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1.
Prim Health Care Res Dev ; 22: e48, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583801

RESUMO

AIM: Based on the development of telemedicine and the experience of using it during the COVID-19 epidemic, we aimed to explore its convenience and shortcomings to provide a reference for the further improvement of telemedicine. BACKGROUND: Traditional healthcare has been significantly affected by the outbreak of COVID-19, which has increased fear in patients with chronic diseases and increased the difficulty of obtaining hospitalized treatment. METHODS: This is a conceptual article. The literature search is based on Pubmed, including articles published between January 2015 and December 2020. The purpose was to determine whether telemedicine is effective in the management of chronic diseases in the epidemic situation and to develop telemedicine and chronic disease management for long-term epidemic situations in the future. FINDINGS: Telemedicine has demonstrated its advantages during the COVID-19 epidemic and can provide diversified clinical care services for patients with chronic diseases; these services have played a vital role in epidemic prevention and control, greatly alleviated the shortage of medical resources, increased the utilization level of medical resources, and reduced the cross-infection risk during treatment in hospitals. Furthermore, the epidemic situation presents opportunities for the development of diagnosis and treatment methods via the internet and active health management modalities.

2.
Metabolism ; 124: 154874, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517014

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We aimed to evaluate the effect of NAFLD on the risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)-based chronic kidney disease (CKD), and further test the joint effects and interactions between NAFLD status and individual metabolic element, as well as the total 'ABCs' metabolic goal achievement, on the CVD and CKD risk among 101,296 patients with prediabetes or diabetes from a prospective cohort study. METHODS: We conducted the study based on the China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort (4C) study, a large-scale, population-based prospective cohort. After excluding alcohol abuse and other cause of hepatic diseases, we used fatty liver index (FLI) ≥ 60 as a proxy of NAFLD and stratified the probability of fibrosis by aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase ratio (AAR) with cut-offs of 0.8 and 1.4. 'ABCs' metabolic goal was defined as subjects who had HbA1c < 6.5% (A), SBP/DBP < 130/80 mmHg (B), and LDL-C < 100 mg/dL (C). During 3.8 years follow-up, we validated 2340 CVD events based on medical records and identified 1943 participants developed CKD based on centrally tested eGFR. RESULTS: The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.27) for CVD events and 1.33 (95% CI, 1.20-1.48) for CKD among NAFLD patients, compared with participants without NAFLD. Of NAFLD patients, relative to individuals with low AAR (<0.8), those with high AAR (≥1.4) were more likely to experience CVD events [1.62 (1.21-2.18)] and CKD [1.63 (1.17-2.28)]. Participants with NAFLD and comorbid poorly controlled metabolic risk factors had higher risk of CVD events or CKD than having either alone, with a significant interaction between poor glycemic control and NAFLD on the risk of vascular complications. CONCLUSIONS: NAFLD was associated with incident CVD and CKD among patients with prediabetes or diabetes. Such associations were substantially modified by the comprehensive achievement of metabolic goal.

3.
J Diabetes ; 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational hyperglycemia increases the risk of diabetes in later life. However, the risk of future cardiovascular diseases (CVD) related to gestational hyperglycemia remains inconclusive. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of gestational hyperglycemia on the subsequent risk of CVD and its modifying factors among elderly Chinese women. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of elderly women from the baseline survey of Risk Evaluation of cAncers in Chinese diabeTic Individuals: a lONgitudinal (REACTION) study. Women with gestational hyperglycemia (n = 82), and controls matched by age and study site (n = 410) were included. Information on CVD, including reported coronary heart disease, stroke, or myocardial infarction, was collected through an interviewer-assisted questionnaire. RESULTS: Women with gestational hyperglycemia were more likely to develop diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 2.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50-4.18) and CVD (OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.05-3.74). Even without progressing to type 2 diabetes, gestational hyperglycemia was associated with an increased risk of CVD (OR, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.18-7.00). However, subgroup analysis indicated that compared with those without gestational hyperglycemia or hypertension, women with both gestational hyperglycemia and hypertension had higher risk of CVD (OR, 3.98; 95% CI, 1.65-9.58), whereas the risk estimate did not significantly change in women with gestational hyperglycemia alone (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 0.71-6.57). Stratified analysis indicated that among those with overweight/obesity, inactive physical activity, or unhealthy dietary habits, gestational hyperglycemia increased the risk of CVD. CONCLUSIONS: In elderly Chinese women, gestational hyperglycemia was associated with an increased risk of CVD in later life. This association was independent of the progression to diabetes and might be modified by lifestyle factors and hypertension.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the associations between individual and combined cardiometabolic morbidities and incident cardiovascular events in Chinese adults. DESIGN: A prospective, nationwide, and population-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: 133572 participants aged ≥ 40 years were included in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. RESULTS: Compared with participants without diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia, participants with only diabetes (hazard ratio [HR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-1.90) or only hypertension (2.04; 1.82-2.28) exhibited significantly higher risk for CVD events, while participants with only dyslipidemia (0.97; 0.84-1.12) exhibited no significantly higher risk for CVD events. When analyzed collectively, participants with diabetes plus hypertension (HR, 2.67; 95%CI, 2.33-3.06), diabetes plus dyslipidemia (1.57; 1.32-1.87), and hypertension plus dyslipidemia (2.12; 1.88-2.39) exhibited significantly higher risk for CVD. Moreover, participants with the combination of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia exhibited the highest risk for CVD events (HR, 3.06; 95%CI, 2.71-3.46). Multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for CVD associated with diabetes based on fasting glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L, oral glucose tolerance test-2h glucose ≥11.1 mmol/L, and hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% were 1.64 (1.51-1.78), 1.57 (1.45-1.69), and 1.54 (1.42-1.66), respectively; associated with hypertension based on systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg were 1.89 (1.76-2.03) and 1.74 (1.60-1.88), respectively; associated with dyslipidemia based on total cholesterol ≥6.22 mmol/L, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥4.14 mmol/L, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <1.04 mmol/L, and triglycerides ≥2.26 mmol/L were 1.18 (1.08-1.30), 1.30 (1.17-1.44), 1.00 (0.92-1.09), and 1.10 (1.01-1.20), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia showed additive associations with the risk of CVD events in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults.

5.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 36(4): 778-789, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is the most common thyroid dysfunction, and its relationship with blood pressure (BP) has been controversial. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between SCH and newly-diagnosed hypertension. METHODS: Based on data from the Thyroid disease, Iodine nutrition and Diabetes Epidemiology (TIDE) study, 49,433 euthyroid individuals and 7,719 SCH patients aged ≥18 years were enrolled. Patients with a history of hypertension or thyroid disease were excluded. SCH was determined by manufacturer reference range. Overall hypertension and stage 1 and 2 hypertension were diagnosed according to the guidelines issued by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association in 2017. RESULTS: The prevalence of overall hypertension (48.7%), including stage 1 (28.9%) and 2 (19.8%) hypertension, increased significantly in SCH patients compared with euthyroid subjects. With elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level, the hypertension prevalence also increased significantly from the euthyroid to different SCH subgroups, which was more profound in females or subjects aged <65 years. The age- and sex-specific regression analysis further demonstrated the same trends in the general population and in the 1:1 propensity matched population. Similarly, several BP components (i.e., systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial BP) were positively associated with TSH elevation, and regression analysis also confirmed that all BP components were closely related with SCH in female subjects aged <65 years. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of hypertension increases for patients with SCH. SCH tends to be associated with hypertension and BP components in females younger than 65 years.

6.
J Diabetes ; 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is increasingly diagnosed at a younger age worldwide and in China. Limited data are available regarding the association between age at diabetes diagnosis and risks of albuminuria. This study sought to examine the independent effect of age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes on the risk of albuminuria. METHODS: We used data from a nationwide multicenter study with 207 961 participants in mainland China. Age, sex, and study site were matched for 31 366 screen-detected type 2 diabetes cases and 31 366 normal controls. Age, sex, study site, and diabetes duration were matched for 7490 self-reported type 2 diabetes cases and 7490 normal controls. Risks of having albuminuria in matched type 2 diabetes vs controls were examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis in strata of age at diabetes diagnosis. RESULTS: Although the absolute rate of albuminuria is higher in older adults, the odds ratio of albuminuria in type 2 diabetes vs matched controls decreased with increasing age at diagnosis. For participants with diabetes diagnosed at an age of <50, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, or ≥70 years, the multivariable adjusted risk of albuminuria increased by 81%, 60%, 45%, and 33% for screen-detected diabetes, and 135%, 121%, 90%, and 58% for self-reported diabetes compared with their normal controls, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: A younger age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is associated with a more significantly elevated risk of albuminuria than an older age at diagnosis in Chinese adults.

7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 678355, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34322117

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation plays an important role in the development of metabolic diseases. These include obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease. The proinflammatory environment maintained by the innate immunity, including macrophages and related cytokines, can be influenced by adaptive immunity. The function of T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T (Treg) cells in this process has attracted attention. The Th17/Treg balance is regulated by inflammatory cytokines and various metabolic factors, including those associated with cellular energy metabolism. The possible underlying mechanisms include metabolism-related signaling pathways and epigenetic regulation. Several studies conducted on human and animal models have shown marked differences in and the important roles of Th17/Treg in chronic inflammation associated with obesity and metabolic diseases. Moreover, Th17/Treg seems to be a bridge linking the gut microbiota to host metabolic disorders. In this review, we have provided an overview of the alterations in and the functions of the Th17/Treg balance in metabolic diseases and its role in regulating immune response-related glucose and lipid metabolism.

8.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(11): 2551-2560, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34322974

RESUMO

AIMS: The aims of this study were to evaluate the associations of metabolic abnormalities with incident diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and to explore whether dyslipidaemia, particularly high fasting triglyceride (TG), was associated with the development of DKD. METHODS: In total, 11 142 patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 were followed up during 2011-2016. Incident DKD was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at follow-up. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to explore the relationship of metabolic abnormalities at baseline and at follow-up with risks of DKD. High TG was defined by TG ≥1.70 mmol/L. Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) was defined by HDL-c <1.0 mmol/L for men or <1.3 mmol/L for women. RESULTS: Participants who developed DKD had higher levels of waist circumference and systolic blood pressure, and lower levels of HDL-c at both baseline and follow-up visits. The DKD group also had higher levels of post-load plasma glucose and TG at follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that both high TG at baseline [odds ratio (OR) = 1.37, p = .012) and high TG at follow-up (OR = 1.71, p < .001) were significantly associated with increased risks of DKD. Patients with high TG levels at both baseline and follow-up had higher risk of DKD compared with constantly normal TG (OR = 1.65, p < .001) after adjustment for covariates. CONCLUSIONS: In a large population of patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes, a high TG level was an independent risk factor for the development of DKD. Tight TG control might delay the occurrence of DKD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Neoplasias , China/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos
9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 651534, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34122333

RESUMO

Background: Universal salt iodization (USI) was implemented in mainland China in 1996. The prevalence of hyperthyroidism and its risk factors now require examination. Methods: Data were acquired from a nationwide Thyroid, Iodine, and Diabetes Epidemiological survey (TIDE 2015-2017) of 78,470 subjects from 31 provinces. Iodine status, and thyroid hormones and antibodies were measured. Results: After two decades of USI, the prevalence of overt hyperthyroidism (OH), Graves' disease (GD), severe subclinical hyperthyroidism (severe SCH), and mild subclinical hyperthyroidism (mild SCH) in mainland China was 0.78%, 0.53%, 0.22%, and 0.22%, respectively. OH and GD prevalence were higher in women than in men (OH: 1.16% vs. 0.64%, P<0.001; GD: 0.65% vs. 0.37%, P<0.001).Prevalence was significantly decreased after 60 years-of-age compared with 30-39 years-of-age (OH:0.61% vs. 0.81%, P<0.001; GD: 0.38% vs. 0.57%, P<0.001).Excessive iodine(EI) and deficient iodine(DI) were both related to increased prevalence of OH (odds ratio [OR] 2.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.68-2.59; OR1.35, 95%CI 1.07-1.72, respectively); however, only deficient iodine was associated with increased prevalence of GD (OR1.67, 95%CI 1.30-2.15). Increased thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody levels were significantly associated with prevalence of OH and GD, but not severe SCH and mild SCH. Although hyperthyroidism was more prevalent in women, the association disappeared after adjusting for other factors such as antibody levels. Conclusion: OH and GD prevalences in mainland China are stable after two decades of USI. Iodine deficiency, elevated thyroid antibody levels, and middle age are the main risk factors for OH and GD. The severe SCH population, rather than the mild SCH population, shows similar characteristics to the OH population.

10.
Front Neuroendocrinol ; 62: 100916, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957174

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is related to abnormal brain structure and function, increasing the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. We systematically reviewed the published literature focusing on cerebral perfusion in patients with T2DM. Although no significant difference was found in global cerebral blood flow (CBF) between the T2DM group and the healthy control group, the regional cerebral perfusion in T2DM was significantly reduced in multiple locations, including the occipital lobe, domains involved in the default mode network and the cerebellum. The decline in regional CBF was associated with a wide range of cognitive disorders in T2DM, including learning, memory, attention, and executive processing, as well as visual function. In addition, diabetes-related biochemical indicators, such as glycated hemoglobin and insulin resistance, were negatively correlated with regional CBF. In general, these functional perfusion imaging studies indicate that decreased CBF in T2DM may be a potential cause of cognitive impairment.

11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 648182, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33841431

RESUMO

Proteins in the signaling lymphocytic activating molecule (SLAM) family play crucial roles in regulating the immune system. CD244 (SLAMF4) is a protein in this family, and is also a member of the CD2 subset of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily. CD244 is a cell surface protein expressed by NK cells, T cells, monocytes, eosinophils, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and dendritic cells. CD244 binds to the ligand CD48 on adjacent cells and transmits stimulatory or inhibitory signals that regulate immune function. In-depth studies reported that CD244 functions in many immune-related diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, and cancers, and its action is essential for the onset and progression of these diseases. The discovery of these essential roles of CD244 suggests it has potential as a prognostic indicator or therapeutic target. This review describes the molecular structure and function of CD244 and its roles in various immune cells and immune-related diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Família de Moléculas de Sinalização da Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Prognóstico , Família de Moléculas de Sinalização da Ativação Linfocitária/química
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(28): 37279-37291, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33712961

RESUMO

Globally, climate change is an alarming threat to the livestock industry. Such changes in the climate can also adversely affect the returns of livestock farmers in Pakistan. Improvement in the production process could decrease the risk of losses. This study analyzes the efficacy of silage to abate the losses in livestock profitability resulting from the climate change. The study employed cross-sectional survey data of 492 livestock farmers collected from six districts of Punjab Province, Pakistan. The data are analyzed with endogenous switching regression, considering the possibility of selection bias and endogeneity in adopting silage as a climate change adaptation measure. The study findings show a significant difference in material well-being between silage users and conventional feed users. Furthermore, training programs such as silage training and livestock development programs could be meaningful provisions to abate climate change and improve food security. It is suggested that training and development programs should be incorporated in policy plans to improve the well-being of farmers in terms of their farm revenues.


Assuntos
Gado , Silagem , Agricultura , Animais , Mudança Climática , Estudos Transversais , Fazendeiros , Fazendas , Paquistão
13.
Int J Cardiol ; 332: 209-215, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667580

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excessive adiposity in adulthood is positively associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, it is less studied how the risk is separately explained by early adulthood weight and later weight change, especially in Asian ancestries. METHODS: This study included 121160 participants in a large population-based cohort in China. Body weight at 20 and 40 years of age wase self-reported. Information on CVD history was obtained through standard questionnaires. RESULTS: The odds ratios (ORs) were 1.20 (95% CI, 1.10-1.31) for coronary heart disease (CHD), 1.74 (95% CI, 1.36-2.22) for myocardial infarction (MI), 1.14 (95% CI, 0.99-1.32) for stroke and 1.21 (95% CI, 1.12-1.31) for total CVD among individuals with early overweight, and became more prominent for early obesity. Meanwhile, A moderate weight gain of 2.5 kg between early adulthood and midlife significantly increased the risk of CHD (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.05-1.32), stroke (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.03-1.38) and total CVD (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.04-1.27), and the risk escalated with higher amounts of weight gain. Conversely, a weight loss of 2.5 kg conferred lower risk of CVD compared with a stable weight. In further cross-analysis, participants with early adulthood overweight or obesity and significant weight gain afterwards exhibited the greatest risk of CVD. CONCLUSIONS: High early adulthood BMI and subsequent weight gain had both independent and combined effect on the risk of CVD after midlife. Therefore, weight management should start before early adulthood, and emphasized throughout adulthood for CVD prevention.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Diabetes ; 13(11): 857-867, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parity, pregnancy loss, and breastfeeding duration were found to be associated with diabetes. However, the results are inconsistent. Also, no epidemiological studies have examined the association of these reproductive factors with diabetes in the same large population. We aim to investigate the associations between parity, pregnancy loss, breastfeeding duration, and the risk of maternal diabetes in middle-aged and elderly Chinese females. METHODS: We included 131 174 females aged ≥40 years from the REACTION study (Risk Evaluation of Cancers in Chinese Diabetic Individuals: A Longitudinal Study). Multivariable linear regression and logistic regression were used to assess the association between parity, pregnancy loss, and breastfeeding duration and type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: The number of parities and breastfeeding duration were positively related to fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour postload glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Compared with those with one birth, nulliparous women or women with 2 or ≥3 births had a significantly increased risk of diabetes. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were 1.27 (1.10-1.48), 1.17 (1.12-1.22), and 1.28 (1.21-1.35), respectively. Compared with women without pregnancy loss, those who underwent 2 (OR 1.09; 95% CI, 1.04-1.14) or ≥3 pregnancy losses (OR 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04-1.18) had an increased risk of diabetes. Moreover, women with a breastfeeding duration ≥0 to 6 months (OR 0.82; 95% CI, 0.75-0.90) and ≥6 to 12 months (OR 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-0.99) had a significantly lower risk of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Nulliparous women or women with multiparity or more than one pregnancy loss have an increased risk of diabetes in later life, while women who breastfeed more than 0 to 12 months have a lower risk of diabetes.

15.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) clinical practice guideline used eGFR and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) to categorize risks for CKD prognosis. The utility of KDIGO's stratification of major CVD risks and predictive ability beyond traditional CVD risk prediction scores are unknown. METHODS: To evaluate CVD risks on the basis of ACR and eGFR (individually, together, and in combination using the KDIGO risk categories) and with the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) score, we studied 115,366 participants in the China Cardiometabolic Disease and Cancer Cohort study. Participants (aged ≥40 years and without a history of cardiovascular disease) were examined prospectively for major CVD events, including nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and cardiovascular death. RESULTS: During 415,111 person-years of follow-up, 2866 major CVD events occurred. Incidence rates and multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of CVD events increased significantly across the KDIGO risk categories in ASCVD risk strata (all P values for log-rank test and most P values for trend in Cox regression analysis <0.01). Increases in c statistic for CVD risk prediction were 0.01 (0.01 to 0.02) in the overall study population and 0.03 (0.01 to 0.04) in participants with diabetes, after adding eGFR and log(ACR) to a model including the ASCVD risk score. In addition, adding eGFR and log(ACR) to a model with the ASCVD score resulted in significantly improved reclassification of CVD risks (net reclassification improvements, 4.78%; 95% confidence interval, 3.03% to 6.41%). CONCLUSIONS: Urinary ACR and eGFR (individually, together, and in combination using KDIGO risk categories) may be important nontraditional risk factors in stratifying and predicting major CVD events in the Chinese population.

16.
Genomics ; 113(3): 1170-1179, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705887

RESUMO

Complete chloroplast genomes of ten wild Fragaria species native to China were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis clustered Fragaria species into two clades: The south clade (F. iinumae, F. chinensis, F. pentaphylla, F. nilgerrensis, F. daltoniana, F. corymbosa, F. moupinensis, F. tibetica, F. nipponica, F. gracilis, and F. nubicola and north clade (F. viridis, F. orientalis, F. moschata, F. mandshurica, F. vesca, F. chiloensis, F. virginiana, and F. × ananassa), while F. iinumae is the oldest extant species. Molecular clock analysis suggested present Fragaria species share a common ancestor 3.57 million years ago (Ma), F. moschata and octoploid species evolve 0.89 and 0.97 Ma, respectively, but F. moschata be not directly involved in current octoploid species formation. Drastic global temperature change since the Palaeocene-Eocene, approx. 55 Ma, especially during uplifting of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau and quaternary glaciation may have driven the formation of Fragaria, separation of two groups and polyploidization.

17.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e922753, 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33640896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Acute kidney injury with acute renal failure is associated with severe diabetic ketoacidosis. This retrospective study was conducted at a single center in China and aimed to compare combined hemodialysis and hemoperfusion (hemodialysis+hemoperfusion) with hemoperfusion alone in 106 patients with diabetic ketoacidosis and acute renal failure. MATERIAL AND METHODS The 106 patients were divided into 2 groups according to different dialysis programs, with 53 cases in each group. Hemodialysis was performed using a single-pass 4008S FX8 HeLix-One hollow fiber hemodialyzer (Fresenius Medical Care, St. Wendel, Germany). Hemoperfusion was performed using HA130 resin adsorbents. RESULTS There were no significant differences in terms of sex, age, duration of diabetes, A1c, pH, and admission blood glucose between the 2 groups (P=0.54, 0.564, 0.53, 0.78, 0.82, 0.51). There were no significant differences in fasting blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen, osmotic pressure, and creatinine between the 2 groups before treatment (P=0.146, 0.978, 0.786, 0.983). After treatment, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in the dual-treatment group were lower than in the control group, and the osmotic pressure was higher than that in the control group (P=0.000, 0.000, 0.000). The dual-treatment group experienced a lower prevalence of dizziness (5.7%), anemia (7.5%), bone pain (7.5%), hypertension (3.8%), and pruritus (5.7%) than the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Compared with hemoperfusion alone, hemodialysis+hemoperfusion significantly reduced pruritus and anemia, improved renal function, and was associated with significantly fewer adverse events in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis and acute renal failure.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/terapia , Cetoacidose Diabética/terapia , Injúria Renal Aguda/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , China , Creatinina/sangue , Cetoacidose Diabética/complicações , Feminino , Hemoperfusão/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prurido , Diálise Renal/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 57, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) is an important fruit crop worldwide. It was particularly sensitive to drought stress because of their fibrous and shallow root systems. Mutant rty of Arabidopsis thaliana ROOTY (RTY) results in increased endogenous auxin levels, more roots, and shoot growth. It is still unclear whether the rty gene improves stress tolerance in strawberry. RESULTS: rty gene was isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana and placed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in the pBI121-rty binary vector carrying the selectable marker of neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II). Seven transgenic lines were confirmed by PCR and western blot analysis. Accumulations of IAA and ABA were significantly increased in the transgenic plants. The endogenous IAA contents were 46.5 ng g- 1 and 66.0 ng g- 1in control and transgenic plants respectively. The endogenous ABA contents in the control plant were 236.3 ng g- 1 and in transgenic plants were 543.8 ng g- 1. The production of adventitious roots and trichomes were enhanced in the transgenic plants. Furthermore, transcript levels of the genes including IAA and ABA biosynthetic, and stress-responsive genes, were higher in the transgenic plants than in the control plants under drought conditions. Water use efficiency and a reduced water loss rate were enhanced in the transgenic strawberry plants. Additionally, peroxidase and catalase activities were significantly higher in the transgenic plants than in the control plants. The experiment results revealed a novel function for rty related to ABA and drought responses. CONCLUSIONS: The rty gene improved hormone-mediated drought tolerance in transgenic strawberry. The heterologous expression of rty in strawberry improved drought tolerance by promoting auxin and ABA accumulation. These phytohormones together brought about various physiological changes that improved drought tolerance via increased root production, trichome density, and stomatal closure. Our results suggested that a transgenic approach can be used to overcome the inherent trade-off between plant growth and drought tolerance by enhancing water use efficiency and reducing water loss rate under water shortage conditions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Liases de Carbono-Enxofre/metabolismo , Fragaria/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Liases de Carbono-Enxofre/genética , Secas , Fragaria/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Estômatos de Plantas/genética , Estômatos de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Plântula/genética , Plântula/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Transgenes , Água/metabolismo
19.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 24(1): 15-23, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) administration was recently reported and might be positively associated with dementia. However, the existing studies showed controversial results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ADT and the risk of dementia through a meta-analysis. METHODS: Original articles published up to March 2020 were retrieved from Embase, Pubmed, the Cochrane library, and Web of Science for studies focusing on associations between ADT for prostate cancer (PCa) and incidence of dementia. A meta-analysis was conducted using a hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) as effect measures. Heterogeneity between the studies was examined using I2 statistics. Subgroup analyses, sensitivity analyses, and meta-regression were conducted, and publication bias was assessed by Egger's test. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included in this systematic review. Eleven cohort studies involving 339,400 cases and 436,851 controls were included in the main meta-analysis. ADT administration was associated with a 21% increase in dementia risk (pooled HR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.13-1.30, P < 0.001). Subgroup analyses based on ADT types showed that luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (HR = 1.14, P < 0.001), bilateral orchiectomy (HR = 1.42, P < 0.001), oral antiandrogens (HR = 1.35, P = 0.138), and combined androgen blockade (HR = 1.22, P = 0.097) were positively related to subsequent risk of dementia, although the differences were not statistically significant with oral antiandrogens and combined androgen blockade. CONCLUSIONS: The current study indicated that ADT administration, no matter with types of ADT, is associated with the risk of dementia in patients with PCa. Future studies are needed to determine whether ADT causes dementia or is merely associated with increased risk.

20.
Acta Diabetol ; 58(3): 249-265, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712802

RESUMO

Early-life healthy gut microbiota has a profound implication on shaping the mucosal immune system as well as maintaining healthy status later in life, especially at the prenatal or neonatal stages, while intestinal dysbiosis in early life is associated with several autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes (T1D). Since the gut microbiome is potentially modifiable, optimizing the intestinal bacterial composition in early life may be a novel option for T1D prevention. In this review, we will review current data depicting the crucial role of early-life intestinal microbiome in the development of T1D and discuss the possible mechanisms whereby early-life intestinal microbiome influences the T1D progression. We also summarize recent findings on environmental factors affecting gut microbiota colonization and interventions that may successfully alter microbial composition to discuss potential means of preventing T1D progression in at-risk children.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/microbiologia , Feto/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Recém-Nascido , Animais , Doenças Autoimunes/etiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Disbiose/complicações , Disbiose/imunologia , Feminino , Feto/imunologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido/imunologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
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