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1.
Annu Rev Plant Biol ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197052

RESUMO

Plant diseases reduce crop yields and threaten global food security, making the selection of disease-resistant cultivars a major goal of crop breeding. Broad-spectrum resistance (BSR) is a desirable trait because it confers resistance against more than one pathogen species or against the majority of races or strains of the same pathogen. Many BSR genes have been cloned in plants and have been found to encode pattern recognition receptors, nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat receptors, and defense-signaling and pathogenesis-related proteins. In addition, the BSR genes that underlie quantitative trait loci, loss of susceptibility and nonhost resistance have also been characterized. Here, we comprehensively review the advances made in the identification and characterization of BSR genes in various species and examine their application in crop breeding. We also discuss the challenges and their solutions for the use of BSR genes in the breeding of disease-resistant crops. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Plant Biology, Volume 71 is April 29, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

2.
Hepatology ; 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155285

RESUMO

Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a major complication of liver transplantation, resection and hemorrhagic shock. Hypoxia is a key pathological event associated with IR injury. miR-210 has been characterized as a micromanager of hypoxia pathway. However, its function and mechanism in hepatic IR injury is unknown. In this study, we found miR-210 was induced in liver tissues from patients subjected to IR related surgeries. In a murine model of hepatic IR, the level of miR-210 was increased in hepatocytes but not in nonparenchymal cells. miR-210 deficiency remarkably alleviated liver injury, cell inflammatory responses and cell death in a mouse hepatic IR model. In vitro, inhibition of miR-210 decreased HR-induced cell apoptosis of primary hepatocytes and LO2 cells, whereas overexpression of miR-210 increased cells apoptosis during HR. Mechanistically, miR-210 directly suppressed SMAD4 expression under normoxia and hypoxia condition by directly binding to the 3' UTR of SMAD4. The pro-apoptotic effect of miR-210 was alleviated by SMAD4, while sh-SMAD4 abrogated the anti-apoptotic role of miR-210 inhibition in primary hepatocytes. Further studies demonstrated that hypoxia-induced SMAD4 transported into nucleus, in which SMAD4 directly bound to the promoter of miR-210 and transcriptionally induced miR-210, thus forming a negative feedback loop with miR-210. Our study implicates a crucial role of miR-210-SMAD4 interaction in hepatic IR-induced cell death and provides a promising therapeutic approach for liver IR injury.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124292

RESUMO

As an extremely toxic metal, cadmium (Cd) is readily taken up by most plants. In situ Cd passivation is of great importance to reduce Cd availability in soil. In this experiment, two alkaline amendments, lime (L) (at a dosage of 0.02%, 0.04%, or 0.08%) and biochar (B) (at a dosage of 0.5%, 1%, or 2%), were used to improve Cd passivation by spent mushroom substrate (SMS) in a simulating Cd-contaminated soil (0.6 mg kg-1). Results showed that the application of SMS alone reduced Cd bioavailability by 44.80% and EC by 9.71% and increased soil pH by 0.61 units, CEC by 25.32%, and soil enzymes activities by 17.11% to 21.10% compared with non-amendment Cd-contaminated soil. Biochar combination enhanced the efficiency of SMS on Cd reduction by 48.32-66.58% and pH increased by 0.17 to 0.59 units and enzymes activities elevation by 5.74% to 47.29% in a dose-dependent manner. Lime also facilitated SMS to passivate Cd by decreasing bioavailable Cd by 63.10%-66.47% and increasing soil pH by 0.25-0.72 units and enzymes activities by 3.28% to 37.86% compared to those of SMS. Among six combined amendments, SMSB3 (0.5% SMS + 2% B) performed best in reducing bioavailable Cd (39.46% higher than SMS), increasing organic matter content (28.54% higher than SMS) and soil enzyme activities (25.82%, 47.29%, and 26.23% higher than that of SMS for catalase, urease, and invertase, respectively). Both biochar and lime can assist SMS to passivate Cd and improve soil property, and biochar is more efficient than lime in reducing cadmium content and increasing enzyme activity and organic matter.

4.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(2): e1008355, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092131

RESUMO

Genetic studies have shown essential functions of N-glycosylation during infection of the plant pathogenic fungi, however, systematic roles of N-glycosylation in fungi is still largely unknown. Biological analysis demonstrated N-glycosylated proteins were widely present at different development stages of Magnaporthe oryzae and especially increased in the appressorium and invasive hyphae. A large-scale quantitative proteomics analysis was then performed to explore the roles of N-glycosylation in M. oryzae. A total of 559 N-glycosites from 355 proteins were identified and quantified at different developmental stages. Functional classification to the N-glycosylated proteins revealed N-glycosylation can coordinate different cellular processes for mycelial growth, conidium formation, and appressorium formation. N-glycosylation can also modify key components in N-glycosylation, O-glycosylation and GPI anchor pathways, indicating intimate crosstalk between these pathways. Interestingly, we found nearly all key components of the endoplasmic reticulum quality control (ERQC) system were highly N-glycosylated in conidium and appressorium. Phenotypic analyses to the gene deletion mutants revealed four ERQC components, Gls1, Gls2, GTB1 and Cnx1, are important for mycelial growth, conidiation, and invasive hyphal growth in host cells. Subsequently, we identified the Gls1 N-glycosite N497 was important for invasive hyphal growth and partially required for conidiation, but didn't affect colony growth. Mutation of N497 resulted in reduction of Gls1 in protein level, and localization from ER into the vacuole, suggesting N497 is important for protein stability of Gls1. Our study showed a snapshot of the N-glycosylation landscape in plant pathogenic fungi, indicating functions of this modification in cellular processes, developments and pathogenesis.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2782, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066834

RESUMO

The developmental competence of IVM porcine oocytes is still low compared with that in their in vivo counterparts. Although many studies reported effects of glucose metabolism (GM) on oocyte nuclear maturation, few reported on cytoplasmic maturation. Previous studies could not differentiate whether GM of cumulus cells (CCs) or that of cumulus-denuded oocytes (DOs) supported oocyte maturation. Furthermore, species differences in oocyte GM are largely unknown. Our aim was to address these issues by using enzyme activity inhibitors, RNAi gene silencing and special media that could support nuclear but not cytoplasmic maturation when GM was inhibited. The results showed that GM in CCs promoted pig oocyte maturation by releasing metabolites from both pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis. Both pyruvate and lactate were transferred into pig DOs by monocarboxylate transporter and pyruvate was further delivered into mitochondria by mitochondrial pyruvate carrier in both pig DOs and CCs. In both pig DOs and CCs, pyruvate and lactate were utilized through mitochondrial electron transport and LDH-catalyzed oxidation to pyruvate, respectively. Pig and mouse DOs differed in their CC dependency for glucose, pyruvate and lactate utilization. While mouse DOs could not, pig DOs could use the lactate-derived pyruvate.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 739, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029730

RESUMO

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is a heterogeneous disease with features that vary by ethnicity. A systematic characterization of the genomic landscape of Chinese ccRCC is lacking, and features of ccRCC associated with tumor thrombus (ccRCC-TT) remain poorly understood. Here, we applied whole-exome sequencing on 110 normal-tumor pairs and 42 normal-tumor-thrombus triples, and transcriptome sequencing on 61 tumor-normal pairs and 30 primary-thrombus pairs from 152 Chinese patients with ccRCC. Our analysis reveals that a mutational signature associated with aristolochic acid (AA) exposure is widespread in Chinese ccRCC. Tumors from patients with ccRCC-TT show a higher mutational burden and genomic instability; in addition, mutations in BAP1 and SETD2 are highly enriched in patients with ccRCC-TT. Moreover, patients with/without TT show distinct molecular characteristics. We reported the integrative genomic sequencing of Chinese ccRCC and identified the features associated with tumor thrombus, which may facilitate ccRCC diagnosis, prognosis and treatment.

7.
BMC Urol ; 20(1): 14, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcomatoid differentiation in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with vena caval tumour thrombus has been shown to be associated with aggressive behaviours and poor prognosis; however, evidence of the impact of rhabdoid differentiation on prognosis is lacking. This study evaluated the impact of sarcomatoid differentiation and rhabdoid differentiation on oncological outcomes for RCC with vena caval tumour thrombus treated surgically. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed patients treated surgically for RCC with vena caval tumour thrombus at our institute from Jan 2015 to Nov 2018. Prognostic variables were evaluated for associations with progression-free survival (PFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine independent prognostic variables. RESULTS: We identified 125 patients with RCC and vena caval tumour thrombus, including 17 (13.6%) with sarcomatoid differentiation alone, 8 (6.4%) with rhabdoid differentiation alone and 3 (2.4%) with both sarcomatoid and rhabdoid differentiation. Compared to pure RCC, patients with sarcomatoid differentiation but not rhabdoid differentiation have worse PFS (p = 0.018 and p = 0.095, respectively). The univariate and multivariate analyses both showed sarcomatoid differentiation as a significant predictor of PFS. Compared to pure RCC, patients with sarcomatoid differentiation (p = 0.002) and rhabdoid differentiation (p = 0.001) both had significantly worse CSS. The univariate analysis showed sarcomatoid differentiation, rhabdoid differentiation, metastasis and blood transfusion as significant predictors of CSS (All, p < 0.05). In the multivariate analysis, sarcomatoid differentiation (HR 3.90, p = 0.008), rhabdoid differentiation (HR 3.01, p = 0.042), metastasis (HR 3.87, p = 0.004) and blood transfusion (HR 1.34, p = 0.041) all remained independent predictors of CSS. CONCLUSIONS: Sarcomatoid differentiation and rhabdoid differentiation are both independent predictors of poor prognosis in RCC with vena caval tumour thrombus treated surgically.

8.
J Cell Physiol ; 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100885

RESUMO

Successful use of oocytes from small follicles (SFs) is of great importance for animal embryo production and human in vitro fertilization with reduced hormone-related side effects. How in vitro meiotic arrest maintenance (MAM) increases the competence of oocytes is not clear. In this study, pig oocytes recovered from SF of 1-2 mm and medium-follicles (MF) of 3-6 mm in diameter from abattoir ovaries were treated by various MAM treatments to improve their competence. The results showed that 25 µM roscovitine or 1 mM db-cAMP efficiently blocked germinal vesicle breakdown in both SF and MF oocytes suggesting a similar cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 1 level between the two oocyte groups. MAM with 15- and 25-µM roscovitine alone or with 1-mM db-cAMP improved competence of SF and MF oocytes, respectively, with a promoted chromatin configuration transition from surrounded nucleoli (SN) to re-decondensation (RDC) pattern that supported substantial gene transcription. However, MAM with db-cAMP alone or with higher concentrations of roscovitine did not improve oocyte competence, could not support an SN-to-RDC transition, and/or evoked a premature chromatin condensation (PMC) that suppressed gene transcription. Both CDK2 and CDK5 contents were higher (p < .05) in MF than in SF oocytes. It is concluded that the competence of pig oocytes, particularly that of SF oocytes can be improved by MAM using a proper roscovitine concentration that promotes gene transcription by inhibiting CDK5 while letting CDK2 off to prevent PMC.

9.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088958

RESUMO

Pt atomic clusters (Pt-ACs) display outstanding electrocatalytic performance because of their unique electronic structure with a large number of highly exposed surface atoms. However, the small size and large specific surface area intrinsically associated with ACs pose challenges in the synthesis and stabilization of Pt-ACs without agglomeration. Herein, we report a novel one-step carbon-defect-driven electroless deposition method to produce ultrasmall but well-defined and stable Pt-ACs supported by defective graphene (Pt-AC/DG) structures. A theoretical simulation clearly revealed that the defective regions with a lower work function and hence a higher reducing capacity compared to those of normal hexagonal sites triggered the reduction of Pt ions preferentially at the defect sites. Moreover, the strong binding energy between Pt and carbon defects effectively restricted the migration of spontaneously reduced Pt atoms to immobilize/stabilize the resultant Pt-ACs. Electrochemical analyses demonstrated the high performance of Pt-ACs in catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction, showing a greatly enhanced mass activity, a high Pt utilization efficiency, and excellent stability compared with commercial Pt/C catalysts. The integration of proton exchange membrane water electrolysis with Pt-AC/DG as a cathode exhibited an excellent hydrogen generation activity and extraordinary stability (during 200 h of electrolysis) with a greatly reduced Pt usage compared with commercial Pt/C catalysts.

10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(3): 2030-2048, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007952

RESUMO

The AKT/mTOR pathway is critical for bladder cancer (BC) pathogenesis and is hyper-activated during BC progression. In the present study, we identified a novel positive feedback loop involving oncogenic factors histone methyltransferase SMYD3, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), AKT, and E2F-1. SMYD3 expression was significantly up-regulated in BC tumors and positively associated with histological grade, lymph node metastasis, and shorter patient survival. Depletion of SMYD3 inhibited BC cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, invasion, and xenograft tumor growth. Mechanistically, SMYD3 inhibition led to the diminished AKT/mTOR signaling activity, thereby triggering deleterious effects on BC cells. Furthermore, SMYD3 directly activates the expression of IGF-1R, a critical activator of AKT in BC, by inducing hyper-methylation of histone H3-K4 and subsequent chromatin remodeling in the IGF-1R promoter region. On the other hand, E2F-1, a downstream factor of the AKT pathway, binds to the E2F-1 binding motifs at the SMYD3 promoter and consequently induces SMYD3 transcription and expression. Thus, SMYD3/IGF-1R/AKT/E2F-1 forms a positive feedback loop leading to the hyper-activated AKT signaling. Our findings provide not only profound insights into SMYD3-mediated oncogenic activity but also present a unique avenue for treating BC by directly disrupting this signaling circuit.

11.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 61, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To explore the influencing factors of perioperative renal function change and their relationship with prognosis on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients with tumor thrombus after nephrectomy and thrombectomy. METHODS: The clinical and pathological data of 135 patients with RCC and tumor thrombus, who underwent nephrectomy and thrombectomy at Peking University Third Hospital from May 2015 to July 2018, was retrospectively analyzed. Absolute change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (ACE) and percent change in eGFR (PCE) were calculated by preoperative and postoperative renal function. Linear regression analysis was used to explore the influencing factors of ACE and PCE, and logistic regression analysis was used to explore the influencing factors of worse postoperative renal function [eGFR≤60 mL/(min × 1.73 m^2)]. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox regression, which were used to explore the effect of ACE and PCE on prognosis. RESULTS: Of all the 135 patients, 101 patients (74.8%) were male and 34 patients (25.2%) were female. The mean preoperative eGFR was 73.9 ± 21.8 mL/(min × 1.73 m^2) and postoperative eGFR was 69.5 ± 25.2 mL/(min × 1.73 m^2). In multivariate linear regression analysis, preoperative eGFR (P < 0.001) and pathological type (P = 0.038) were significant predictive factors of ACE. In aspect of PCE, preoperative eGFR (P < 0.001) and pathological type (P = 0.002) were significant predictors. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, preoperative eGFR (P = 0.016) was the only risk factor of predicting worse postoperative renal function. During follow-up, 22 patients (16.3%) were dead due to RCC. According to ROC analysis, the cut off value of ACE and PCE was 13.9 and 0.16, respectively. ACE> 13.9 and PCE > 0.16 indicated worse CSS (P = 0.006 and P = 0.047, respectively). However, in multivariate Cox regression analysis of several related factors, perinephric tissues invasion (P = 0.001), sarcomatoid differentiation (P = 0.001) and ACE> 13.9 (P = 0.002) were significant prognostic factors for CSS. PCE > 0.16 seemed to be not (P = 0.055). CONCLUSION: We explored several clinicopathological risk factors of predicting renal function change and their relationship with prognosis of RCC patients with tumor thrombus after nephrectomy and thrombectomy. The renal function change, which was associated with preoperative eGFR and pathological type, was prognostic risk factor for CSS and ACE> 13.9 indicated the worse prognosis.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) has noted that allergic diseases are a major health problem of the 21st century. Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a type I allergic disease characterized by nasal mucosa and immune system abnormalities. AR is mediated by various inflammatory cells and is mainly characterized by altered secretion of cytokines. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and the interleukin-33/stimulation-expressed gene 2 (IL-33/ST2) signaling pathway are cytokines that play pivotal roles in many inflammatory responses and allergic reactions. There have been reports of interactions between the 2 pathways in many diseases. Hypoxia is a common pathologic manifestation of AR. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship and expressions and biologic functions of TSLP and IL-33/ST2 in AR, and also to determine the effects of hypoxia on these cytokines. METHODS: The rat nasal mucosal epithelium was obtained from Wistar rats. Cells were cultured in groups under hypoxia and normoxia conditions. Identification of rat nasal epithelial cell (RNEpC) and protein expressions was done by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence methods. Cell proliferation and migration were examined using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and Transwell kit. Detection of apoptosis was tested using a fluorescence apoptosis kit. Enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis ELISA were used to measure cell secretion and protein expressions. For these experiments, TSLP was knocked down by lentivirus transfection and IL-33 blocked with its antagonist. RESULTS: TSLP, IL-33, and ST2 expressions were significantly higher in nasal mucosa epithelial cells from AR rats than in those from control rats. Hypoxia further promoted their expression. Increased TSLP and IL-33/ST2 promoted cell proliferation, inhibited cell apoptosis, and enhanced cell migration. In addition, the downregulation of TSLP expression effectively attenuated expression of the IL-33/ST2 axis and, through use of IL-33 antagonists, could also reduce TSLP expression, a synergistic effect more obvious under hypoxia. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that TSLP and IL-33/ST2 signaling pathways interact with each other in the pathogenesis and pathologic development of AR. TSLP inhibition is a key factor in AR treatment. Inhibiting hypoxia-induced pathologic processes could represent a therapeutic effect by inhibiting IL-33/ST2 expression via downregulating TSLP.

13.
Biomolecules ; 10(1)2020 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940882

RESUMO

Verticillium wilt, caused by the ascomycete fungus Verticillium dahliae (Vd), is a devastating disease of numerous plant species. However, the pathogenicity/virulence-related genes in this fungus, which may be potential targets for improving plant resistance, remain poorly elucidated. For the study of these genes in Vd, we used a well-established host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) approach and identified 16 candidate genes, including a putative adenylate kinase gene (VdAK). Transiently VdAK-silenced plants developed milder wilt symptoms than control plants did. VdAK-knockout mutants were more sensitive to abiotic stresses and had reduced germination and virulence on host plants. Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana plants that overexpressed VdAK dsRNAs had improved Vd resistance than the wild-type. RT-qPCR results showed that VdAK was also crucial for energy metabolism. Importantly, in an analysis of total small RNAs from Vd strains isolated from the transgenic plants, a small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting VdAK was identified in transgenic N. benthamiana. Our results demonstrate that HIGS is a promising strategy for efficiently screening pathogenicity/virulence-related genes of Vd and that VdAK is a potential target to control this fungus.

14.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 15(2): 145-161, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782335

RESUMO

Aim: The dual-ligand glycyrrhetinic acid and galactose-modified chitosan nanoparticles were designed to further improve the targeting capability to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials & methods: The dual-ligand glycyrrhetinic acid and galactose-modified chitosan nanoparticles were fabricated by using ionic gelation method and their characteristics have been measured. Furthermore, the biodistribution and biocompatibility of this targeting vehicle were investigated in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Results: The targeting vehicle was specifically internalized into hepatoma cells in vitro and accumulated into tumor tissue in vivo with high efficacy. Moreover, the vehicle did not induce inflammation reaction and affect morphologies and organ functions. Conclusion: The targeting accumulation in HCC tissue and great biocompatibility of the dual-ligand modified chitosan nanoparticles highlight the potential of delivering anticancer agents into HCC cells.

15.
New Phytol ; 225(1): 413-429, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478201

RESUMO

Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) regulate many physiological processes, including autophagy. However, the direct roles of the various PRMTs during autophagosome formation remain unclear. Here, we characterised the function of MoHMT1 in the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae. Knockout of MoHMT1 results in inhibited growth and a decreased ability to cause disease lesions on rice seedlings. MoHMT1 catalyses the di-methylation of arginine 247, 251, 261 and 271 residues of MoSNP1, a U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) component, likely in a manner dependent on direct interaction. RNA-seq analysis revealed that alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs of 558 genes, including the autophagy-related (ATG) gene MoATG4, was altered in MoHMT1 deletion mutants, compared with wild-type strains under normal growth conditions. During light exposure or nitrogen starvation, MoHMT1 localises to autophagosomes and MoHMT1 mutants display defects in autophagy induction. Under nitrogen starvation, six additional MoATG genes were identified with retained introns in their mRNA transcripts, corresponding with a significant reduction in transcripts of intron-spliced isoforms in the MoHMT1 mutant strain. Our study shows that arginine methylation plays an essential role in accurate pre-mRNA splicing necessary for a range of developmental processes, including autophagosome formation.

16.
J Hum Hypertens ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792441

RESUMO

Low renin hypertension (LRH) is a common condition in hypertensive patients, and mainly includes primary aldosteronism (PA) and low renin essential hypertension. To investigate the distributions and clinical manifestations of the main LRH forms, we reviewed 1267 hypertensive patients who underwent assessment for plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) by standardized protocols in our specialized center. LRH was defined as PRA < 1.0 ng/mL/h. A saline infusion test (SIT) was performed when LRH patients showed positive screening results for PA. The main LRH forms were defined as follows: post-SIT PAC > 10 ng/dL as 'overt PA', post-SIT PAC 5-10 ng/dL as 'mild PA', and post-SIT PAC < 5 ng/dL or negative screening results as 'non-PA'. Overall, 760 patients were defined as LRH, with 160 classified as overt PA, 268 as mild PA, and 332 as non-PA. The total proportion of PA amounted to 56.3% with 21.0% overt PA and 35.3% mild PA. Compared with the mild PA, patients with overt PA had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures, lower serum potassium, higher urine potassium excretion, more frequent incidence of stage 3 hypertension, hypokalemia, diabetes mellitus, and classical unilateral adenoma on computerized tomography (P < 0.05). PA including overt and mild forms is indeed a major form of LRH. Clinical manifestations in mild PA are less severe than those in overt PA. Nevertheless, mild PA is more prevalent than overt PA in LRH and should be recognized.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Patients with severe thoracic or lumbar deformities can achieve satisfactory correction through appropriate osteotomies. However, patients with multiple craniocervical malformations commonly undergo conservative or finite surgical therapy mainly because of the involvement of the vertebral artery. Anterior oral meningocele is an extremely rare pathology that has not been previously reported. Here, we provide the first report of complex craniocervical anomalies combined with oral meningocele treated with a 1-stage anteroposterior atlantoaxial osteotomy correction surgery, with outcomes after 16 mo follow-up. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 10-yr-old boy presented with recurrent dyspnea, cyanosis, and progressive torticollis. Imaging studies revealed complicated bony abnormalities accompanied by an anterior oral meningocele. A 1-stage extensive atlantoaxial osteotomy through anterior and posterior approaches was performed with an innovatively designed vertebral artery exclusion technique. Lumbar cistern drainage and ceftazidime were used to address the leakage of cerebrospinal fluid and intracranial infection. CONCLUSION: The satisfactory outcome demonstrates the feasibility of extensive atlantoaxial osteotomy via a vertebral artery exclusion technique that might also be applicable to osteotomy in segments of C3-C6.

18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(6): 2904-2911, 2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854685

RESUMO

With the aim of studying the effects of different vegetation zones on soil aggregate stability and its stoichiometric characteristics, the soils under Robinia pseudoacacia plantations located within different vegetation zones on the Loess Plateau were selected as the research object. Indicators including the content, stoichiometry, and stability of different aggregate fractions were analyzed. The results showed that the content of >2 mm and 0.25-2 mm, the mean diameter (EMWD), and the geometric mean diameter (EGMD) of aggregate fractions were in the order of forest zone > forest-steppe zone > grassland zone. However, the stability proxies of aggregate fractions across the three vegetation zones indicated that the content and erodibility (K factor) of 0.053-0.25 mm exhibited an opposite trend. The overall trend of the soil organic carbon and total nitrogen of aggregate fractions among the three vegetation zones was that the forest zone significantly overtopped the forest-steppe zone and grassland zone, while the content of total phosphorus showed no significant differences among the three vegetation zones. Additionally, the content of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen of < 0.053 mm and 0.25-2 mm was the highest among the different fractions in the grassland zone, while that of 0.053-0.25 mm and 0.25-2 mm was the highest in the forest-steppe zone. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the content of organic carbon and total nitrogen in the forest zone among the different aggregate fractions. The total phosphorus content topped in < 0.053 mm fractions in the grassland zone and the forest-steppe zone, while that in the forest zone had no significant differences among the different aggregate fractions. Besides, the C:N ratios of < 0.053 mm and 0.053-0.25 mm in the steppe zone and the forest-steppe zone were higher than that in the forest zone, while that of 0.25-2 mm and >2 mm had insignificant differences among the three vegetation zones. The C:P and N:P ratios of fractions in the forest zone were significantly higher than that in the forest-steppe zone and steppe zone. Overall, the stability and stoichiometry of soil aggregate fractions exhibited relatively significant differences among the three vegetation zones. Additionally, the stability, soil organic carbon, and total nitrogen content of aggregate fractions in the forest zone were generally higher than those in the forest-steppe zone and grassland zone.


Assuntos
Florestas , Robinia , Solo/química , Carbono/análise , China , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(23)2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775301

RESUMO

Lysine succinylation (Ksu) is a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification that plays an important role in many biological processes. Although recent research has analyzed Ksu plant proteomes, little is known about the scope and cellular distribution of Ksu in rice seedlings. Here, we report high-quality proteome-scale Ksu data for rice seedlings. A total of 710 Ksu sites in 346 proteins with diverse biological functions and subcellular localizations were identified in rice samples. About 54% of the sites were predicted to be localized in the chloroplast. Six putative succinylation motifs were detected. Comparative analysis with succinylation data revealed that arginine (R), located downstream of Ksu sites, is the most conserved amino acid surrounding the succinylated lysine. KEGG pathway category enrichment analysis indicated that carbon metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, photosynthesis, and glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism pathways were significantly enriched. Additionally, we compared published Ksu data from rice embryos with our data from rice seedlings and found conserved Ksu sites between the two rice tissues. Our in-depth survey of Ksu in rice seedlings provides the foundation for further understanding the biological function of lysine-succinylated proteins in rice growth and development.

20.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742855

RESUMO

Because of the frequent breakdown of major resistance (R) genes, identification of new partial R genes against rice blast disease is an important goal of rice breeding. In this study, we used a core collection of the Rice Diversity Panel II (C-RDP-II), which contains 584 rice accessions and are genotyped with 700 000 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The C-RDP-II accessions were inoculated with three blast strains collected from different rice-growing regions in China. Genome-wide association study identified 27 loci associated with rice blast resistance (LABRs). Among them, 22 LABRs were not associated with any known blast R genes or QTLs. Interestingly, a nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NLR) gene cluster exists in the LABR12 region on chromosome 4. One of the NLR genes is highly conserved in multiple partially resistant rice cultivars, and its expression is significantly up-regulated at the early stages of rice blast infection. Knockout of this gene via CRISPR-Cas9 in transgenic plants partially reduced blast resistance to four blast strains. The identification of this new non-strain specific partial R gene, tentatively named rice blast Partial Resistance gene 1 (PiPR1), provides genetic material that will be useful for understanding the partial resistance mechanism and for breeding durably resistant cultivars against blast disease of rice.

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