Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 278
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
J Biol Chem ; 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366461

RESUMO

Raffinose and its precursor galactinol accumulate in plant leaves during abiotic stress. RAFFINOSE SYNTHASE (RAFS) catalyzes raffinose formation by transferring a galactosyl group of galactinol to sucrose. However, whether RAFS contributes to plant drought tolerance and, if so, by what mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we report that expression of RAFS from maize (or corn, Zea mays) (ZmRAFS) is induced by drought, heat, cold, and salinity stresses. We found that zmrafs mutant maize plants completely lack raffinose and hyper-accumulate galactinol and are more sensitive to drought stress than the corresponding null-segregant (NS) plants. This indicated that ZmRAFS and its product raffinose contribute to plant drought tolerance. ZmRAFS overexpression in Arabidopsis enhanced drought stress tolerance by increasing myo-inositol levels via ZmRAFS-mediated galactinol hydrolysis in the leaves due to sucrose insufficiency in leaf cells and also enhanced raffinose synthesis in the seeds. Supplementation of sucrose to detached leaves converted ZmRAFS from hydrolyzing galactinol to synthesizing raffinose. Taken together, we demonstrate that ZmRAFS enhances plant drought tolerance through either raffinose synthesis or galactinol hydrolysis, depending on sucrose availability in plant cells. These results provide new avenues to improve plant drought stress tolerance through manipulation of the raffinose anabolic pathway.

2.
Public Health Rep ; 135(3): 383-392, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311304

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The opioid epidemic in the United States increasingly affects women of reproductive age and has resulted in a rise in concurrent polydrug use. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of this polydrug use on preterm birth in a multiethnic birth cohort. METHODS: We analyzed data from 8261 mothers enrolled in the Boston Birth Cohort from 1998 to 2018 in Boston, Massachusetts. We grouped substances used during pregnancy based on their primary effects (stimulant or depressant) and assessed independent and combined associations with smoking on preterm birth. RESULTS: Of 8261 mothers, 131 used stimulant drugs and 193 used depressant drugs during pregnancy. The preterm birth rate was 27.5% (2271 of 8261) in the sample. Mothers who smoked had 35% increased odds of preterm birth across adjusted models. Mothers who used stimulant drugs without smoking were not at increased risk of preterm delivery compared with mothers who used neither (odds ratio [OR] = 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19-1.98), whereas mothers who used depressant drugs without smoking had more than twice the odds of having preterm delivery (OR = 2.31; 95% CI, 1.19-4.44), and infants were at risk of a 1-week reduction in gestational age (OR = -1.05; 95% CI, -2.07 to -0.03). Concurrently smoking and using depressant drugs was associated with increased odds of preterm birth (OR = 1.83; 95% CI, 1.28-2.61), as was concurrently smoking and using stimulant drugs (OR = 1.73; 95% CI, 1.14-2.59). CONCLUSIONS: Using stimulant drugs and depressant drugs during pregnancy is a risk factor for preterm birth. The individual and combined effects of using these drugs with smoking must be considered together to reduce the risk of preterm birth in the United States.

3.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(3)2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197507

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in the immune system which sense pathogens and present their antigens to prime the adaptive immune responses. As the progression of sepsis occurs, DCs are capable of orchestrating the aberrant innate immune response by sustaining the Th1/Th2 responses that are essential for host survival. Hence, an in-depth understanding of the characteristics of DCs would have a beneficial effect in overcoming the obstacle occurring in sepsis. This paper focuses on the role of DCs in the progression of sepsis and we also discuss the reverse sepsis-induced immunosuppression through manipulating the DC function. In addition, we highlight some potent immunotherapies that could be used as a novel strategy in the early treatment of sepsis.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(4)2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085613

RESUMO

The black layer (BL) is traditionally used as an indicator for kernel harvesting in maize, as it turns visibly dark when the kernel reaches physiological maturity. However, the molecular roles of BL in kernel development have not been fully elucidated. In this work, microscopy images showed that BL began to appear at a growth stage earlier than 10 days after pollination (DAP), and its color gradually deepened to become dark as the development period progressed. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed that BL is a tissue structure composed of several layers of cells that are gradually squeezed and compressed during kernel development. Laser-capture microdissection (LCM) was used to sample BL and its neighboring inner tissue, basal endosperm transfer layer (BETL), and outer tissue, inner epidermis (IEP), from 20 DAP of kernels. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry profiling (MALDI-TOF MS profiling) detected 41, 104, and 120 proteins from LCM-sampled BL, BETL, and IEP, respectively. Gene ontology (GO) analysis indicated that the 41 BL proteins were primarily involved in the response to stress and stimuli. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis found that the BL proteins were enriched in several defense pathways, such as the ascorbate and aldarate metabolic pathways. Among the 41 BL proteins, six were BL-specific proteins that were only detected from BL. Annotations of five BL-specific proteins were related to stress responses. During kernel development, transcriptional expression of most BL proteins showed an increase, followed by a decrease, and reached a maximum zero to 20 DAP. These results suggest a role for BL in stress responses for protecting filial tissue against threats from maternal sides, which helps to elucidate the biological functions of BL.

5.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 50(2): 540-550, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686281

RESUMO

In contrast to the well-observed associations between obesity, diabetes, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the roles of maternal dyslipidemia and sex disparity in ASD have not been well-studied. We examined the joint associations of maternal plasma cholesterols, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and child sex on child ASD risk. We analyzed data from 756 mother-infant pairs (86 ASD) from the Boston Birth Cohort. Maternal plasma cholesterols and BCAAs were measured in samples collected 24-72 h postpartum. We found that in this urban, low-income prospective birth cohort, low maternal high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), above-median maternal plasma BCAA concentrations, and male sex additively or synergistically increased risk of ASD. Additional studies are necessary to confirm our findings.

7.
Biomolecules ; 10(1)2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878275

RESUMO

The situation of drug resistance has become more complicated due to the scarcity of plant resistance genes, and overcoming this challenge is imperative. Isatis indigotica has been used for the treatment of wounds, viral infections, and inflammation for centuries. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are found in all classes of life ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. To identify AMPs, I. indigotica was explored using a novel, sensitive, and high-throughput Bacillus subtilis screening system. We found that IiR515 and IiR915 exhibited significant antimicrobial activities against a variety of bacterial (Xanthomonas oryzae, Ralstonia solanacearum, Clavibacter michiganensis, and C. fangii) and fungal (Phytophthora capsici and Botrytis cinerea) pathogens. Scanning electron microscope and cytometric analysis revealed the possible mechanism of these peptides, which was to target and disrupt the bacterial cell membrane. This model was also supported by membrane fluidity and electrical potential analyses. Hemolytic activity assays revealed that these peptides may act as a potential source for clinical medicine development. In conclusion, the plant-derived novel AMPs IiR515 and IiR915 are effective biocontrol agents and can be used as raw materials in the drug discovery field.

8.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0216977, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710606

RESUMO

Seed longevity is one of the most essential characteristics of seed quality. Two chromosome segment substitution lines, I178 and X178, which show significant differences in seed longevity, were subjected to transcriptome sequencing before and after five days of accelerated aging (AA) treatments. Compared to the non-aging treatment, 286 and 220 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified after 5 days of aging treatment in I178 and X178, respectively. Of these DEGs, 98 were detected in both I178 and X178, which were enriched in Gene Ontology (GO) terms of the cellular component of the nuclear part, intracellular part, organelle and membrane. Only 86 commonly downregulated genes were enriched in GO terms of the carbohydrate derivative catabolic process. Additionally, transcriptome analysis of alternative splicing (AS) events in I178 and X178 showed that 63.6% of transcript isoforms occurred AS in all samples, and only 1.6% of transcript isoforms contained 169 genes that exhibited aging-specific AS arising after aging treatment. Combined with the reported QTL mapping result, 7 DEGs exhibited AS after aging treatment, and 13 DEGs in mapping interval were potential candidates that were directly or indirectly related to seed longevity.

9.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 216, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-dose mercury (Hg) exposure has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and obesity in adults, but it is unknown the metabolic consequence of in utero Hg exposure. This study aimed to investigate the association between in utero Hg exposure and child overweight or obesity (OWO) and to explore if adequate maternal folate can mitigate Hg toxicity. METHODS: This prospective study included 1442 mother-child pairs recruited at birth and followed up to age 15 years. Maternal Hg in red blood cells and plasma folate levels were measured in samples collected 1-3 days after delivery (a proxy for third trimester exposure). Adequate folate was defined as plasma folate ≥ 20.4 nmol/L. Childhood OWO was defined as body mass index ≥ 85% percentile for age and sex. RESULTS: The median (interquartile range) of maternal Hg levels were 2.11 (1.04-3.70) µg/L. Geometric mean (95% CI) of maternal folate levels were 31.1 (30.1-32.1) nmol/L. Maternal Hg levels were positively associated with child OWO from age 2-15 years, independent of maternal pre-pregnancy OWO, diabetes, and other covariates. The relative risk (RR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.05-1.47) of child OWO associated with the highest quartile of Hg exposure was 24% higher than those with the lowest quartile. Maternal pre-pregnancy OWO and/or diabetes additively enhanced Hg toxicity. The highest risk of child OWO was found among children of OWO and diabetic mothers in the top Hg quartile (RR = 2.06; 95% CI 1.56-2.71) compared to their counterparts. Furthermore, adequate maternal folate status mitigated Hg toxicity. Given top quartile Hg exposure, adequate maternal folate was associated with a 34% reduction in child OWO risk (RR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.51-0.85) as compared with insufficient maternal folate. There was a suggestive interaction between maternal Hg and folate levels on child OWO risk (p for interaction = 0.086). CONCLUSIONS: In this US urban, multi-ethnic population, elevated in utero Hg exposure was associated with a higher risk of OWO in childhood, and such risk was enhanced by maternal OWO and/or diabetes and reduced by adequate maternal folate. These findings underscore the need to screen for Hg and to optimize maternal folate status, especially among mothers with OWO and/or diabetes.

10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(10): e1912343, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577354

RESUMO

Importance: The first pediatric lead screening typically occurs at 1-year well-child care visits. However, data on the extent of maternal lead exposure and its long-term consequences for child health are lacking. Objective: To investigate the associations between maternal red blood cell (RBC) lead levels and intergenerational risk of overweight or obesity (OWO) and whether adequate maternal folate status is associated with a reduction in OWO risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective birth cohort study. The analysis was conducted from July 14, 2018, to August 2, 2019, at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. This study included 1442 mother-child pairs recruited at birth from October 27, 2002, to October 10, 2013, and followed up prospectively at Boston Medical Center. Main Outcomes and Measures: Child body mass index (BMI) z score, calculated according to US national reference data, and OWO, defined as BMI at or exceeding the 85th percentile for age and sex. Maternal RBC lead levels and plasma folate levels were measured in samples obtained 24 to 72 hours after delivery; child whole-blood lead level was obtained from the first pediatric lead screening. Results: The mean (SD) age of mothers and children was 28.6 (6.5) years and 8.1 (3.1) years, respectively; 50.1% of children were boys. The median maternal RBC lead level and plasma folate level were 2.5 (interquartile range [IQR], 1.7-3.8) µg/dL and 32.2 (IQR, 22.1-44.4) nmol/L, respectively. The median child whole-blood lead level and child BMI z score were 1.4 (IQR, 1.4-2.0) µg/dL and 0.78 (IQR, -0.08 to 1.71), respectively. Maternal RBC lead level was associated with child OWO risk in a dose-response fashion, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.65 (95% CI, 1.18-2.32) for high maternal RBC lead level (≥5.0 µg/dL) compared with low maternal RBC lead level (<2.0 µg/dL). Child OWO was highest among children of OWO mothers with high RBC lead levels (adjusted OR, 4.24; 95% CI, 2.64-6.82) compared with children of non-OWO mothers with low RBC lead levels. Children of OWO mothers with high RBC lead levels had 41% lower OWO risk (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.36-0.95; P = .03) if their mothers had adequate plasma folate levels (≥20.4 nmol/L) compared with their counterparts. Conclusions and Relevance: In this sample of a US urban population, findings suggest that maternal elevated lead exposure was associated with increased risk of intergenerational OWO independent of postnatal blood lead levels. Adequate maternal folate status appeared to be associated with lower OWO risk. If confirmed by additional studies, these findings have implications for prenatal lead screening and management to minimize adverse health consequences on children.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637583

RESUMO

Phenolic compounds are the dominant pollutants in soils contaminated by the coking industry. Ring opening by the hydroxylase gene (bamA) is the key step in the benzoyl-CoA degradation pathway under anaerobic conditions, and a broad spectrum of microorganisms possesses this functional gene, including denitrifiers. The present study analyzed the community structure of denitrifying bacteria and the diversity of the bamA gene for mixed cultures enriched from soil collected at a coking industrial site and then grown under nitrate-reducing conditions on phenol or p-hydroxybenzoate (4HBA), a key intermediate product of anaerobic phenol degradation. Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene showed different bacterial compositions between the two cultures. The dominant phyla were Proteobacteria, Armatimonadetes, and Planctomycetes in the phenol culture and Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes in the 4HBA culture. Phylogenetic analysis further demonstrated that bamA genes were associated with four clusters of bacteria, three of known bacteria and one of uncultured bacteria. The diversity of the bamA gene differed from that reported in anaerobic aromatic degradation cultures, suggesting that these enriched cultures may contain new strains unique to coking-contaminated soils. The present study further validates the potential application of this functional gene as a marker for anaerobic biodegradation processes in enrichment cultures from contaminated soil.

12.
JAMA Psychiatry ; : 1-11, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664451

RESUMO

Importance: Prior studies have raised concern about maternal acetaminophen use during pregnancy and increased risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in their children; however, most studies have relied on maternal self-report. Objective: To examine the prospective associations between cord plasma acetaminophen metabolites and physician-diagnosed ADHD, ASD, both ADHD and ASD, and developmental disabilities (DDs) in childhood. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study analyzed 996 mother-infant dyads, a subset of the Boston Birth Cohort, who were enrolled at birth and followed up prospectively at the Boston Medical Center from October 1, 1998, to June 30, 2018. Exposures: Three cord acetaminophen metabolites (unchanged acetaminophen, acetaminophen glucuronide, and 3-[N-acetyl-l-cystein-S-yl]-acetaminophen) were measured in archived cord plasma samples collected at birth. Main Outcomes and Measures: Physician-diagnosed ADHD, ASD, and other DDs as documented in the child's medical records. Results: Of 996 participants (mean [SD] age, 9.8 [3.9] years; 548 [55.0%] male), the final sample included 257 children (25.8%) with ADHD only, 66 (6.6%) with ASD only, 42 (4.2%) with both ADHD and ASD, 304 (30.5%) with other DDs, and 327 (32.8%) who were neurotypical. Unchanged acetaminophen levels were detectable in all cord plasma samples. Compared with being in the first tertile, being in the second and third tertiles of cord acetaminophen burden was associated with higher odds of ADHD diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] for second tertile, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.40-3.69; OR for third tertile, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.77-4.67) and ASD diagnosis (OR for second tertile, 2.14; 95% CI, 0.93-5.13; OR for third tertile, 3.62; 95% CI, 1.62-8.60). Sensitivity analyses and subgroup analyses found consistent associations between acetaminophen buden and ADHD and acetaminophen burden and ASD across strata of potential confounders, including maternal indication, substance use, preterm birth, and child age and sex, for which point estimates for the ORs vary from 2.3 to 3.5 for ADHD and 1.6 to 4.1 for ASD. Conclusions and Relevance: Cord biomarkers of fetal exposure to acetaminophen were associated with significantly increased risk of childhood ADHD and ASD in a dose-response fashion. Our findings support previous studies regarding the association between prenatal and perinatal acetaminophen exposure and childhood neurodevelopmental risk and warrant additional investigations.

13.
Placenta ; 83: 17-25, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477202

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preterm birth (PTB) and in-utero inflammation are recognized risk factors of neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDDs); however, their combined role in NDDs is unknown. We examined the independent and joint association of PTB and placental histological findings with the childhood risk of NDDs (overall and by subgroups including autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD). METHODS: We analyzed data from the Boston Birth Cohort, where mother-infant pairs were enrolled at birth and followed from birth onwards. Birth outcomes, placental pathology and NDDs were obtained from electronic medical records. Placental pathology was categorized using a standardized classification system proposed by the Amsterdam Placental Workshop Group. RESULTS: PTB (all, including spontaneous, medically indicated) was an independent risk factor for NDDs. Placental histological chorioamnionitis (CA) and PTB additively increased the odds of NDDs (aOR: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.37, 3.39), as well as ADHD (aOR: 2.75, 95% CI: 1.55, 4.90), other developmental disabilities (aOR: 1.96, 95% CI: 1.18, 3.25) and possibly ASD (aOR: 2.31, 95% CI: 0.99, 5.39). The above associations were more pronounced in spontaneous than medically indicated PTB. PTB alone in the absence of CA only had a moderate association with ASD and ADHD. Placental maternal vascular malperfusion alone or in combination with PTB was not associated with the risk of NDDs. DISCUSSION: Our study provided new insights on PTB and NDDs by further considering preterm subtypes and placental histology. We revealed that children of spontaneous PTB along with histological CA were at the highest risk for a spectrum of NDDs.

14.
Ann Transl Med ; 7(16): 367, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555681

RESUMO

Background: The albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade is an index that could objectively evaluate liver function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of postoperative ALBI (post-ALBI) grade and ALBI changes (△ALBI) after hepatectomy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: The clinical and pathological data of 300 patients with HCC who underwent hepatectomy in the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University from January 19, 2009 to December 25, 2014, were analyzed retrospectively. According to the test data, the patients were divided into post-ALBI grade I, post-ALBI grade II, and post-ALBI grade III groups. According to the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC), the patients were divided into △ALBI (△ALBI >0.71) high and low groups (△ALBI ≤0.71). Baseline clinical data, recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were compared between the groups. Results: The 1-, 3-, and 5-year RFS rates and OS rates of patients with post-ALBI grade III were significantly reduced in comparison to those with post-ALBI grade II (P<0.001 both). Between the △ALBI groups, patients with low △ALBI level had significantly reduced 1-, 3-, and 5-year RFS rates and OS rates compared to those with a high △ALBI level (P<0.001 both). Multivariate analyses indicated that higher post-ABLI grade and △ALBI level were significantly independent predictors of an inferior OS and RFS (P<0.05). Conclusions: This study confirmed for the first time that post-ALBI grade and △ALBI could predict the prognosis of patients with HCC after hepatectomy.

15.
Autism Res ; 12(10): 1562-1573, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400063

RESUMO

Maternal metabolic conditions are known risk factors for child autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are also associated with ASD. We examined the joint associations of maternal metabolic conditions and BCAAs on the risk of child ASD and whether the associations differed by child's sex. We analyzed 789 mother-infant pairs, a subset of the Boston Birth Cohort, from a predominantly urban, low-income, minority population. Maternal plasma BCAAs were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in samples collected 24-72 hr postpartum. A composite BCAA score was created using factor analysis, and prepregnancy obesity and diabetes (ob/DM) were combined into one variable. Logistic regression was used to explore the role of BCAAs as mediators or cofactors with ob/DM and child's sex on ASD risk. BCAA-ob/DM and BCAA-sex interactions were also examined. Maternal BCAAs alone were not associated with ASD and did not mediate the path between ob/DM and ASD. In the presence of maternal ob/DM, BCAA score was significantly associated with ASD (adjusted OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.18, 4.60). Interactions were present for valine with ob/DM and for valine and isoleucine with male sex on ASD risk. The odds ratio (OR) for risk of ASD was the greatest with all three risk factors combined-male sex, above median BCAA score, and ob/DM (OR 10.79, 95% CI 4.40, 26.42). Similar patterns were found for other developmental disorders, though not as strong as for ASD. Additional studies are warranted to clarify the role of maternal BCAAs, ob/DM, and child's sex in ASD. Autism Res 2019, 12: 1562-1573. © 2019 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. LAY SUMMARY: This study investigated whether maternal obesity/diabetes and maternal circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) can jointly affect child ASD risk and whether the associations differ by child's sex. We found that the risk of ASD was greater among mothers with obesity/diabetes who also had elevated concentrations of BCAAs and that this risk was even greater for male children. These findings provide new evidence on fetal origins of ASD and sex difference and warrant additional investigation.

16.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(16): e012436, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426704

RESUMO

Background Preeclampsia is a leading contributor to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. In mice experiments, manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se) are protective whereas cadmium (Cd) is promotive for preeclampsia. Epidemiologic findings on these chemical elements have been inconsistent. To confirm experimental findings in mice, we examined associations of trace minerals (Mn and Se) and heavy metals (Cd, lead [Pb], and mercury [Hg]) with preeclampsia in a birth cohort. Methods and Results A total of 1274 women from the Boston Birth Cohort (enrolled since 1998) had complete data on the exposures and outcome. We measured Mn, Se, Cd, Pb, and Hg from red blood cells collected within 24 to 72 hours after delivery. We ascertained preeclampsia diagnosis from medical records. We used Poisson regression with robust variance models to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% CIs. A total of 115 (9.0%) women developed preeclampsia. We observed evidence of a dose-response trend for Mn (P for trend<0.001) and to some extent for Cd (P for trend=0.009) quintiles. After multivariable adjustment, a 1 SD increment in Mn was associated with 32% lower risk of developing preeclampsia (PR=0.68; 95% CI, 0.54-0.86), whereas a 1 SD increment in Cd was associated with 15% higher risk of preeclampsia (PR=1.15; 95% CI, 0.98-1.36). Null associations were observed for Se, Pb, and Hg. Conclusions Findings from our cohort, consistent with evidence from mice experiments and human studies, indicate that women with lower blood concentration of Mn or higher Cd are more likely to develop preeclampsia.

17.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438617

RESUMO

We load the natural active molecules onto the spin film in an array using electrospinning techniques. The electrospun active molecular membranes we obtain in optimal parameters exhibit excellent capacity for scavenging radical. The reaction capacity of three different membranes for free radicals are shown as follow, glycyrrhizin acid membrane > quercetin membrane > α-mangostin membrane. The prepared active molecular electrospun membranes with a large specific surface area and high porosity could increase the interaction area between active molecules and free radicals. Additionally, it also has improved anti-airflow impact strength, anti-contaminant air molecular interference ability, and the ability to capture free radicals.


Assuntos
Eletroquímica/métodos , Radicais Livres/química , Ácido Glicirrízico/química , Membranas Artificiais , Xantonas/química
18.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(10): 1967-1977, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Acylcarnitines, intermediates of fatty acid oxidation, are known to be involved in obesity and insulin resistance. Since maternal prepregnancy overweight or obesity (OWO) is a recognized major risk factor for offspring OWO, we hypothesized that maternal plasma acylcarnitines may play a role in inter-generational OWO. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This study included 1402 mother-child pairs (1043 term, 359 preterm) recruited at birth from 1998-2013 and followed prospectively up to age 18 years at the Boston Medical Center. The primary outcomes were child OWO defined as BMI ≥ 85th percentile for age and sex. The primary exposures were maternal prepregnancy OWO defined as BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and maternal acylcarnitine levels measured in plasma samples collected soon after delivery using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in a targeted manner. RESULTS: Approximately 40% of the children in this study were OWO by age 5. Maternal OWO had a significant association with childhood OWO, both in term and preterm births. ß-hydroxybutyryl-carnitine (C4-OH) levels were significantly and positively associated with child OWO among term births after adjustment for potential confounders and multiple-comparisons. Children born to OWO mothers in the top tertile C4-OH levels were at the highest risk of OWO: OR = 3.78 (95%CI: 2.47, 5.79) as compared with those born to non-OWO mothers in the lowest tertile (P for interaction of maternal OWO and C4-OH = 0.035). In a four-way decomposition of mediation/interaction analysis, we estimated that C4-OH levels explained about 27% (se = 0.08) of inter-generational OWO risk (P = 0.001). In contrast, these associations were not observed in preterm births. CONCLUSIONS: In this U.S. urban low-income birth cohort, we provide further evidence of the inter-generational link of OWO and reveal the differential role of C4-OH in explaining the inter-generational obesity between term and preterm births. Further investigations are warranted to better understand and prevent the inter-generational transmission of OWO.

19.
Hypertension ; : HYPERTENSIONAHA11913120, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256718

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with hypertension in adults. It is unknown to what degree vitamin D status in early life can affect blood pressure (BP) a decade later. This study investigated the effect of vitamin D trajectory through early life on systolic BP (SBP) in childhood. This is a prospective birth cohort study of 775 children enrolled from 2005 to 2012 and followed prospectively up to age 18 years at the Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA. Persistent low vitamin D status is defined as plasma 25(OH)D <11 ng/mL at birth and <25 ng/mL in early childhood. Elevated SBP is defined as SBP ≥75th percentile. Low vitamin D status at birth was associated with higher risk of elevated SBP at ages 3 to 18 years: odds ratio, 1.38; (95% CI, 1.01-1.87) compared to those with sufficient vitamin D. Low vitamin D status in early childhood was associated with a 1.59-fold (95% CI, 1.02-2.46) higher risk of elevated SBP at age 6 to 18 years. Persistent low vitamin D status from birth to early childhood was associated with higher risk of elevated SBP (odds ratio, 2.04; [95% CI, 1.13-3.67]) at ages 3 to 18 years. These results suggest that low vitamin D status and trajectory in early life were associated with increased risk of elevated SBP during childhood and adolescence. Our findings will help inform future clinical and public health strategies for vitamin D screening and supplementation in pregnancy and childhood to prevent or reduce risk of elevated BP across the lifespan and generations.

20.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 82(4): e13165, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283067

RESUMO

PROBLEM: To investigate the value of thromboelastography (TEG) combined with antithrombin III (AT-III) and D-Dimer in predicting the occurrence of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). METHOD OF STUDY: One hundred and five RSA patients and 40 fertile women were enrolled. The subjects were subjected into four groups: group 1 (40 fertile women), group 2 (58 women with 2 abortions), group 3 (30 women with 3 abortions), and group 4 (17 women with four abortions). TEG was conducted on all subjects. Clotting time, reaction time, angle degree, coagulation index, and maximum amplitude were measured. The levels AT-III, D-Dimer, platelet counts, and fibrinogen concentration were determined. The ROC curve analysis was done using MedCalc software to analyse the diagnosis accuracy of the parameters of interest and the combined approach. RESULTS: The AT-III level in all group 4 was significantly lower than in fertile women. The D-Dimer concentration, platelet count, and MA in patients with four prior abortions were significantly higher than the other three groups. CI and fibrinogen concentration in patients with four prior pregnancy losses were significantly higher than group 1. The ROC curves suggested that combined use of CI, MA, AT-III, and D-Dimer was with the highest accuracy 92.8%, thus predicting the most accurate diagnosis for RSA. CONCLUSION: Recurrent spontaneous abortion is associated with abnormal coagulation and anticoagulation. TEG combined with detection of AT-III and D-Dimer levels can distinguish patient with RSA from those with normal fertility and highly possibly predict the occurrence of RSA.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA