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1.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 41(2): 554-563, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608714

RESUMO

To investigate the pollution characteristics and sources of organic aerosols at a background site of the Yangtze River Delta, day- and night- PM2.5 samples were collected from May 30th to August 15th, 2018 in Chongming Island, China and measured for their normal alkanes (n-alkanes) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content employing a GC-MS technique. Concentrations of PM2.5, n-alkanes, and PAHs during the entire sampling period were (33±21) µg·m-3, (26±44) ng·m-3, and (0.76±1.0) ng·m-3, respectively. During the entire campaign, 35% of the collected PM2.5 samples were of a particle loading larger than the first grade of the China National Air Quality Standard (35 µg·m-3), suggesting that further mitigation with respect to air pollution in Chongming Island remains imperative. In the period with a PM2.5 concentration higher than 35 µg·m-3, which was classified as the pollution period, concentrations of n-alkanes and PAHs were one order of magnitude higher than those in the period with PM2.5 less than 15 µg·m-3, which was classified as the clean period. During the entire campaign, OC was higher in the daytime than in the nighttime, mainly due to the daytime photooxidation that enhanced the formation of secondary organic aerosols. During the pollution period, concentrations of EC and other pollutants were higher in the nighttime than in daytime, mainly due to the transport of the inland pollutants by the nighttime land breeze. Such a diurnal difference was not observed for the pollutants in clean periods, mainly due to the relatively clean breeze from East China Sea that diluted the air pollution. Diagnostic ratios showed that 67% of n-alkanes in PM2.5 was derived from fossil fuel combustion. PMF analysis further showed that during the pollution period, vehicle exhausts and industrial emissions were the largest sources of PAHs, both accounting for 51% of the total in PM2.5. In contrast, during the clean periods ship emissions were the largest source, contributing about 45% of the total PAHs, exceeding the sum (38%) of vehicle and industrial emissions.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140247, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585482

RESUMO

Biomass burning (BB) is the most important source of primary organic aerosols (OA) in the atmosphere that has significant impact on local/regional air quality and human health. However, few studies paid attention to the evolution of molecular characteristics of BB OA in the atmospheric aging processes. In this study, both fresh and aged PM2.5 aerosols from burning of rice, maize, and wheat straws were collected from a combined system of combustion chamber and oxidation flow reactor, and were analyzed for >100 organic species. The emission factors (EFs) of anhydrosugars and some fatty acids showed slight variations between fresh and aged samples, indicating that these compounds are relatively stable. However, the EFs of n-alkanes, fatty alcohols, and parent-PAHs decreased 8-57% from fresh to aged samples, suggesting that they can undergo further oxidation to form other organic materials in the atmosphere. Phthalic acids, nitrophenols and isoprene-derived products were mainly secondarily formed by aging processes. Thus their EFs increased by 2-23 times from fresh to aged samples. Levoglucosan was the most abundant individual organic tracer, and its EF varied slightly between fresh and aged samples, proving its indicative role on BB emission. Moreover, the ratio of vanillic acid to levoglucosan and p-hydroxybenzoic acid to levoglucosan increased 2-13 times from fresh to aged samples. Therefore they can be used to investigate the impact of aging processes on BB aerosols in the atmosphere. RO2 + HO2 pathway derived 2-methyltetrols (2-MTs) predominated the EFs of isoprene-derived products (SOAi) in the fresh samples. However, RO2 + NO pathway derived 2-methylglyceric acid (2-MGA) increased by >30 times and became comparable with 2-MTs in aged particles. The ratio of 2-MGA/2-MTs increased from 0.06-0.27 in fresh samples to 0.94-1.18 in aged samples, because the high loading of NOx in BB smoke enhanced the formation of SOAi through RO2 + NO reactions.

3.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(11): 6530-6539, 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369699

RESUMO

Microplastics in the air have gradually attracted our attention in recent years; however, temporal and spatial trends of microplastics in indoor air are rarely discussed. In the present study, we tracked microplastic fallout in a dormitory, an office, and a corridor on both workdays and weekends for three months. In addition, an air conditioner was used to understand airflow influence on microplastic resuspension in the dorm. Among the three sampling sites, the highest average microplastic abundance appeared in the dormitory (9.9 × 103 MPs/m2/d), followed by the office (1.8 × 103 MPs/m2/d) and the corridor (1.5 × 103 MPs/m2/d). In the dormitory, the average MP abundance on weekends (1.4 × 104 MPs/m2/d) was approximately three times of that on weekdays (5.8 × 103 MPs/m2/d). In the office; however, the abundance on weekends (1.2 × 103 MPs/m2/d) was 50% of that on weekdays (2.4 × 103 MPs/m2/d). Microplastic fallout existed mostly in the form of fibers and showed similar polymer compositions to the textile products used in indoor environments. The airflow tests using an air conditioner suggested that airflow turbulence increased resuspension of microplastics. Taken together, we conclude that indoor environments are prone to serious microplastic pollution, but microplastic level varies greatly due to different characteristics of indoor setting. Our results also indicate that textile quantity is one of the main factors affecting microplastic abundance in indoor air, whereas air conditioner-induced airflow turbulence can cause microplastic migration in indoor environments.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 720: 137617, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325589

RESUMO

The measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was carried out using an online GC-FID/MS at a rural site in North China Plain from 1 Nov. 2017 to 21 Jan. 2018. Their concentrations, emission ratios and source apportionment are investigated. During the entire experiment period, the average mixing ratio of VOCs was 69.5 ± 51.9 ppb, among which alkanes contributed the most (37% on average). Eight sources were identified in the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) model as short-chain alkanes (13.3%), biomass burning (4.6%), solvent (10.8%), industry (3.7%), coal combustion (41.1%), background (4.5%), vehicular emission (7.7%) and secondary formation (14.2%). In addition to the formation of OVOCs through photochemical reactions, the primary sources, such as coal combustion, biomass burning, vehicular emission, solvent and industry, can also contribute to OVOCs emissions. High OVOCs emission ratios thus were observed at Wangdu site. Primary emission was estimated to contribute 50%, 45%, 73%, 77%, 40%, and 29% on average to acrolein, acetone, methylvinylketone (MVK), methylethylketone (MEK), methacrolein and n-hexanal according to NMF analysis, respectively, which was well consistent with the contribution from photochemical age method. Secondary organic aerosol formation potential (SOAFP) was evaluated by SOA yield, which was significantly higher under low-NOx condition (13.4 µg m-3 ppm-1) than that under high-NOx condition (3.2 µg m-3 ppm-1). Moreover, the photochemical reactivity and sources of VOCs showed differences in seven observed pollution episodes. Among, the largest OH loss rate and SOAFP were found in severe pollution plumes, which were induced primarily by coal combustion. Therefore, mitigation strategies for severe pollution formation should focus on reducing coal combustion emitted VOCs that lead to SOA formation.

5.
Sci Total Environ ; 722: 137756, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208242

RESUMO

Ammonia (NH3), as a dominant alkaline gas in the atmosphere, plays a vital role in Chinese urban haze formation process, but its source in urban areas of China is controversial. To identify the sources of urban NH3 in the semi-arid region of East Asia, real-time measurements of NH3 and NH4+ of PM2.5 in the urban atmosphere of Xi'an, inland China during the winter and summer of 2017 were performed and their stable nitrogen isotope composition were analyzed. NH3 was 38.0 ± 9.4 µg/m3 in the summer, which is 1.5 times higher than that in the winter. Concentration of NH3 in both seasons well correlated with that of PAHs in PM2.5 and the mass ratio of (BbF + BeP + IP + BghiP) to the total PAHs, suggesting that fossil fuel combustion is an important source of NH3 in Xi'an. Moreover, diurnal variation pattern of NH3 was consistent with that of CO in the summer, peaking in the morning and evening rush hours, respectively, further indicating an importance of the contribution of traffic emissions to NH3 in the city. Based on the source apportionment by using isotope mixing model, we found that 66.4% and 62.5% of NH3 in the urban atmosphere were contributed by non-agricultural sources in the summer and winter, respectively. Our work revealed that non-agricultural sources dominate the atmospheric NH3 of Xi'an, where haze pollution is still severe, and suggested that emission controls of non-agricultural NH3 could be an effective way to mitigate the air pollution problem in the semi-arid region of East Asia.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(8): 3960-3966, 2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041887

RESUMO

Although regional haze adversely affects human health and possibly counteracts global warming from increasing levels of greenhouse gases, the formation and radiative forcing of regional haze on climate remain uncertain. By combining field measurements, laboratory experiments, and model simulations, we show a remarkable role of black carbon (BC) particles in driving the formation and trend of regional haze. Our analysis of long-term measurements in China indicates declined frequency of heavy haze events along with significantly reduced SO2, but negligibly alleviated haze severity. Also, no improving trend exists for moderate haze events. Our complementary laboratory experiments demonstrate that SO2 oxidation is efficiently catalyzed on BC particles in the presence of NO2 and NH3, even at low SO2 and intermediate relative humidity levels. Inclusion of the BC reaction accounts for about 90-100% and 30-50% of the sulfate production during moderate and heavy haze events, respectively. Calculations using a radiative transfer model and accounting for the sulfate formation on BC yield an invariant radiative forcing of nearly zero W m-2 on the top of the atmosphere throughout haze development, indicating small net climatic cooling/warming but large surface cooling, atmospheric heating, and air stagnation. This BC catalytic chemistry facilitates haze development and explains the observed trends of regional haze in China. Our results imply that reduction of SO2 alone is insufficient in mitigating haze occurrence and highlight the necessity of accurate representation of the BC chemical and radiative properties in predicting the formation and assessing the impacts of regional haze.

7.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113401, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753639

RESUMO

This study reveals the impact of biomass burning (BB) on secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formation in the North China Plain (NCP). Filter samples were analyzed for secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA), oxalic acid (C2) and related aqueous-phase SOA compounds (aqSOA), stable carbon isotope composition of C2 (δ13C(C2)) and aerosol liquid water content (ALWC). Based on the PM2.5 loadings, BB tracer concentrations, wildfire spots and air-mass back trajectories, we distinguished two episodes from the whole campaign, Episode I and Episode II, which were characteristic of regional and local BB, respectively. The abundances of PM2.5 and organic matter in the two events were comparable, but concentrations and fractions of SIA, aqSOA during Episode I were much higher than those during Episode II, along with heavier δ13C(C2), suggesting an enhanced aqSOA formation in the earlier period. We found that the enhancement of aqSOA formation during Episode I was caused by an increased ALWC, which was mainly driven by SIA during the regional BB event. Our work showed that intensive burning of crop residue in East Asia can sharply enhance aqSOA production on a large scale, which may have a significant impact on the regional climate and human health.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Biomassa , Carbono/análise , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , China , Clima , Extremo Oriente , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Água , Incêndios Florestais
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 705: 135256, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838425

RESUMO

In the past five years, Chinese government has promulgated stringent measures to mitigate air pollution. However, PM2.5 levels in the China North Plain (NCP), which is one of the regions with the heaviest air pollution in the world, are still far beyond the World Health Organization (WHO) standard. To improve our understanding on the sources and formation mechanisms of haze in the NCP, PM2.5 samples were collected during the winter of 2017 on a day/night basis at the urban site of Liaocheng, which is one of the most polluted cities in the NCP. The samples were determined for molecular distributions and stable carbon isotope compositions of dicarboxylic acids and their precursors (ketocarboxylic acids and α-dicarbonyls), levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). Our results showed that oxalic acid (C2) is the dominant dicarboxylic acid, followed by succinic acid (C4) and malonic acid (C3), and glyoxylic acid (ωC2) is the most abundant ketocarboxylic acids. Concentrations of C2, glyoxal (Gly) and methylglyoxal (mGly) presented robust correlations with levoglucosan, suggesting that biomass burning is a significant source of PM2.5 in the NCP. Moreover, C2 and Gly and mGly linearly correlated with SO42-, relative humidity (RH), aerosol liquid water content (LWC) as well as particle in-situ pH (pHis), indicating that aqueous-phase oxidation is the major formation pathway of these SOA, and is driven by acid-catalyzed oxidation. Concentrations and relative abundances of secondary species including SNA (SO42-, NO3- and NH4+), dicarboxylic acids, and aerosol LWC in PM2.5 are much higher in the haze periods than in the clean periods, suggesting that aqueous reaction is a vital role in the haze formation. In comparison with those in the clean periods, stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) of major dicarboxylic acids and related SOA and the mass ratios of C2/diacids, C2/Gly and C2/mGly are higher in the haze periods, indicating that haze particles were more aged and enriched in secondary species.

9.
J Hazard Mater ; 383: 121169, 2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520931

RESUMO

Nickel (Ni) contamination in soils, at high concentrations, is considered to be very common. Knowledge of the total content of Ni is frequently insufficient to estimate environmental risk. Our explored findings showed that the earthworms adding reduced the available Ni, along with the superior performance of HCl than CaCl2. The bioaccumulation of Ni in earthworms was aggravated with increasing Ni dosage and exposure time. Bioaccumulation factor was significantly correlated with the extractable Ni, which was the most suitable predicting the variations of Ni bioavailability. LC50 of earthworms on 7 and 14 days were 1202.444 mg kg-1 and 1069.324 mg kg-1, respectively along with the recovery rate in 500 mg kg-1 Ni polluted soil reached up to 92.5%. Earthworms' respiration was sensitive presenting a significant dose-effect relationship with the Ni concentration. Five biochemical indices in earthworms were induced along with the relevance of a dose- and time-response pattern. Additionally, histological damage in earthworm's body wall, intestine and seminal vesicles were observed under high level of Ni exposure. Overall, we believe that our current study will open a new window for deeper insights into the potential availability of Ni along with other associated metals on the function of soil ecosystem.

10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(24): 14339-14347, 2019 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710467

RESUMO

High levels of HONO have frequently been observed in Chinese haze periods and underestimated by current models due to some unknown sources and formation mechanisms. Combining lab-chamber simulations and field measurements in Xi'an and Beijing, China, we found that NH3 can significantly promote HONO formation via the reduction-oxidation of SO2 with NO2 in the aqueous phase of hygroscopic particles (e.g., NaCl). Concentrations of HONO formed in the aerosol phase showed an exponential increase (R2 = 0.91) with NH3 levels under the chamber conditions and a linear growth with NH3 levels in the two Chinese cities. The uptake coefficient of NO2 on NaCl particles ranged from 2.0 × 10-5 to 1.7 × 10-4, 3-4 orders of magnitude larger than that on water droplets. Our results further showed that HONO formed from the aerosol phase accounted for 4-33% of the total in the chamber, indicating that aerosol-phase formation is an important source of HONO in China, especially in haze periods. Since NH3, SO2, and NO2 abundantly coexist in China, the positive effect of NH3 on HONO formation could enhance the atmospheric oxidizing capacity in the country, causing severe secondary aerosol pollution. Our work suggests that NH3 emission control is imperative for mitigating air pollution in China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Aerossóis , Pequim , China , Cidades
11.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt A): 112864, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369912

RESUMO

To better understand the mechanism of PM2.5 explosive growth (EG), we conducted concurrent measurements of gaseous pollutants, PM2.5 and its chemical composition (inorganic ions, organic carbon, and element carbon) with a time resolution of 1 h in Shanghai in late autumn and winter from 2014 to 2017. In this study, the EG events, which are defined as the net increase in the mass concentration of PM2.5 by more than 100 µg m-3 within hours, are separately discussed for 3, 6, or 9 h. The number of EG events decreased from 19 cases in 2014 to 6 cases in 2017 and the corresponding PM2.5 concentration on average decreased from 183.6 µg m-3 to 128.8 µg m-3. Both regional transport and stagnant weather (windspeed < 2.0 m s-1) could lead to EG events. The potential source contribution function (PSCF) shows that the major high-pollution region is in East China (including Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Shandong, and Anhui Province) and the North China Plain. The contribution of stagnant conditions to EG episode hours of 55% (198 h, 156.9 µg m-3) is higher than that of regional transport (45%, 230 h, 163.0 µg m-3). To study the impact of local emission, chemical characteristics and driving factors of EG were discussed under stagnant conditions. The major components contributing to PM2.5 are NO3- (17.9%), organics (14.1%), SO42- (13.1%), and NH4+ (13.1%). The driving factors of EG events are the secondary aerosol formation of sulfate and nitrate and primary emissions (vehicle emissions, fireworks, and biomass burning), but the secondary transformation contributes more to EG events. The formation of sulfate and nitrate is dominated by gas-phase oxidation and heterogeneous reactions, which are enhanced by a high relative humidity. The current study helps to understand the chemical mechanism of haze and provides a scientific basis for air pollution control in Shanghai.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Aerossóis/análise , Carbono/análise , China , Poluentes Ambientais , Poluição Ambiental , Gases , Nitratos/análise , Óxidos de Nitrogênio , Estações do Ano , Sulfatos/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Tempo (Meteorologia)
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(27): 28062-28070, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359316

RESUMO

Drinking water is a main pathway of human exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). These two compounds have been identified in environmental waters worldwide, but little is known about their occurrence in Xinjiang. In this study, 155 water samples were obtained from 37 locations across Ulungur River, Manasi River, and Tarim River in Xinjiang, and were assessed by using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. PFOS and PFOA were detected in over 50% of the samples with mean concentrations of 3.194 ng/L for PFOS and 3.460 ng/L for PFOA. Spatial and regional distribution differences do exist among the three analyzed rivers. PFOS and PFOA in Manasi River were observed at the highest levels (especially in M10 and M11), but no aggravation occurred from 2014 to 2017. Seasonal variations of PFOS and PFOA concentrations showed that water samples collected during summer were higher than those in other three seasons. The occurrence, levels, and distribution patterns of PFOS and PFOA were investigated in the present study, which provides useful theory and data support for human health risk assessment. The findings of the present study can be considered for controlling these water pollutants in environmental waters.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Caprilatos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Rios/química
13.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt A): 493-500, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163382

RESUMO

Thirteen secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers of isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were measured for PM2.5 aerosols collected at the summit of Mt. Wuyi (1139 m, a.s.l.), to investigate their seasonality and formation mechanism. Concentrations of the isoprene and monoterpene SOA tracers were much higher in summer than those in other seasons. In contrast, ß-caryophyllinic acid was found to be the lowest in summer. Concentrations of those BSOA tracers showed a positive correlation with temperature (R2 = 0.52-0.70), and a negative correlation with relative humidity (R2 = 0.43-0.78). Moreover, thermodynamic model (i.e., ISORROPIA-II) calculation results showed that acidity conditions are favorable for BSOA formation. Robust linear correlations between the BSOA tracers and anthropogenic pollutants such as SO2 (R2 = 0.53-0.7) and NO2 (R2 = 0.37-0.54) were observed for all the samples, suggesting that SO2 and NOx can enhance BSOA production in the remote mountain area of southeast China, which is related to an acid-catalyzed heterogeneous chemistry. Moreover, we also found a significant correlation between the concentrations of the BSOA tracers and levoglucosan especially for ß-caryophyllinic acid, indicating that biomass burning plumes from the distant lowland regions could influence the production of BSOA in the mountain free troposphere. Our results clearly demonstrated that anthropogenic emissions in China could enhance BSOA formation in the distant mountain regions.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Butadienos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hemiterpenos/análise , Monoterpenos/análise , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Biomassa , China , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano
14.
Environ Int ; 126: 96-106, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784805

RESUMO

Fireworks displays are a traditional form of celebration during the Chinese Spring Festival (Festival). In response to the heavy air pollution caused by fireworks, Shanghai, a megacity in China, has imposed regulatory measures on the use of fireworks in recent years. To investigate air quality trends before and after firework regulation was established and quantify its efficiency, gaseous pollutants, PM2.5 levels, and PM2.5 chemical composition were synchronously measured at 1 h time intervals at an urban site and a suburban site in Shanghai in the period during and around the Festival from 2013 to 2017. PM2.5 concentrations at the urban site during the Festival over the five-year period were 79 (max: 524), 94 (290), 53 (163), 50 (146) and 32 (156) µg/m3, respectively, presenting a decreasing trend at a rate of -13.8 µg/m3/yr (p = 0.05). K+ concentrations, which serve as a tracer of fireworks, were 8.2 (max: 159.4), 2.5 (14.6), 2.2 (10.4), 4.3 (44.2) and 0.8 (4.5) µg/m3 during the Festival from 2013 to 2017, respectively, and thus decreased at a rate of -1.3 µg/m3/yr (p = 0.17). Accordingly, fireworks contributed 41 (51.9%), 38 (36.5%), 6 (10.3%), 21 (35.6%), and 4 µg/m3 (12.1%) to PM2.5, respectively, implying the effectiveness of firework regulation in Shanghai. Health effects attributed to PM2.5 pollution in Shanghai during the Festival were assessed based on Poisson regression. The number of premature deaths related to short-term PM2.5 exposure in Shanghai during the Festival from 2013 to 2017 was 75 (95% CI: 27, 108), 92 (30, 129), 55 (18, 76), 49 (19, 70), and 31 (12, 45), respectively. Daily mortality due to PM2.5 exposure during the Festival from 2013 to 2017 accounted for 1.4-3.8% of total daily mortality in Shanghai. This study provides scientific evidence of air quality improvement and the effectiveness of firework regulation in Shanghai.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Férias e Feriados , Mortalidade , Material Particulado/análise , Poluição do Ar , China/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Estações do Ano
15.
Environ Pollut ; 244: 877-884, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30469282

RESUMO

To identify the sources and heterogeneous reactions of sulfate and nitrate with dust in the atmosphere, airborne particles in Xi'an, inland China during the spring of 2017 were collected and measured for chemical compositions, along with a laboratory simulation of the heterogeneous formation of ammonium nitrate on the dust surface. Our results showed that concentrations of Ca2+, Na+ and Cl- in the TSP samples were enhanced in the dust events, with the values of 41.8, 5.4 and 4.0 µg m-3, respectively, while NO3- (7.1 µg m-3) and NH4+ (2.4 µg m-3) remarkably decreased, compared to those in the non-dust periods. During the dust events, NH4+ correlated only with NO3- (R2 = 0.52) and abundantly occurred in the coarse mode (>2.1 µm), in contrast to that in the non-dust periods, which well correlated with sulfate and nitrate and enriched in the fine mode (<2.1 µm). SO42- in Xi'an during the dust events existed mostly as gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) and mirabilite (Na2SO4·10H2O) and dominated in the coarse mode, suggesting that they were directly transported from the upwind Gobi Desert region. Our laboratory simulation results showed that during the long-range transport hygroscopic salts in the Gobi dust such as mirabilite can absorb water vapor and form a liquid phase on the particle surface, then gaseous NH3 and HNO3 partition into the aqueous phase and form NH4NO3, resulting in the strong correlation of NH4+ with NO3- and their accumulation on dust particles. The dry deposition flux of total inorganic nitrogen (NH4+ + NO3-) in Xi'an during the dust events was 0.97 mg-N m-2 d-1 and 37% higher than that in the non-dust periods. Such a significant enhanced N-deposition is ascribed to the heterogeneous formation of NH4NO3 on the dust particle surface, which has been ignored and should be included in future model simulations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Nitratos/análise , Sulfatos/análise , Aerossóis , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Atmosfera , China , Tamanho da Partícula , Estações do Ano , Propriedades de Superfície
16.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 71: 179-187, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30195676

RESUMO

Fireworks burning releases massive fine particles and gaseous pollutants, significantly deteriorating air quality during Chinese Lunar New Year (LNY) period. To investigate the impact of the fireworks burning on the atmospheric aerosol chemistry, 1-hr time resolution of PM2.5 samples in Xi'an during the winter of 2016 including the LNY were collected and detected for inorganic ions, acidity and liquid water content (LWC) of the fine aerosols. PM2.5 during the LNY was 167±87µg/m3, two times higher than the China National Ambient Air Quality Standard (75µg/m3). K+ (28wt.% of the total ion mass) was the most abundant ion in the LNY period, followed by SO42- (25wt.%) and Cl- (18wt.%). In contrast, NO3- (34wt.%) was the most abundant species in the haze periods (hourly PM2.5>75µg/m3), followed by SO42- (29.2wt.%) and NH4+ (16.3wt.%), while SO42 - (35wt.%) was the most abundant species in the clean periods (hourly PM2.5<75µg/m3), followed by NO3- (23.1wt.%) and NH4+ (11wt.%). Being different from the acidic nature in the non-LNY periods, aerosol in the LNY period presented an alkaline nature with a pH value of 7.8±1.3. LWC during the LNY period showed a robust linear correlation with K2SO4 and KCl, suggesting that aerosol hygroscopicity was dominated by inorganic salts derived from fireworks burning. Analysis of correlations between the ratios of NO3-/SO42- and NH4+/SO42- indicated that heterogeneous reaction of HNO3 with NH3 was an important formation pathway of particulate nitrate and ammonium during the LNY period.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Férias e Feriados , Material Particulado/análise , Aerossóis/análise , China , Estações do Ano
17.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 71: 32-44, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30195688

RESUMO

Size-resolved biogenic secondary organic aerosols (BSOA) derived from isoprene and monoterpene photooxidation in Qinghai Lake, Tibetan Plateau (a continental background site) and five cities of China were measured using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Concentrations of the determined BSOA are higher in the cities than in the background and are also higher in summer than in winter. Moreover, strong positive correlations (R2=0.44-0.90) between BSOA and sulfate were found at the six sites, suggesting that anthropogenic pollution (i.e., sulfate) could enhance SOA formation, because sulfate provides a surface favorable for acid-catalyzed formation of BSOA. Size distribution measurements showed that most of the determined SOA tracers are enriched in the fine mode (<3.3µm) except for cis-pinic and cis-pinonic acids, both presented a comparable mass in the fine and coarse (>3.3µm) modes, respectively. Mass ratio of oxidation products derived from isoprene to those from monoterpene in the five urban regions during summer are much less than those in Qinghai Lake region. In addition, in the five urban regions relative abundances of monoterpene oxidation products to SOA are much higher than those of isoprene. Such phenomena suggest that BSOA derived from monoterpenes are more abundant than those from isoprene in Chinese urban areas.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , China , Cidades , Estações do Ano
18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 39(4): 1473-1483, 2018 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29964971

RESUMO

PM2.5 was simultaneously collected using a high-volume sampler at 4 h intervals from the mountainside and the foot of the mountain in the Mt. Huashan region, inland China, during the summer of 2016, and the samples were analyzed for inorganic ions, to investigate the chemical characteristics and vertical distribution of the fine particles in the region. The results showed that the concentrations of PM2.5 were (46.9±38.2) µg·m-3 and (76.0±44.3) µg·m-3 on the mountainside and at the foot of Mt. Huashan, respectively. The concentrations of inorganic ions in PM2.5 was higher at the foot of the mountain than on the mountainside, with the order of the mass concentrations of the major ionic species being SO42- > NO3- > NH4+ > Ca2+. Among all the inorganic ions, SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ are the dominant species, accounting for 89% and 85% of the total, on the mountainside and at the foot, respectively. The fine particulate NH4+ existed mostly in the forms of (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3 on the mountainside, and in the forms of NH4HSO4 and NH4NO3 at the foot of the mountain. Mass concentrations of PM2.5 and its major components on the mountainside showed clear diurnal variations, with maximums between 12:00-16:00, mainly due to the transport of the pollutants from the ground surface by the planetary boundary layer height variation and the valley breeze. In contrast, the diurnal variations of PM2.5 and its major components at the foot are characterized with two maxima, peaking between 08:00-12:00 in the daytime and 00:00-04:00 in the nighttime, respectively, mainly due to the increased emissions from both the morning rush-hour traffic and the nighttime on-road heavy-duty vehicles. Acidity of the fine particles was estimated by using the equivalent ratio of anions to cations and the thermodynamic equilibrium model ISORROPIA Ⅱ. Both methods showed that the acidity of PM2.5 at the ground surface site is stronger than that on the mountainside in the Mt. Huashan region.

19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(25): 25486-25495, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29956257

RESUMO

The presence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in animal foods is worldwide, and their fate and spatial distribution in Xinjiang are not well understood. In this study, beef muscle and liver collected from five major cities in southern Xinjiang were analyzed (n = 70) for 13 PFAAs using an ion-pairing method combined with HPLC-MS/MS. Overall, PFAA contamination was widespread, exceeding 50% of samples with concentrations ranged from below the limits of detection to 6.118 ng/g. Perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and perfluoroundecanoic acid were the predominant PFAAs of ten detected compounds, with maximum concentrations in Korla liver samples of 2.543, 0.856, and 1.386 ng/g, respectively. When comparing the five cities, the highest levels and detection frequencies were observed in samples from Korla (muscle, 0.013 ng/g; liver, 3.336 ng/g), followed by Yanqi, Akesu, Kashgar, and Hotan. The different pollution patterns and distribution profiles of PFAAs among cities were significantly related to local economy and geographical conditions. In addition, the dietary intake assessments for PFAAs showed that samples originating from Korla had the greatest impact on human health, but the total hazard ratio was 0.814 × 10-3, which is far less than 1, indicating that consumption of beef muscle and liver poses no immediate harm to local residents.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Caprilatos/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Fígado , Músculos , Carne Vermelha/análise , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Caprilatos/efeitos adversos , Bovinos , China , Cidades , Dieta , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos/efeitos adversos , Fluorcarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 535, 2018 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29323216

RESUMO

Isoprene is the most abundant non-methane volatile organic compound (VOC) and the largest contributor to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) burden on a global scale. In order to examine the influence of high concentrations of anthropogenic pollutants on isoprene-derived SOA (SOA i ) formation, summertime PM2.5 filter samples were collected with a three-hour sampling interval at a rural site in the North China Plain (NCP), and determined for SOA i tracers and other chemical species. RO2+NO pathway derived 2-methylglyceric acid presented a relatively higher contribution to the SOA i due to the high-NOx (~20 ppb) conditions in the NCP that suppressed the reactive uptake of RO2+HO2 reaction derived isoprene epoxydiols. Compared to particle acidity and water content, sulfate plays a dominant role in the heterogeneous formation process of SOA i . Diurnal variation and correlation of 2-methyltetrols with ozone suggested an important effect of isoprene ozonolysis on SOA i formation. SOA i increased linearly with levoglucosan during June 10-18, which can be attributed to an increasing emission of isoprene caused by the field burning of wheat straw and a favorable aqueous SOA formation during the aging process of the biomass burning plume. Our results suggested that isoprene oxidation is highly influenced by intensive anthropogenic activities in the NCP.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Butadienos/química , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/química , Hemiterpenos/química , Pentanos/química , Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , Biomassa , Butadienos/efeitos adversos , China , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Hemiterpenos/efeitos adversos , Oxirredução , Pentanos/efeitos adversos , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos
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