furaldeído/análogos & derivados , Lisina/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Furaldeído/química , Furaldeído/toxicidade , Humanos , Lisina/toxicidade , Reação de Maillard
11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12499, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467316

RESUMO

Studying the obstacles associated with continuous cropping is necessary for sustainable agricultural production. Phenolic acids play an important role in continuous cropping systems, although their mechanism of action in these systems remains unclear. Using High-performance Liquid Chromatography, we characterized the changes in phenolic acid contents in soils that had been continuously cropped with tobacco for different time periods and evaluated the interactions between soil physicochemical properties, bacterial community structure and diversity, and phenolic acids. Prolonged continuous cropping was associated with a significant increase in the content of phenolic acids and a significant decrease in soil pH and bacterial diversity. A significant negative correlation between pH and phenolic acids content was observed, suggesting that soil acidification potentially leads to the accumulation of phenolic acids. The Mantel test indicated that phenolic acids were positively associated with relative bacterial abundance (R = 0.480, P < 0.01), signifying that the accumulation of phenolic acids is a potential factor leading to changes in bacterial community structure. Continuous cropping lowered the soil pH, which stimulated phenolic acid accumulation and consequently altered the bacterial community structure and diversity, ultimately impacting tobacco plant growth.

12.
Chem Biol Interact ; 311: 108794, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421115

RESUMO

Acanthoic acid (AA) is a pimaradiene diterpene isolated from Acanthopanax koreanum Nakai (Araliaceae), with anti-inflammatory and hepatic-protective effects. The present study intended to reveal the effect and mechanism of AA on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated with lipid accumulation by activating Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and liver X receptors (LXRs) signaling. C57BL/6 mice were received a modified Lieber-DeCarli diet with 71% high-fat (L-D) and treated with AA (20 and 40 mg/kg) or equal volume of saline for 12 weeks. The regulation of AA on lipid accumulation was also detected in pro-steatotic stimulated AML12 cells with palmitic acid (PA). When L-D diet-fed mice were treated with AA, loss in body weight, liver index, and liver lipid droplet were observed along with reduced triglyceride (TG) and serum transaminase. Furthermore, AA decreased sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) and target genes expression, regulated PPARα and PPARγ expressions, ameliorated hepatic fibrosis markers, enhanced hepatic FXR and LXR, and regulated AMPK-LKB1 and SIRT1 signaling pathway. Moreover, AA attenuated lipid accumulation via FXR and LXR activation in steatotic AML-12 cells, which was confirmed by guggulsterones (FXR antagonist) or GW3965 (LXR agonist). Activation of FXR and LXR signaling caused by AA might increase AMPK-SIRT1 signaling and then contribute to modulating lipid accumulation and fatty acid synthesis, which suggested that activated FXR-LXR axis by AA represented an effective strategy for relieving NAFLD.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/farmacologia , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores X do Fígado/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Diterpenos/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores X do Fígado/agonistas , Receptores X do Fígado/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , PPAR alfa/genética , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Ácido Palmítico/farmacologia , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue
13.
Med Phys ; 46(11): 4803-4815, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408539

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In computed tomography (CT), miscalibrated or imperfect detector elements produce stripe artifacts in the sinogram. The stripe artifacts in Radon space are responsible for concentric ring artifacts in the reconstructed images. In this work, a novel optimization model is proposed to remove the ring artifacts in an iterative reconstruction procedure. METHOD: In the proposed optimization model, a novel ring total variation (RTV) regularization is developed to penalize the ring artifacts in the image domain. Moreover, to correct the sinogram, a new correcting vector is proposed to compensate for malfunctioning of detectors in the projection domain. The optimization problem is solved by using the alternating minimization scheme (AMS). In each iteration, the fidelity term along with the RTV regularization is solved using the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) to find the image, and then the correcting coefficient vector is updated for certain detectors according to the obtained image. Because the sinogram and the image are simultaneously updated, the proposed method basically performs in both image and sinogram domains. RESULTS: The proposed method is evaluated using both simulated and physical phantom datasets containing different ring artifact patterns. In the simulated datasets, the Shepp-Logan phantom, a real chest scan image and a noisy low-contrast phantom are considered for the performance evaluation of our method. We compare the quantitative root mean square error (RMSE) and structural similarity (SSIM) results of our algorithm with wavelet-Fourier sinogram filtering method by Munch et al., the ring artifact reduction method by Brun et al., and the TV-based ring correction method by Paleo and Mirone. Our proposed method is also evaluated using a physical phantom dataset where strong ring artifacts are manifest due to the miscalibration of a large number of detectors. Our proposed method outperforms the competing methods in terms of both qualitative and quantitative evaluation results. CONCLUSION: The experimental results in both simulated and physical phantom datasets show that the proposed method achieves the state-of-the-art ring artifact reduction performance in terms of RMSE, SSIM, and subjective visual quality.

14.
Food Funct ; 10(9): 5531-5543, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418439

RESUMO

Caenorhabditis elegans is an important model organism for studying stress response mechanisms and identifying genetic pathways that influence longevity. The present study was designed to explore the in vivo-antioxidant potential and the probable mechanism of acid hydrolysates prepared from A. auricula polysaccharides (AAPHs-F) with the optimal acid hydrolysis conditions using Box-Behnken design, and C. elegans was used as a model organism. The effects of AAPHs-F on the locomotory behavior, lifespan, activities of antioxidant-related enzymes and levels of antioxidants in C. elegans were studied. In addition, the potential of AAPHs-F in up-regulating the expression of antioxidant-related genes in C. elegans, such as daf-16, skn-1, sod-1, sod-2 and sir-2.1, and the inhibition of cell apoptosis of C. elegans were also discussed. The results indicated that AAPHs-F could significantly increase the U-Turn frequency of nematodes, extend their lifespan, enhance antioxidant systems including superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 70.60%, catalase (CAT) by 73.45% and glutathione reductase (GR) by 258.68% (p < 0.01), increase the level of glutathione (GSH) by 110.22% (p < 0.01), and decrease the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) by 31.86% and 46.16% (p < 0.01), respectively. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) results showed that AAPHs-F could up-regulate mRNA expression levels of daf-16, skn-1, sir, sod-1 and sod-2 in wild-type C. elegans (>1.3 fold) when treated at a concentration of 0.1 mg mL-1 (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). AAPHs-F was concluded to be heteropolysaccharides composed of mannose, glucose and galactose with a molar ratio of 12.7 : 3.25 : 1. The molecular weight of AAPHs-F was determined to be 885.37 Da. Furthermore, AAPHs-F is mainly formed of (1 → 3)-linked-α-d-glucopyranose, and carboxyl or acetamide is present in the molecule. In summary, our studies provide evidence that AAPHs-F helps improve the antioxidant defense system, and up-regulation of stress and longevity related genes suggests the possible involvement of these genes in the prevention of stress damage in C. elegans.

15.
Nanotechnology ; 30(43): 434002, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315091

RESUMO

An efficient 'structure-property' catalyst Ag-CuO/SBA-15 for aerobic epoxidation of olefins was designed and prepared via a simple grinding method, which provided a dynamic assembly driving force to push the precursors into the channels step by step. Partial melting on the precursor particles surface is necessary for synthesizing the Ag-CuO/SBA-15 catalysts. During the thermal grinding process, the partial melting Cu(NO3)2 first adhered on AgNO3 particles surface because the N of AgNO3 possess stronger interaction with Cu(NO3)2 than OH- of SBA-15, then the mixture of melting precursors on AgNO3 particles surface were sucked into the channels of SBA-15 step by step. Finally, high dispersion of both Ag and CuO nanoparticles were formed in the SBA-15 channels after calcination. The interaction between Ag and CuO, which was characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis and x-ray powder diffraction, enhances the catalytic activity of the catalysts, giving high conversion and selectivity to the epoxides. The reaction mechanism is as follows, the solvent xylene molecule was first oxidized on the Ag surface to form methyl-benzaldehyde (R1), and then moved to the CuO surface to form the peroxidic radical (R2), the peroxidic radical attacked the trans-stilbene C=C bonds on the CuO surface to obtain the epoxides. This synergistic effect shows high activity toward the epoxidation of trans-stilbene.

16.
Phys Med Biol ; 64(14): 145011, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163408

RESUMO

Talbot-Lau grating interferometer (TLGI) has great advantages in x-ray imaging contrasts, especially for low-Z materials, over conventional absorption contrast. A microstructured array anode target (MAAT) source offers significantly higher imaging throughput than the combination of an extended x-ray source paired with an absorption grating (also known as source grating). The performance of the MAAT source can be optimized with respect to the areal density, dimensions, and choice of material for the microstructured metal inserts (MMI) and the substrate in which they are embedded. In this paper, we analyze the x-ray generation efficiency per incident electron, relative fraction of x-rays generated by MMI and substrate, x-ray spectrum, and angular distribution via Monte Carlo simulation. Based on the simulation results, the optimal parameters are obtained for a MAAT with incident electron energies from 30 keV to 120 keV. The corresponding temperature distribution within the MAAT is also simulated for the optimal set of the parameters via finite element analysis. As demonstrated by the thermal analysis data, the maximum allowable electron-beam power loading was derived that allows a stable operation of the transmission MAAT.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217097

RESUMO

In this paper, we present a semi-supervised deep learning approach to accurately recover high-resolution (HR) CT images from low-resolution (LR) counterparts. Specifically, with the generative adversarial network (GAN) as the building block, we enforce the cycle-consistency in terms of the Wasserstein distance to establish a nonlinear end-to-end mapping from noisy LR input images to denoised and deblurred HR outputs. We also include the joint constraints in the loss function to facilitate structural preservation. In this process, we incorporate deep convolutional neural network (CNN), residual learning, and network in network techniques for feature extraction and restoration. In contrast to the current trend of increasing network depth and complexity to boost the imaging performance, we apply a parallel 1.1 CNN to compress the output of the hidden layer and optimize the number of layers and the number of filters for each convolutional layer. Quantitative and qualitative evaluative results demonstrate that our proposed model is accurate, efficient and robust for super-resolution (SR) image restoration from noisy LR input images. In particular, we validate our composite SR networks on three large-scale CT datasets, and obtain promising results as compared to the other state-of-the-art methods.

18.
Plant Mol Biol ; 100(6): 647-658, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154655

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Found a trans-splicing of PHYTOENE SYNTHASE 1 alters tomato fruit color by map-based cloning, functional complementation and RACE providing an insight into fruit color development. Color is an important fruit quality trait and a major determinant of the economic value of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Fruit color inheritance in a yellow-fruited cherry tomato (cv. No. 22), named yellow-fruited tomato 2 (yft2), was shown to be controlled by a single recessive gene, YFT2. The YFT2 gene was mapped in a 95.7 kb region on chromosome 3, and the candidate gene, PHYTOENE SYNTHASE 1 (PSY1), was confirmed by functional complementation analysis. Constitutive over expression of PSY1 in yft2 increased the accumulation of carotenoids and resulted in a red fruit color, while no causal mutation was detected in the YFT2 allele of yft2, compared with red-fruited SL1995 cherry tomato or cultivated variety (cv. M82). Expression of YFT2 3' region in yft2 was significantly lower than in SL1995, and further studies revealed a difference in YFT2 post-transcriptional processing in yft2 compared with SL1995 and cv. M82, resulting in a longer YFT2 transcript. The alternatively trans-spliced allele of YFT2 in yft2 is predicted to encode a novel LT-YFT2 protein of 432 amino acid (AA) residues, compared to the 412 AA YFT2 protein of SL1995. The trans-spliced event also resulted in significantly down regulated expression of YFT2 in yft2 tomato, and the YFT2 allele suppressed expression of the downstream genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway and carotenoids synthesis by a mechanism of the feed-forward regulation. In conclusion, we found that trans-splicing of YFT2 alters tomato fruit color, providing new insights into fruit color development.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Pigmentação/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Clonagem Molecular , Cor , DNA Complementar/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Genes Recessivos , Teste de Complementação Genética , Genótipo , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Trans-Splicing
19.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 77(4): 527-543, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062204

RESUMO

Biological control of spider mites in hot and dry weather is a serious technical issue. A high-temperature adapted strain (HTAS) of the predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri Hughes was selected from its conventional strain (CS), via long-term heat acclimation and frequent heat hardenings in our previous studies. However, the environment of high temperature is usually associated with enhanced ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In the present study, the physiological effects of UV-B radiation on survival rate and egg damage of N. barkeri were investigated, as well as the activities and expression profiles of antioxidant enzymes to UV-B radiation stress. UV-B radiation had deleterious effects on egg hatchability and survival of N. barkeri. Adults of the HTAS strain were less UV-B resistant than those of the CS strain; they also had lower levels of enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase against oxidative damage and weaker upregulation of SOD genes. The mRNA expression of three SOD genes of CS adult females immediately increased whereas that of HTAS showed almost no difference under UV-B stress for 1 h. The results showed the HTAS of N. barkeri had lower fitness under UV-B stress compared with the CS of N. barkeri. These results suggested that long-term heat acclimation may exert a profound impact on the developmental physiology of N. barkeri.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Aptidão Genética/efeitos da radiação , Ácaros/efeitos da radiação , Comportamento Predatório/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adaptação Biológica , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Longevidade/efeitos da radiação , Ácaros/enzimologia , Ácaros/genética , Ácaros/fisiologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Óvulo/efeitos da radiação , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Transcrição Genética/efeitos da radiação
20.
FEBS Open Bio ; 9(7): 1212-1222, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037832

RESUMO

Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies globally; cancer stem cells (CSCs) are regarded as being at the root of tumor progression, and there is thus a need to identify potential drugs to target CSCs. The long non-coding RNA MALAT1 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis in colorectal cancer, but it is unknown whether it affects the stemness of gastric cancer cells. Here, we found that knockdown (KD) of MALAT1 attenuated the stemness of non-adherent gastric cancer cell spheroids, as evidenced by a decrease in primary and secondary spheroid formation capacity and expression of stemness markers. In contrast, overexpression (OE) of MALAT1 enhanced the stemness of adherent gastric cancer cells. Notably, KD of MALAT1 enhanced radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity of gastric cancer cell spheroids. We report that MALAT1 directly binds to sox2 mRNA (which encodes a critical master pluripotency factor), enhances the mRNA stability and increases its expression; KD of sox2 partially reversed the effect of MALAT1 OE on the stemness of gastric cancer cells. Importantly, expression of MALAT1 and sox2 exhibited a positive correlation in clinical samples. Therefore, our results indicate the existence of a novel MALAT1-sox2 axis which promotes the stemness of gastric cancer cells and may be a potential target for gastric cancer.

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