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1.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484993

RESUMO

TMEM16A Ca2+-activated chloride channel (CaCC) plays an essential role in vascular homeostasis. In this study we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying downregulation of TMEM16A CaCC activity during hypertension. In cultured basilar artery smooth muscle cells (BASMCs) isolated from 2k2c renohypertesive rats, treatment with angiotensin II (0.125-1 µM) dose-dependently increased endophilin A2 levels and decreased TMEM16A expression. Similar phenomenon was observed in basilar artery isolated from 2k2c rats. We then used whole-cell recording to examine whether endophilin A2 could regulate TMEM16A CaCC activity in BASMCs and found that knockdown of endophilin A2 significantly enhanced CaCC activity, whereas overexpression of endophilin A2 produced the opposite effect. Overexpression of endophilin A2 did not affect the TMEM16A mRNA level, but markedly decreased TMEM16A protein level in BASMCs by inducing ubiquitination and autophagy of TMEM16A. Ubiquitin-binding receptor p62 (SQSTM1) could bind to ubiquitinated TMEM16A and resulted in a process of TMEM16A proteolysis in autophagosome/lysosome. These data provide new insights into the regulation of TMEM16A CaCC activity by endophilin A2 in BASMCs, which partly explains the mechanism of angiotensin-II-induced TMEM16A inhibition during hypertension-induced vascular remodeling.

2.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 134: 131-143, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301303

RESUMO

Cerebrovascular remodeling is the leading factor for stroke and characterized by increased extracellular matrix deposition, migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, and inhibition of their apoptosis. TMEM16A is an important component of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels. Previously, we showed that downregulation of TMEM16A in the basilar artery was negatively correlated with cerebrovascular remodeling during hypertension. However, it is unclear whether TMEM16A participates in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced vascular remodeling in mice that have TMEM16A gene modification. In this study, we generated a transgenic mouse that overexpresses TMEM16A specifically in vascular smooth muscle cells. We observed that vascular remodeling in the basilar artery during Ang II-induced hypertension was significantly suppressed upon vascular smooth muscle-specific overexpression of TMEM16A relative to control mice. Specifically, we observed a large reduction in the deposition of fibronectin and collagen I. The expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-14), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) were upregulated in the basilar artery during Ang II-induced hypertension, but this was suppressed upon overexpression of TMEM16A in blood vessels. Furthermore, TMEM16A overexpression alleviated the overactivity of the canonical TGF-ß1/Smad3, and non-canonical TGF-ß1/ERK and JNK pathways in the basilar artery during Ang II-induced hypertension. These in vivo results were similar to the results derived in vitro with basilar artery smooth muscle cells stimulated by Ang II. Moreover, we observed that the inhibitory effect of TMEM16A on MMPs was mediated by decreasing the activation of WNK1, which is a Cl--sensitive serine/threonine kinase. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that TMEM16A protects against cerebrovascular remodeling during hypertension by suppressing extracellular matrix deposition. We also showed that TMEM16A exerts this effect by reducing the expression of MMPs via inhibiting WNK1, and decreasing the subsequent activities of TGF-ß1/Smad3, ERK, and JNK. Accordingly, our results suggest that TMEM16A may serve as a novel therapeutic target for vascular remodeling.

3.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165783

RESUMO

Obesity induces accumulation of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and ATM-driven inflammatory responses that promote the development of glucose and lipid metabolism disorders. ClC-3 chloride channel/antiporter, encoded by the Clcn3, is critical for some basic cellular functions. Our previous work has shown significant alleviation of type 2 diabetes in Clcn3 knockout (Clcn3-/-) mice. In the present study we investigated the role of Clcn3 in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and ATM inflammation. To establish the mouse obesity model, both Clcn3-/- mice and wild-type mice were fed a HFD for 4 or 16 weeks. The metabolic parameters were assessed and the abdominal total adipose tissue was scanned using computed tomography. Their epididymal fat pad tissue and adipose tissue stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells were isolated for analyses. We found that the HFD-fed Clcn3-/- mice displayed a significant decrease in obesity-induced body weight gain and abdominal visceral fat accumulation as well as an improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism as compared with HFD-fed wild-type mice. Furthermore, the Clcn3 deficiency significantly attenuated HFD-induced ATM accumulation, HFD-increased F4/80+ CD11c+ CD206- SVF cells as well as HFD-activated TLR-4/NF-κB signaling in epididymal fat tissue. In cultured human THP-1 macrophages, adenovirus-mediated transfer of Clcn3 specific shRNA inhibited, whereas adenovirus-mediated cDNA overexpression of Clcn3 enhanced lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-κB and TLR-4. These results demonstrate a novel role for Clcn3 in HFD-induced obesity and ATM inflammation.

4.
Mol Brain ; 12(1): 50, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088565

RESUMO

Neonatal seizures are different from adult seizures, and many antiepileptic drugs that are effective in adults often fail to treat neonates. Here, we report that gluconate inhibits neonatal seizure by inhibiting CLC-3 chloride channels. We detect a voltage-dependent outward rectifying Cl- current mediated by CLC-3 Cl- channels in early developing brains but not adult mouse brains. Blocking CLC-3 Cl- channels by gluconate inhibits seizure activity both in neonatal brain slices and in neonatal animals with in vivo EEG recordings. Consistently, neonatal neurons of CLC-3 knockout mice lack the outward rectifying Cl- current and show reduced epileptiform activity upon stimulation. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that activation of CLC-3 Cl- channels alters intracellular Cl- homeostasis and enhances GABA excitatory activity. Our studies suggest that gluconate can suppress neonatal seizure activities through inhibiting CLC-3 Cl- channels in developing brains.

5.
Cell Calcium ; 81: 1-11, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129471

RESUMO

There is tight interplay between Ca2+ and Cl- flux that can influence brain tumour proliferation, migration and invasion. Glioma is the predominant malignant primary brain tumour, accounting for ˜80% of all cases. Voltage-gated Cl- channel family (ClC) proteins and Cl- intracellular channel (CLIC) proteins are drastically overexpressed in glioma, and are associated with enhanced cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Ca2+ also plays fundamental roles in the phenomenon. Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCC) such as TMEM16A and bestrophin-1 are involved in glioma formation and assist Ca2+ movement from intracellular stores to the plasma membrane. Additionally, the transient receptor protein (TRP) channel TRPC1 can induce activation of ClC-3 by increasing intracellular Ca2+concentrations and activating Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Therefore, Ca2+ and Cl-currents can concurrently mediate brain tumour cellular functions. Glioma also expresses volume regulated anion channels (VRACs), which are responsible for the swelling-induced Cl- current, ICl,swell. This current enables glioma cells to perform regulatory volume decrease (RVD) as a survivability mechanism in response to hypoxic conditions within the tumour microenvironment. RVD can also be exploited by glioma for invasion and migration. Effective treatment for glioma is challenging, which can be in part due to prolonged chemotherapy leading to mutations in genes associated with multi-drug resistances (MRP1, Bcl-2, and ABC family). Thus, a potential therapeutic strategy for treatment of glioma can be through the inhibition of selected Cl- channels.

6.
Mar Drugs ; 16(12)2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572607

RESUMO

Xyloketal B is a natural compound isolated from the mangrove fungus, Xylaria sp. in the South China Sea. In the past decade, studies have shown that xyloketal B exhibits anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic abilities and may serve as a treatment for ischemic stroke. Xyloketal B has been shown to interact with both neurons and residential microglial cells and regulate a number of proteins involved in the apoptotic events during ischemia. Such mechanisms include inhibition of specific NADPH oxidase subunits, upregulation of HO-1, increase of Bcl-1/Bax ratio, and downregulation of TLR4 receptor. Both in vitro and in vivo stroke models have validated its potential in preventing ischemia-induced neuronal cell death. This review summarizes our current understanding of the effects of xyloketal B in ischemic conditions. As stroke ranks second in the causes of mortality worldwide and still lacks effective treatment, it is necessary to seek novel therapeutic options. Understanding the role of xyloketal B in ischemic stroke could reveal a new aspect of stroke treatment.


Assuntos
Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Piranos/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Lesões Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Br J Pharmacol ; 175(18): 3669-3684, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29968377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Transmembrane member 16A (TMEM16A), an intrinsic constituent of the Ca2+ -activated Cl- channel, is involved in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and hypertension-induced cerebrovascular remodelling. However, the functional significance of TMEM16A for apoptosis in basilar artery smooth muscle cells (BASMCs) remains elusive. Here, we investigated whether and how TMEM16A contributes to apoptosis in BASMCs. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Cell viability assay, flow cytometry, Western blot, mitochondrial membrane potential assay, immunogold labelling and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) were performed. KEY RESULTS: Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) induced BASMC apoptosis through a mitochondria-dependent pathway, including by increasing the apoptosis rate, down-regulating the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and potentiating the loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm. These effects were all reversed by the silencing of TMEM16A and were further potentiated by the overexpression of TMEM16A. Endogenous TMEM16A was detected in the mitochondrial fraction. Co-IP revealed an interaction between TMEM16A and cyclophilin D, a component of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). This interaction was up-regulated by H2 O2 but restricted by cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of cyclophilin D. TMEM16A increased mPTP opening, resulting in the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. The results obtained with cultured BASMCs from TMEM16A smooth muscle-specific knock-in mice were consistent with those from rat BASMCs. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These results suggest that TMEM16A participates in H2 O2 -induced apoptosis via modulation of mitochondrial membrane permeability in VSMCs. This study establishes TMEM16A as a target for therapy of several remodelling-related diseases.

8.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2018 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29950617

RESUMO

Myotoxicity is a significant factor contributing to the poor adherence and reduced effectiveness in the treatment of statins. Genetic variations and high drug plasma exposure are considered as critique causes for statin-induced myopathy (SIM). This study aims to explore the sequential influences of rosuvastatin (RST) pharmacokinetic and myopathy-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the plasma exposure to RST and its metabolites: rosuvastatin lactone (RSTL) and N-desmethyl rosuvastatin (DM-RST), and further on RST-induced myopathy. A total of 758 Chinese patients with coronary artery disease were enrolled and followed up SIM incidents for 2 years. The plasma concentrations of RST and its metabolites were determined through a validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method. Nine SNPs in six genes were genotyped by using the Sequenom MassArray iPlex platform. Results revealed that ABCG2 rs2231142 variations were highly associated with the plasma concentrations of RST, RSTL, and DM-RST (Padj < 0.01, FDR < 0.05). CYP2C9 rs1057910 significantly affected the DM-RST concentration (Padj < 0.01, FDR < 0.05). SLCO1B1 rs4149056 variant allele was significantly associated with high SIM risk (OR: 1.741, 95% CI: 1.180-2.568, P = 0.0052, FDR = 0.0468). Glycine amidinotransferase (GATM) rs9806699 was marginally associated with SIM incidents (OR: 0.617, 95% CI: 0.406-0.939, P = 0.0240, FDR = 0.0960). The plasma concentrations of RST and its metabolites were not significantly different between the SIM (n = 51) and control groups (n = 707) (all P > 0.05). In conclusion, SLCO1B1 and GATM genetic variants are potential biomarkers for predicting RST-induced myopathy, and their effects on SIM are unrelated to the high plasma exposure of RST and its metabolites.

9.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 39(5): 858-865, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29595192

RESUMO

Activation of swelling-induced Cl- current (ICl,swell) during neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) may induce brain damage. Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury causes chronic neurological morbidity in neonates as well as acute mortality. In this study, we investigated the role of ICl,swell in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury using a selective blocker, 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichloro-2-cyclopentylindan-1-on-5-yl) oxybutyric acid (DCPIB). In primary cultured cortical neurons perfusion of a 30% hypotonic solution activated ICl,swell, which was completely blocked by the application of DCPIB (10 µmol/L). The role of ICl,swell in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in vivo was evaluated in a modified neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury model. Before receiving the ischemic insult, the mouse pups were injected with DCPIB (10 mg/kg, ip). We found that pretreatment with DCPIB significantly reduced the brain damage assessed using TTC staining, Nissl staining and whole brain imaging, and improved the sensorimotor and vestibular recovery outcomes evaluated in neurobehavioural tests (i.e. geotaxis reflex, and cliff avoidance reflex). These results show that DCPIB has neuroprotective effects on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, and that the ICl,swell may serve as a therapeutic target for treatment of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.


Assuntos
Canais de Cloreto/antagonistas & inibidores , Cloretos/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/uso terapêutico , Hipóxia-Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Indanos/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Células PC12 , Ratos
10.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 39(5): 875-884, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29595193

RESUMO

Xyloketal B (Xyl-B) is a novel marine compound isolated from mangrove fungus Xylaria sp. (No 2508). We previously showed that Xyl-B promoted endothelial NO release and protected against atherosclerosis through the Akt/eNOS pathway. Vascular NO production regulates vasoconstriction in central and peripheral arteries and plays an important role in blood pressure control. In this study, we examined whether Xyl-B exerted an antihypertensive effect in a hypertensive rat model, and further explored the possible mechanisms underlying its antihypertensive action. Administration of Xyl-B (20 mg·kg-1·d-1, ip, for 12 weeks) significantly decreased the systolic and diastolic blood pressure in a two-kidney, two-clip (2K2C) renovascular hypertensive rats. In endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded thoracic aortic rings, pretreatment with Xyl-B (20 µmol/L) significantly suppressed phenylephrine (Phe)-induced contractions, suggesting that its vasorelaxant effect was attributed to both endothelial-dependent and endothelial-independent mechanisms. We used SNP, methylene blue (MB, guanylate cyclase inhibitor) and indomethacin (IMC, cyclooxygenase inhibitor) to examine which endothelial pathway was involved, and found that MB, but not IMC, reversed the inhibitory effects of Xyl-B on Phe-induced vasocontraction. Moreover, Xyl-B increased the endothelial NO bioactivity and smooth muscle cGMP level, revealing that the NO-sGC-cGMP pathway, rather than PGI2, mediated the anti-hypertensive effect of Xyl-B. We further showed that Xyl-B significantly attenuated KCl-induced Ca2+ entry in smooth muscle cells in vitro, which was supposed to be mediated by voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs), and reduced ryanodine-induced aortic contractions, which may be associated with store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE). Taken together, these findings demonstrate that Xyl-B exerts significant antihypertensive effects not only through the endothelial NO-sGC-cGMP pathway but also through smooth muscle calcium signaling, including VDCCs and SOCE.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão Renovascular/tratamento farmacológico , Piranos/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Masculino , Azul de Metileno/farmacologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Guanilil Ciclase Solúvel/metabolismo , Vasodilatadores/uso terapêutico
11.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 39(1): 35-47, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28770829

RESUMO

Hypotonic challenge evoked vascular cell proliferation through activation of volume-regulated Cl- channel (VRCC), leading to a decrease in the intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl-]i). We hypothesize that the decrease in [Cl-]i may activate one or several Cl--sensitive kinases, resulting in a subsequent signaling cascade. In this study we demonstrated that WNK1, a Cl--sensitive kinase, was involved in VRCC-induced proliferative signaling pathway in A10 vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro. A10 cells were exposed to a hypotonic challenge (225 mosmol·kg-1·H20), which caused significantly increase in WNK1 phosphorylation without altering WNK1 protein expression. WNK1 overexpression significantly increased hypotonic-induced A10 cell proliferation, whereas silencing of WNK1 caused an opposite action. WNK1 mutation did not affect hypotonic-induced WNK1 phosphorylation and cell proliferation. Silencing of WNK1 caused cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and prevented transition from G1 to S phase, whereas the WNK1 overexpression accelerated cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase. Silencing of WNK1 significantly inhibited cyclin D1/cyclin E1 expression and increased p27kip/p21cip expression. WNK1 overexpression significantly increased cyclin D1/cyclin E1 expression and reduced p27KIP/p21CIP expression. In addition, WNK1 knockdown or overexpression significantly attenuated or increased the hypotonic-induced phosphorylation of Akt and PI3K respectively.In conclusion, the reduction in [Cl-]i caused by hypotonic challenge-induced VRCC opening evokes WNK1 phosphorylation in A10 VSMCs, which mediates cell cycle transition from G0/G1 to S phase and proliferation through the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células , Cloretos/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 1 Deficiente de Lisina WNK/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Ciclinas/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/genética , Soluções Hipotônicas , Músculo Liso Vascular , Mutação , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Proteína Quinase 1 Deficiente de Lisina WNK/química , Proteína Quinase 1 Deficiente de Lisina WNK/genética
12.
Circ J ; 82(3): 903-913, 2018 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29081444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: TMEM16A is a critical component of Ca2+-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) and mediates basilar arterial smooth muscle cell (BASMC) proliferation in hypertensive cerebrovascular remodeling. CaMKII is a negative regulator of CaCC, and four CaMKII isoforms (α, ß, γ and δ) are expressed in vasculature; however, it is unknown which and how CaMKII isoforms affect TMEM16A-associated CaCC and BASMC proliferation.Methods and Results:Patch clamp and small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of different CaMKII isoforms revealed that only CaMKIIγ inhibited native Ca2+-activated chloride currents (ICl.Ca) in BASMCs. The TMEM16A overexpression evoked TMEM16A Cl-current and inhibited angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced proliferation in BASMCs. The co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down assay indicated an interaction between CaMKIIγ and TMEM16A protein. TMEM16A Cl-current was modulated by CaMKIIγ phosphorylation at serine residues in TMEM16A. Serine525 and Serine727 in TMEM16A were mutated to alanine, and only mutation at Ser727 (S727A) reversed the CaMKIIγ inhibition of the TMEM16A Cl-current. Phosphomimetic mutation S727D markedly decreased TMEM16A Cl-current and reversed TMEM16A-mediated suppression of BASMC proliferation, mimicking the inhibitory effects of CaMKIIγ on TMEM16A. A significant increase in CaMKIIγ isoform content was observed in parallel to the decrease of TMEM16A and ICl.Cain basilar artery proliferative remodeling in Ang II-infused mice. CONCLUSIONS: Serine 727 phosphorylation in TMEM16A by CaMKIIγ provides a new mechanism for regulating TMEM16A CaCC activity and Ang II-induced BASMC proliferation.

13.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 38(9): 1236-1247, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28552908

RESUMO

Xyloketal B (Xyl-B) is a novel marine compound isolated from mangrove fungus Xylaria sp. We previously demonstrated that pretreatment with Xyl-B exerted neuroprotective effects and attenuated hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal mice. In the present study we investigated the neuroprotective effects of pre- and post-treatment with Xyl-B in adult mice using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model, and explored the underlying mechanisms. Adult male C57 mice were subjected to tMCAO surgery. For the pre-treatment, Xyl-B was given via multiple injections (12.5, 25, and 50 mg·kg-1·d-1, ip) 48 h, 24 h and 30 min before ischemia. For the post-treatment, a single dose of Xyl-B (50 mg/kg, ip) was injected at 0, 1 or 2 h after the onset of ischemia. The regional cerebral perfusion was monitored using a laser-Doppler flowmeter. TTC staining was performed to determine the brain infarction volume. We found that both pre-treatment with Xyl-B (50 mg/kg) and post-treatment with Xyl-B (50 mg/kg) significantly reduced the infarct volume, but had no significant hemodynamic effects. Treatment with Xyl-B also significantly alleviated the neurological deficits in tMCAO mice. Furthermore, treatment with Xyl-B significantly attenuated ROS overproduction in brain tissues; increased the MnSOD protein levels, suppressed TLR4, NF-κB and iNOS protein levels; and downregulated the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ. Moreover, Xyl-B also protected blood-brain barrier integrity in tMCAO mice. In conclusion, Xyl-B administered within 2 h after the onset of stroke effectively protects against focal cerebral ischemia; the underlying mechanism may be related to suppressing the ROS/TLR4/NF-κB inflammatory signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Infarto Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Piranos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Infarto Cerebral/metabolismo , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Piranos/administração & dosagem , Piranos/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
14.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 490(2): 91-97, 2017 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28526415

RESUMO

LNK (SH2B3) is an intracellular adaptor protein that negatively regulates cellular proliferation or self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells and some other progenitor cells. LNK is also recognized as a key regulator of insulin resistance and inflammatory responses in several tissues and organs. The function of LNK in adipose tissue is unknown. We previously demonstrated that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mouse model had elevated serum free fatty acids (FFAs) levels and increased preadipocyte apoptosis in visceral fat tissue, showing the occurrence of lipotoxicity. Herein, when compared to control mice, the protein expression of LNK decreased in epididymal fat tissue from the high-sucrose/fat diet, low-dose streptozotocin induced T2DM mouse model. We thus investigated whether LNK could regulate palmitate-induced preadipocyte apoptosis in an in vitro apoptotic model in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. LNK specific siRNA exacerbated palmitate-induced apoptosis and increased pro-apoptotic protein levels of cleaved caspase-3, Bax and cytochrome C; while overexpression of LNK cDNA exhibited significant anti-apoptotic effects. Consistently, LNK specific siRNA further decreased the Akt Ser-473 phosphorylation reduced by palmitate and located on upstream of Bax and cytochrome C. The siRNA-mediated LNK knockdown exacerbated mitochondrial membrane depolarization and mitochondrial-derived reactive oxygen species production induced by palmitate, whereas overexpression of LNK attenuated that. These results indicated that LNK plays a regulatory role in the palmitate-related preadipocyte apoptosis and might be involved in adipose tissue dysfunction.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/deficiência , Palmitatos/farmacologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/induzido quimicamente , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Sacarose na Dieta , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estreptozocina
15.
Hypertension ; 69(5): 892-901, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28320851

RESUMO

Ca2+-activated Cl- channels play a crucial role in various physiological processes. However, the role of TMEM16A in vascular endothelial dysfunction during hypertension is unclear. In this study, we investigated the specific involvement of TMEM16A in regulating endothelial function and blood pressure and the underlying mechanism. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, coimmunoprecipitation, confocal imaging, patch-clamp recordings, and TMEM16A endothelial-specific transgenic and knockout mice were used. We found that TMEM16A was expressed abundantly and functioned as a Ca2+-activated Cl- channel in endothelial cells. Angiotensin II induced endothelial dysfunction with an increase in TMEM16A expression. The knockout of endothelial-specific TMEM16A significantly lowered the blood pressure and ameliorated endothelial dysfunction in angiotensin II-induced hypertension, whereas the overexpression of endothelial-specific TMEM16A resulted in the opposite effects. These results were related to the increased reactive oxygen species production, Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase activation, and Nox2 and p22phox protein expression that were facilitated by TMEM16A on angiotensin II-induced hypertensive challenge. Moreover, TMEM16A directly bound with Nox2 and reduced the degradation of Nox2 through the proteasome-dependent degradation pathway. Therefore, TMEM16A is a positive regulator of endothelial reactive oxygen species generation via Nox2-containing NADPH oxidase, which induces endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Modification of TMEM16A may be a novel therapeutic strategy for endothelial dysfunction-associated diseases.


Assuntos
Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Anoctamina-1 , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , NADPH Oxidase 2 , NADPH Oxidases/genética , Fosforilação , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo
16.
Life Sci ; 168: 28-37, 2017 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26764232

RESUMO

AIMS: Palmitate, a common saturated free fatty acid, induces endothelial apoptosis in vitro in culture endothelial cells and in vivo in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. The present study aimed to investigate whether Kv1.5 regulates palmitate-induced endothelial apoptosis and endothelial dysfunction in T2DM. MAIN METHODS: In vitro experiments were carried out in primary human HUVECs. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Cell viability was determined by Cell Counting Assay Kit-8. The siRNA transfection was employed to knockdown Kv1.5 protein expression. Intracellular and mitochondrial ROS, and mitochondrial membrane potential were detected using fluorescent probes. Male C57BL/6 mice fed with high-sucrose/fat diet were injected with streptozotocin (35mg/kg body weight) to establish T2DM animal model. KEY FINDINGS: We found that palmitate-induced endothelial apoptosis was parallel to a significant increase in endogenous Kv1.5 protein expression in endothelial cells. Silencing of Kv1.5 with siRNA reduced palmitate-induced endothelial apoptosis, intracellular ROS generation, mitochondrial ROS generation and membrane potential (Δψm) alteration and cleaved caspase-3 protein expression; while increased cell viability and ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. Furthermore, we observed that Kv1.5 protein expression increased in endothelial cells of thoracic aorta of T2DM mice. Silencing of Kv1.5 significantly improved the endothelium-dependent vasodilation in thoracic aortic rings of T2DM mice. SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that suppression of Kv1.5 protects endothelial cells against palmitate-induced apoptosis via inhibiting mitochondria-mediated excessive ROS generation and apoptotic signaling pathway, suggesting that Kv1.5 may serve as a therapeutic target of treatment for endothelial dysfunction induced by palmitate and lipid metabolism in T2DM patients.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Canal de Potássio Kv1.5/metabolismo , Palmitatos/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/fisiopatologia , Sobrevivência Celular , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Canal de Potássio Kv1.5/genética , Masculino , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Vasodilatação
17.
Circ J ; 80(11): 2397-2406, 2016 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27760895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research has demonstrated that ClC-3 is responsible for volume-regulated Cl-current (ICl.vol) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, it is still not clear whether and how ClC-3 is transported to cell membranes, resulting in alteration ofICl.vol.Methods and Results:Volume-regulated chloride current (ICl.vol) was recorded by whole-cell patch clamp recording, and Western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation were performed to examine protein expression and protein-protein interaction. Live cell imaging was used to observe ClC-3 transporting. The results showed that an overexpression of endophilin A2 could increaseICl.vol, while endophilin A2 knockdown decreasedICl.vol. In addition, the SH3 domain of endophilin A2 mediated its interaction with ClC-3 and promotes ClC-3 transportation from the cytoplasm to cell membranes. The regulation of ClC-3 channel activity was also verified in basilar arterial smooth muscle cells (BASMCs) isolated from endophilin A2 transgenic mice. Moreover, endophilin A2 increase VSMCs proliferation induced by endothelin-1 or hypo-osmolarity. CONCLUSIONS: The present study identified endophilin A2 as a ClC-3 channel partner, which serves as a new ClC-3 trafficking insight in regulatingICl.volin VSMCs. This study provides a new mechanism by which endophilin A2 regulates ClC-3 channel activity, and sheds light on how ClC-3 is transported to cell membranes to play its critical role as a chloride channel in VSMCs function, which may be involved in cardiovascular diseases. (Circ J 2016; 80: 2397-2406).


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Cloretos/metabolismo , Potenciais da Membrana , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Aciltransferases/genética , Animais , Membrana Celular/genética , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Transporte de Íons , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Transporte Proteico
18.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 92: 122-33, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26854628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Apoptosis plays a central role in maintaining the normal cell number and tissue homeostasis. Endophilins are a family of evolutionarily conserved proteins that have the critical role in endocytosis. Here, we determined whether endophilin A2 (EndoII) contributes to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis in rat basilar artery smooth muscle cells (BASMCs) and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: By using small interference RNA (siRNA) and EndoII overexpression strategy, we found that EndoII siRNA knockdown reduced cell viability and promoted H2O2-induced cell apoptosis, evidenced by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase-9, 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). In contrast, EndoII overexpression showed opposite effects and inhibited H2O2-induced BASMCs apoptosis. Further studies revealed that there was a direct interaction between EndoII and Bax. Upon H2O2-induced apoptosis, the association of EndoII with Bax were significantly decreased, while the interaction of Bax/tBid were increased, accompanied by a translocation of Bax from cytosol to mitochondria. Knockdown of EndoII did not affect the expression of Bax, but further promoted the binding of Bax with tBid and favored the accumulation of Bax to mitochondria as well as Bax activation; whereas EndoII overexpression produced the opposite effects. In addition, EndoII siRNA aggravated, but EndoII overexpression alleviated, the reduction of Bcl-2 expression in H2O2-treated cells. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggested a role of EndoII in protecting BASMCs apoptosis induced by H2O2, possibly by inhibiting the addressing of Bax to mitochondria. Targeting on EndoII may be a new strategy to treat apoptosis-associated diseases.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/biossíntese , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/biossíntese , Aciltransferases/genética , Animais , Artéria Basilar/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Ratos , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética
19.
Br J Pharmacol ; 173(3): 529-44, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26562480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Angiotensin II (AngII) induces migration and growth of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC), which is responsible for vascular remodelling in some cardiovascular diseases. Ang II also activates a Cl(-) current, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The A10 cell line and primary cultures of VSMC from control, ClC-3 channel null mice and WT mice made hypertensive with AngII infusions were used. Techniques employed included whole-cell patch clamp, co-immunoprecipitation, site-specific mutagenesis and Western blotting, KEY RESULTS: In VSMC, AngII induced Cl(-) currents was carried by the chloride ion channel ClC-3. This current was absent in VSMC from ClC-3 channel null mice. The AngII-induced Cl(-) current involved interactions between ClC-3 channels and Rho-kinase 2 (ROCK2), shown by N- or C-terminal truncation of ClC-3 protein, ROCK2 siRNA and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Phosphorylation of ClC-3 channels at Thr(532) by ROCK2 was critical for AngII-induced Cl(-) current and VSMC migration. The ClC-3 T532D mutant (mutation of Thr(532) to aspartate), mimicking phosphorylated ClC-3 protein, significantly potentiated AngII-induced Cl(-) current and VSMC migration, while ClC-3 T532A (mutation of Thr(532) to alanine) had the opposite effects. AngII-induced cell migration was markedly decreased in VSMC from ClC-3 channel null mice that was insensitive to Y27632, an inhibitor of ROCK2. In addition, AngII-induced cerebrovascular remodelling was decreased in ClC-3 null mice, possibly by the ROCK2 pathway. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: ClC-3 protein phosphorylation at Thr(532) by ROCK2 is required for AngII-induced Cl(-) current and VSMC migration that are involved in AngII-induced vascular remodelling in hypertension.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/fisiologia , Canais de Cloreto/fisiologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Treonina/metabolismo , Quinases Associadas a rho/fisiologia , Animais , Artéria Basilar/citologia , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular , Células Cultivadas , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Fosforilação , Ratos
20.
J Mol Cell Cardiol ; 87: 237-47, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26363227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggested that ClC-3, encoding Cl(-) channel or Cl(-)/H(+) antiporter, plays a critical role in regulation of a variety of physiological functions. However, remarkably little is known about whether ClC-3 is involved in atherosclerosis. This study aims to establish the involvement and direct role of ClC-3 in atherogenesis and underlying mechanisms by using ClC-3 and ApoE double null mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: After a 16-week western-type high-fat diet, the ClC-3(+/+)ApoE(-/-) mice developed widespread atherosclerotic lesions in aorta. However, the lesion size was significantly reduced in aorta of ClC-3(-/-)ApoE(-/-) mice. Compared with the ClC-3(+/+) controls, there was significantly decreased ox-LDL binding and uptake in isolated peritoneal macrophages from ClC-3(-/-) mice. Moreover, the expression of scavenger receptor SR-A, but not CD36, was significantly decreased in both ClC-3(-/-) peritoneal macrophages and aortic lesions from ClC-3(-/-)ApoE(-/-) mice. These findings were further confirmed in ox-LDL-treated RAW264.7 macrophages, which showed that silence of ClC-3 inhibited SR-A expression, ox-LDL accumulation and foam cell formation, whereas overexpression of ClC-3 produced the opposite effects. In addition, ClC-3 siRNA significantly inhibited, whereas ClC-3 overexpression increased, the phosphorylation of JNK/p38 MAPK in ox-LDL-treated RAW264.7 foam cells. Pretreatment with JNK or p38 inhibitor abolished ClC-3-induced increase in SR-A expression and ox-LDL uptake. Finally, the increased JNK/p38 phosphorylation and SR-A expression induced by ClC-3 could be mimicked by reduction of [Cl(-)]i by low Cl(-) solution. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that ClC-3 deficiency inhibits atherosclerotic lesion development, possibly via suppression of JNK/p38 MAPK dependent SR-A expression and foam cell formation.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Aterosclerose/genética , Canais de Cloreto/genética , Receptores Depuradores Classe A/biossíntese , Animais , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Canais de Cloreto/deficiência , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Espumosas/metabolismo , Células Espumosas/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Receptores Depuradores Classe A/genética
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