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1.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452776

RESUMO

In this article, the distributed finite-time optimization problem is investigated for second-order multiagent systems with disturbances. To solve this problem, a feedforward-feedback composite control framework is established, which contains two main stages. In the first stage, for disturbed second-order individual systems with generally strongly convex cost functions, a composite finite-time optimization control scheme is proposed based on the combination of adding a power integrator and the finite-time disturbance observer techniques and the use of the cost functions' gradients and Hessian matrices. In the second stage, based on the result of the first stage, a distributed composite finite-time optimization control framework is built for disturbed second-order multiagent systems with quadratic-like local cost functions. This framework involves a kind of finite-time consensus algorithm, some novel distributed finite-time estimators designed for each agent to estimate the velocity, the gradient and Hessian matrix for the local cost function of any other agent, and some optimization terms in the form of the optimization controllers proposed in the first stage and based on the estimates from the distributed estimators. The finite-time convergence of the closed-loop systems is rigorously proved. The simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control framework.

2.
J Cell Physiol ; 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437020

RESUMO

Glucocorticoid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (GIOFH) is one of the most common complications of glucocorticoid administration. By chelating Fe2+ , desferoxamine (DFO) was reported to be able to activate the HIF-1α/VEGF pathway and promote angiogenesis. In the present study, we examined whether DFO administration could promote angiogenesis and bone repair in GIOFH. GIOFH was induced in rats by methylprednisolone in combination with lipopolysaccharide. Bone repair was assessed by histologic analysis and microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). Vascularization was assessed by Microfil perfusion and micro-CT analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to analyze the expression of HIF-1α, VEGF, and CD31. Our in vivo study revealed that DFO increased HIF-1α/VEGF expression and promoted angiogenesis and osteogenesis in GIOFH. Moreover, our in vitro study revealed that DFO restored dexamethone-induced HIF-1α downregulation and angiogenesis inhibition. Besides, our in vitro study also demonstrated that DFO could protect bone marrow-derived stem cells from dexamethone-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction by promoting mitophagy and mitochondrial fission. In summary, our data provided useful information for the development of novel therapeutics for management of GIOFH.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 733: 139208, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446061

RESUMO

The Sanjiang Plain has the largest marsh wetland area in China. Since the 1950s its size has declined due to land development, between 1986 and 2016 nearly 6072 km2 (57.5% of the area) was lost due to farm land expansion. Since the "Wetland for Grain" project in 2003, efforts have been made to improve marsh area for animal habitat and ecological protection. A key management concern is prioritizing areas for wetland restoration in scientific planning and polices making. In this study, the natural wetland restoration potentials were evaluated based on land-use change trajectory, seed bank viability and watershed sustainability and restorability. The annual land use maps from 1986 to 2016 were reconstructed using CLUE-S model with land use maps in 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2016, which were interpreted from Landsat TM/ETM images. Seed bank viability was determined by field sampling in wetland and farm land with different reclamation years and germination in lab. Sub-catchment was chosen as sustainability analysis unit, which was quantified by the impacts of wetland on peak flow reduction. The watershed restorability was performed with the factors of wetland degradation degree, seed bank viability, and the percentage of wetland to watershed area (PWW) with different restoration years. The results indicated that reclaimed wetland with a time since last development (TLD) of <15 years had a higher recovery potential and accounted for 39.2% of the lost wetland. Seventeen sub-catchments with a total area of 2177 km2 of farmland could be planned for restoration, which could support more than half of the sub-catchments in the study area. Priority areas were identified for short-, mid- and long-term restoration planning. The results can support the scientific planning demands of various restoration goals in the study area, and provide a new method for wetland restoration.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(18): e19742, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358348

RESUMO

Hemodynamic changes occurring at the segments of arterial bifurcations, up and down stream of stenotic vessels appear to play a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. Therefore, we hypothesized that basilar artery (BA) geometry may be related to the distribution of atherosclerotic plaque.In this retrospective cross-sectional study, all patients hospitalized with ischemic stroke and intracranial atherosclerotic disease were sifted from March 2017 to October 2017. Sixty-seven patients with intracranial atherosclerotic disease (39 with and 28 without BA atherosclerosis) were analyzed. Magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance angiography, and high-resolution black-blood MRI were performed within 7 days after symptoms onset. BA tortuosity, plaque location, and plaque enhancement were assessed. Plaque burden and vascular remodeling were measured.Of the 39 patients with BA atherosclerosis, plaques preferred to be formed at the inner arc than the outer arc (27/39, 69% vs 12/39, 31%) in the tortuous BA. In addition, patients with BA plaque had a greater vascular tortuosity compared with those without plaque (113.1 ±â€Š10.2 vs 107 ±â€Š4.6; P = .034). Finally, patients with apparent BA plaque had greater plaque enhancement (14/21, 67% vs 5/18, 28%; P = .017) and plaque burden (0.76 ±â€Š0.15 vs 0.70 ±â€Š0.09; P = .036) compared with those with minimal plaque.Plaque may be more likely to form at the inner arc of tortuous BA with atherosclerotic disease, and increased BA tortuosity is associated with its likelihood to form plaque.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/patologia , Artéria Basilar/patologia , Placa Aterosclerótica/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Idoso , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Basilar/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placa Aterosclerótica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Remodelação Vascular
5.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(10)2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443773

RESUMO

In this study, vacuum low-pressure carburizing heat treatments were carried out on 18Cr2Ni4WA case-carburized alloy steel. The evolution and phase transformation mechanism of the microstructure of the carburized layer during low-temperature tempering and its effect on the surface hardness were studied. The results showed that the carburized layer of the 18Cr2Ni4WA steel was composed of a large quantity of martensite and retained austenite. The type of martensite matrix changed from acicular martensite to lath martensite from the surface to the core. The hardness of the carburized layer gradually decreased as the carbon content decreased. A thermodynamic model was used to show that the low-carbon retained austenite was easier to transform into martensite at lower temperatures, since the high-carbon retained austenite was more thermally stable than the low-carbon retained austenite. The mechanical stability-not the thermal stability-of the retained austenite in the carburized layer dominated after carburizing and quenching, and cryogenic treatment had a limited effect on promoting the martensite formation. During low-temperature tempering, the solid-solution carbon content of the martensite decreased, the compressive stress on the retained austenite was reduced and the mechanical stability of the retained austenite decreased. Therefore, during cooling after low-temperature tempering, the low-carbon retained austenite transformed into martensite, whereas the high-carbon retained austenite still remained in the microstructure. The changes in the martensite matrix hardness had a far greater effect than the transformation of the retained austenite to martensite on the case hardness of the carburized layer.

7.
Life Sci ; 251: 117609, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272180

RESUMO

AIMS: To identify the target of an adipose specific aptamer adipo-8, predict the potential interaction between adipo-8 and its target, and investigate lipid-lowering effect of adipo-8 in vitro and in vivo. MAIN METHODS: Distinct membranous protein of 3T3-L1 adipocyte pulled-down by adipo-8 was mass-spectrometry analyzed as target candidate(s), and affinity of adipo-8 to target protein-silent adipocyte was detected to validate it. Interaction between adipo-8 and target was predicted by bioinformatic analysis, further confirmed by aptamer truncation and competitive binding assay. To investigate lipid-lowering effect of adipo-8 and mechanism behind, 250 nmol/L adipo-8 or library was incubated with 3T3-L1 adipocyte or target-protein-silent adipocyte for 24 h, and 0.01 µg/g/day adipo-8 or library was administrated to high-fat-fed male mice for 21 days. KEY FINDINGS: APMAP (Adipocyte Plasma Membrane Associated Protein) was identified as adipo-8 target, and adipo-8 affinity to adipocytes was in proportional to APMAP expression. Docking model between the stem-loop structure of adipo-8 and APMAP were predicted that adipo-8 was likely to interact with APMAP at its amino-acid 275-411 sequence. Moreover, adipo-8 could ameliorate fat deposition through interaction with APMAP in vitro, and administration of adipo-8 in high-fat-diet fed mice resulted in body weight loss and blood triglyceride decrease without liver or renal dysfunction. SIGNIFICANCE: Adipo-8 could recognize APMAP specifically and interact with its targets to ameliorate fat deposition in vitro and in vivo. Aptamer adipo-8 has potential to act as an effective and safe targeted drug for obesity and obesity related diseases.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
8.
J Genet Genomics ; 47(3): 145-156, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305173

RESUMO

Arginine catabolism involves enzyme-dependent reactions in both mitochondria and the cytosol, defects in which may lead to hyperargininemia, a devastating developmental disorder. It is largely unknown if defective arginine catabolism has any effects on mitochondria. Here we report that normal arginine catabolism is essential for mitochondrial homeostasis in Caenorhabditiselegans. Mutations of the arginase gene argn-1 lead to abnormal mitochondrial enlargement and reduced adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in C. elegans hypodermal cells. ARGN-1 localizes to mitochondria and its loss causes arginine accumulation, which disrupts mitochondrial dynamics. Heterologous expression of human ARG1 or ARG2 rescued the mitochondrial defects of argn-1 mutants. Importantly, genetic inactivation of the mitochondrial basic amino acid transporter SLC-25A29 or the mitochondrial glutamate transporter SLC-25A18.1 fully suppressed the mitochondrial defects caused by argn-1 mutations. These findings suggest that mitochondrial damage probably contributes to the pathogenesis of hyperargininemia and provide clues for developing therapeutic treatments for hyperargininemia.

9.
Liver Int ; 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined the risk of gastrointestinal cancers in screen-detected gallstone disease. This study aimed to investigate the association between screen-detected gallstone disease and gastrointestinal cancers using the Kailuan cohort, a population-based prospective cohort initiated in 2006. METHODS: A total of 79 809 men who underwent gallbladder ultrasonography, were free of cancers in 2006 and did not have gastrointestinal cancers within one year were enrolled. A Cox proportional hazards model with age as the timescale was used to evaluate the association between screen-detected gallstone disease and gastrointestinal cancers. RESULTS: We identified 1264 cases with gastrointestinal cancers, including 303 cases with liver cancer and 94 cases with pancreatic cancer. Screen-detected gallstone disease increased the risk of liver cancer, with an HR of 2.28 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-4.33, P = .012]. The association was modified by the hepatitis B surface antigen status. A non-significant positive association was observed between pancreatic cancer and gallstone disease (HR 2.19, 95% CI: 0.95-5.05, P = .065). However, the HR became significant after those individuals with diabetes were excluded (HR 2.60, 95% CI: 1.12-6.01, P = .026). CONCLUSION: Screen-detected gallstone disease may predict the risk for liver and pancreatic cancer.

10.
J Gene Med ; : e3202, 2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) function as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in several cancers. The present study aimed to determine the functions of lncRNA HOXC-AS1 in gastric cancer (GC) in vitro. METHODS: A quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the expression of lncRNA HOXC-AS1 in GC cell lines and normal cells. After silencing HOXC-AS1 in GC cells, a cell counting kit-8 assay monitored the viability of the cells. qRT-PCR and western blot documented the EMT key genes in response to HOXC-AS1 change. qRT-PCR detected mRNA expression for eIF4AIII in GC and normal cell lines and cell viability was measured after an increase and decrease of eIF4AIII. RNA pull-down and qRT-PCR confirmed the binding in between. Apoptosis was compared by flow cytometry. The interplay between the two genes was surveyed by introduction of the sh-HOXC-AS1 and sh-eIF4AIII and by assessing cell viability, EMT and Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. RESULTS: lncRNA HOXC-AS1 expression is up-regulated in GC cells and a decrease of lncRNA HOXC-AS1 inhibited cell viability. Binding was validated by RNA pull-down. Additionally, inhibition of eIF4AIII induced an increase of lncRNA HOXC-AS1, thus promoting cell proliferation and the EMT process but deterring apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. Wnt/ß-catenin signaling was impeded by HOXC-AS1 inhibition but restored by suppression of eIF4AIII. CONCLUSIONS: HOXC-AS1 may promote the proliferation and the EMT process and inhibit apoptosis by binding eIF4AIII via Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, which indicates that HOXC-AS1/eIF4AIII might be an axis that could be further used as a biomarker to help with the diagnosis of GC.

11.
World Neurosurg ; 2020 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339739

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The pedicle-rib unit is regarded as an expanded pedicle and is a new approach to thoracic pedicle fixation. Previous studies were mostly focused on anatomic, radiographic, and biomechanical assessment. However, there is no study on anatomic relationship of bony structures in the pedicle-rib unit. This article investigates the anatomic relationships between transverse process, pedicle, rib, and corresponding vertebrae body in the pedicle-rib unit, so as to improve the clinical safety of pedicle-rib unit screw placement. METHODS: Forty-five normal dry adult cadaver specimens were included. Anatomic parameters were measured. Anatomic parameters were 1) the anatomic relationship between the transverse process and the pedicle (the distance from the horizontal center line of the transverse process to the center and the superior and inferior border of the pedicle); 2) the anatomic relationship between the transverse process and the rib (the overlap portion between the costal neck and the transverse process); 3) the anatomic relationship between the transverse process and the vertebral body (the relative position of the horizontal midline of the transverse process and the vertebral body); and 4) the anatomic relationship between the pedicle and the rib (the overlap portion between the costal neck and the pedicle). RESULTS: The midline of the transverse process was located within the range of the superior and inferior borders of the pedicle in the thoracic spine. The distance between the midline of the transverse process and the center of the pedicle was the closest at T6 and T7, but the farthest at T11 and T12. The anterolateral part of the transverse process was mostly covered by rib from T1 to T8, but it was less covered from T9 to T12. The midline of the transverse process corresponded to the upper third or middle third of the vertebral body. The pedicle is completely or mostly overlapped by the rib from T1 to T9 on the anterolateral side, but from T10 to T12, the rib overlapped the pedicle partially. CONCLUSIONS: The pedicle-rib unit is a three-dimensional anatomic structure. The pedicle, transverse process, and rib are not completely in the same plane, and their positions vary in different segments. Pedicle-rib unit screw fixation is anatomically feasible. Setting the screw in the upper-middle thoracic spine is safer than setting it in the lower thoracic spine.

12.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(6)2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245272

RESUMO

In this study, the effects of ultrasonic on melt pool dynamic, microstructure, and properties of underwater wet flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) joints were investigated. Ultrasonic vibration enhanced melt flow and weld pool oscillation. Grain fragmentation caused by cavitation changed microstructure morphology and decreased microstructure size. The proportion of polygonal ferrite (PF) reduced or even disappeared. The width of grain boundary ferrite (GBF) decreased from 34 to 10 µm, and the hardness increased from 204 to 276 HV. The tensile strength of the joint increased from 545 to 610 MPa, and the impact toughness increased from 65 to 71 J/mm2 due to the microstructure refinement at the optimum ultrasonic power.

13.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(7)2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276471

RESUMO

Hot stamping is a well-known process to produce structural automotive parts with an excellent strength-to-weight ratio. However, this process is more expensive due to the lower energy efficiency and operating cost of the traditional roller-hearth furnace. Additionally, lower ductility and toughness are commonly recognized as the main disadvantages of the current hot stamped ultra-high-strength parts. Refinement of austenite grains could be a profitable way to improve the strength of hot stamped parts. In this work, the evolution of reversed transformation in asymmetrically cryogenically rolled samples was studied in order to control the austenite. Thermomechanical simulation and heat treatment in the salt bath were used to investigate the reversed transformation process, and the typical microstructures were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Compared with symmetric prerolling, ferrite recrystallization could be remarkably inhibited by asymmetric rolling at the liquid nitrogen temperature (LNT) during the reheating process. Additionally, the nucleation of the austenite inner grains can also be promoted and the dynamics of the reversed transformation accelerated by asymmetric prerolling. Such phenomena might be very useful to refine the parent austenite grains before press hardening and enhance the new hot stamping strategy by partial fast reheating.

14.
Eur Spine J ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130529

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to analyse the correlations between the inflection point (IP) and spinal sagittal parameters and to establish the corresponding linear regressions in asymptomatic adults. METHODS: A total of 205 asymptomatic subjects older than 18 years were recruited between April 2017 and September 2019. A full-spine, standing X-ray was collected for each subject. The following parameters were documented: the IP, the apices of thoracic kyphosis (TKA) and lumbar lordosis (LLA), the distance between the plumb line of the thoracic apex (TAPL) or lumbar apex (LAPL) and gravity plumb line, thoracic kyphosis (TK), lumbar lordosis (LL) and the upper arc and the lower arc of lumbar lordosis (LLUA and LLLA, respectively). The correlations between the IP and the above parameters and between the thoracic and lumbar parameters were analysed. The level of significance was P < 0.05. RESULTS: The IP was statistically correlated with age (rs = 0.327), the TKA (rs = 0.639), the TAPL (rs = 0.338), TK (rs = 0.391), the LLA (rs = 0.545), the LAPL (rs = - 0.383), the LLUA (rs = 0.371) and the LLLA (rs = - 0.145) but was not linked with LL (rs = 0.118). In addition, there were relationships between the TKA and LLA (rs = 0.397), the TAPL and LAPL (rs = - 0.357), TK and LL (rs = 0.529), TK and the LLUA (rs = 0.742) and TK and the LLLA (rs = 0.148). CONCLUSION: The IP was significantly related to spinal sagittal alignment in asymptomatic adults. Moreover, predictive formulae for sagittal parameters as a function of the IP were developed, which are helpful for surgeons in comprehending the regulatory mechanisms of spinal sagittal alignment and designing an ideal therapeutic plan. These slides can be retrieved under Electronic Supplementary Material.

15.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 207, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advances in genome technology have simplified a new comprehension of the genetic and historical processes crucial to rapid phenotypic evolution under domestication. To get new insight into the genetic basis of the dog domestication process, we conducted whole-genome sequence analysis of three wolves and three dogs from Iran which covers the eastern part of the Fertile Crescent located in Southwest Asia where the independent domestication of most of the plants and animals has been documented and also high haplotype sharing between wolves and dog breeds has been reported. RESULTS: Higher diversity was found within the wolf genome compared with the dog genome. A total number of 12.45 million SNPs were detected in all individuals (10.45 and 7.82 million SNPs were identified for all the studied wolves and dogs, respectively) and a total number of 3.49 million small Indels were detected in all individuals (3.11 and 2.24 million small Indels were identified for all the studied wolves and dogs, respectively). A total of 10,571 copy number variation regions (CNVRs) were detected across the 6 individual genomes, covering 154.65 Mb, or 6.41%, of the reference genome (canFam3.1). Further analysis showed that the distribution of deleterious variants in the dog genome is higher than the wolf genome. Also, genomic annotation results from intron and intergenic regions showed that the proportion of variations in the wolf genome is higher than that in the dog genome, while the proportion of the coding sequences and 3'-UTR in the dog genome is higher than that in the wolf genome. The genes related to the olfactory and immune systems were enriched in the set of the structural variants (SVs) identified in this work. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed more deleterious mutations and coding sequence variants in the domestic dog genome than those in wolf genome. By providing the first Iranian dog and wolf variome map, our findings contribute to understanding the genetic architecture of the dog domestication.

16.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(5): 4111-4123, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155130

RESUMO

Mounting studies have shown that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in the development and occurrence of several human diseases. However, the role of LINC00461 in osteoarthritis (OA) remains obscure. A CCK-8 assay was performed to detect cell viability, and qRT-PCR analysis was used to measure mRNA expression. The targeting by miR-30a-5p of the LINC00461 3'UTR was detected using a luciferase reporter assay. Our data indicated that the inflammatory mediators IL-6 and TNF-α induced LINC00461 expression in chondrocytes and that the expression of LINC00461 was upregulated in OA tissues. Furthermore, we showed that TNF-α and IL-6 suppressed the expression of miR-30a-5p and that miR-30a-5p expression was lower in OA tissues than in normal samples. The expression level of miR-30a-5p in OA tissues was negatively related to LINC00461 expression. In addition, we showed that LINC00461 directly interacted with miR-30a-5p in chondrocytes. Elevated expression of LINC00461 induced chondrocyte proliferation, cell cycle progression, inflammation, and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. However, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of miR-30a-5p suppressed cell growth, cell cycle progression, inflammation and ECM degradation. Finally, we found that overexpression of LINC00461 enhanced chondrocyte proliferation, cell cycle progression, inflammation, and ECM degradation by downregulating miR-30a-5p. These data demonstrated that LINC00461 may modulate the development of OA by suppressing miR-30a-5p expression in chondrocytes. We propose that LINC00461 and miR-30a-5p may be potential therapeutic and diagnostic targets for OA.

17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 671, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015346

RESUMO

Dingoes are wild canids living in Australia, originating from domestic dogs. They have lived isolated from both the wild and the domestic ancestor, making them a unique model for studying feralization. Here, we sequence the genomes of 10 dingoes and 2 New Guinea Singing Dogs. Phylogenetic and demographic analyses show that dingoes originate from dogs in southern East Asia, which migrated via Island Southeast Asia to reach Australia around 8300 years ago, and subsequently diverged into a genetically distinct population. Selection analysis identifies 50 positively selected genes enriched in digestion and metabolism, indicating a diet change during feralization of dingoes. Thirteen of these genes have shifted allele frequencies compared to dogs but not compared to wolves. Functional assays show that an A-to-G mutation in ARHGEF7 decreases the endogenous expression, suggesting behavioral adaptations related to the transitions in environment. Our results indicate that the feralization of the dingo induced positive selection on genomic regions correlated to neurodevelopment, metabolism and reproduction, in adaptation to a wild environment.


Assuntos
Canidae/classificação , Canidae/genética , Genômica , Filogenia , Migração Animal , Animais , Ásia Sudeste , Austrália , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , Cães/classificação , Cães/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Genoma Mitocondrial , Nova Guiné , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Troca de Nucleotídeo Guanina Rho/genética , Lobos/classificação , Lobos/genética
18.
Behav Brain Res ; 385: 112561, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As an atypical antipsychotic drug, quetiapine had been approved for bipolar disorder and for adjunctive therapy in major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Recently quetiapine has been suggested to be a promising pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence. This study was performed to determine the effects of quetiapine in rats chronically exposed to ethanol. METHODS: Rats were exposed to ethanol solution (10 %; v/v) for 6 weeks. Saline or one of three doses of quetiapine (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg/day) was given by oral gavage while ethanol exposure for the next 14 weeks. Performance of learning and memory and withdrawal signs were evaluated. Then immunohistochemistry, western blot, quantitative real-time-PCR and transmission electron microscopy were performed to determine the effects of quetiapine on alterations of brain white matter markers (myelin basic protein, MBP; proteolipid protein, PLP) and morphology caused by chronic ethanol exposure. RESULTS: Quetiapine treatment significantly alleviated withdrawal signs in the ethanol exposed rats. Chronic ethanol exposure reduced Y-type electric maze scores and the protein/mRNA expression levels of MBP and PLP in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and these effects were reversed by quetiapine treatment. Similar ultrastructure morphological changes were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic quetiapine treatment alleviated the damage induced by chronic ethanol exposure with regard to learning and memory ability and to brain white matter. Thus, quetiapine appears to be a potentially promising pharmacotherapy for the treatment of alcohol use disorder.

19.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e921155, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072994

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease and is characterized by the progressive degeneration of articular cartilage. The molecular basis of OA involves various factors and has not been fully clarified. Autophagy is a conserved catabolic process that involves cellular degradation through the lysosomal machinery. MATERIAL AND METHODS We found that miRNA-411 regulates chondrocyte autophagy in OA by targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) and identified the related molecular mechanism. OA condition in chondrocyte C28/I2 cells was induced by treatment with interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß). The protein expressions of LC3, p62, HIF-1alpha, ULK-1, and Beclin-1 were assessed by Western blot analysis, and LC3 expression was assessed by immunofluorescence. RESULTS TargetScan analysis showed that HIF-1alpha mRNA is directly targeted by miR-411, which was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. miR-411 mimic decreased HIF-1alpha levels in chondrocytes while miR-411 inhibitor increased HIF-1alpha levels in chondrocytes. Furthermore, expression of LC3, ULK-1, P62, and Beclin-1 in chondrocytes was induced by miR-411 inhibitor and was downregulated by miR-411 mimics. In addition, miR-411 mimics reduced the expression level of LC3, as determined by immunofluorescence analysis. CONCLUSIONS Our results demonstrate that miR-411 promotes chondrocyte autophagy by targeting HIF-1alpha, suggesting that regulating HIF-1alpha by miR-411 might be a therapeutic strategy for OA.

20.
Mol Biol Evol ; 37(5): 1462-1469, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913480

RESUMO

The ancestral homeland of Australian dingoes and Pacific dogs is proposed to be in South China. However, the location and timing of their dispersal and relationship to dog domestication is unclear. Here, we sequenced 7,000- to 2,000-year-old complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes of 27 ancient canids (one gray wolf and 26 domestic dogs) from the Yellow River and Yangtze River basins (YYRB). These are the first complete ancient mtDNA of Chinese dogs from the cradle of early Chinese civilization. We found that most ancient dogs (18/26) belong to the haplogroup A1b lineage that is found in high frequency in present-day Australian dingoes and precolonial Pacific Island dogs but low frequency in present-day China. Particularly, a 7,000-year-old dog from the Tianluoshan site in Zhejiang province possesses a haplotype basal to the entire haplogroup A1b lineage. We propose that A1b lineage dogs were once widely distributed in the YYRB area. Following their dispersal to South China, and then into Southeast Asia, New Guinea and remote Oceania, they were largely replaced by dogs belonging to other lineages in the last 2,000 years in present-day China, especially North China.

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