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1.
Soft Matter ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643637

RESUMO

Ion transport through interfaces is of ubiquitous importance in many fields such as electrochemistry, emulsion stabilization, phase transfer catalysis, liquid-liquid extraction and enhanced oil recovery. However, the knowledge of interfacial structures that significantly affect ion transport through liquid-liquid interfaces is still lacking due to the difficulty of observing nanoscale interfaces. We studied here the evolution of interfacial structures during ion transport through the decane-water interface under different ionic concentrations and external forces using molecular dynamics simulations. The roles of hydrogen bonds in ion transport through interfaces are revealed. We identified a soft nanoscale channel during ion transport through liquid-liquid interfaces and the decane phase under specific external force. The stability of the water channel and the ion transport velocity both increase with ionic concentration due to the layered ordering structures of the water near the channel surface. We observed that the stability and connectivity of the water channel in the decane phase are remarkably improved both by the high increase of the number of hydrogen bonds in the water channel with increasing ionic concentration, and by the conformational change in water molecules near the water channel surface. Our discovery of a soft nanoscale water channel by molecular simulations implies that there is a potential stable passage for ion transport through liquid-liquid interfaces.

2.
J Vestib Res ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date, systematically objective evaluations of vestibular function in children with cochlear implantation (CI) have been conducted sparsely, especiallyin children with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS). OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to investigate the function of all five vestibular end-organs pre- and post-cochlear implantation in children with LVAS and normal CT. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, 34 children (age 4-17 years) with bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) undergoing unilateral CI were included. Participants included 18 (52.9%) children with LVAS. Objective modalities to evaluate vestibular function included the caloric test, cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP), ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP), and video head impulse test (vHIT). All measurements were performed before surgery and 9 months after surgery. RESULTS: Mean age at CI was 8.1±3.7 years. Caloric testing showed hypofunction in 38.2%of cases before implantation and in 50%after (p >  0.05). We found a significant increase of overall abnormality rate in cVEMP and oVEMP from pre- to post-CI (p <  0.05). In all three semicircular canals tested by vHIT, there were no statistically significant mean gain changes (p >  0.05). Higher deterioration rates in cVEMP (53.3%) and oVEMP (52.0%) after surgery were observed (p <  0.05). In children with LVAS, cVEMP revealed a higher deterioration rate than superior semicircular canal (SSC) and posterior semicircular canal (PSC) (p <  0.05). In children with normal CT, the deterioration rates in VEMPs were both higher than those in vHIT (p <  0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In general, the otolith organs were the most affected peripheral vestibular sensors in children after cochlear implantation. The variations in otolith function influenced by CI were different between children with LVAS and normal CT. We recommend the use of this vestibular function test battery for children with cochlear implantation.

3.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 110: 92-98, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593198

RESUMO

Many problems in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) are caused by microbe, such as biofilm formation, biocorrosion and opportunistic pathogens growth. More iron release from corrosion scales may induce red water. Biofilm played great roles on the corrosion. The iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB) promoted corrosion. However, when iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) and nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) became the main bacteria in biofilm, they could induce iron redox cycling in corrosion process. This process enhanced the precipitation of iron oxides and formation of more Fe3O4 in corrosion scales, which inhibited corrosion effectively. Therefore, the IRB and NRB in the biofilm can reduce iron release and red water occurrence. Moreover, there are many opportunistic pathogens in biofilm of DWDSs. The opportunistic pathogens growth in DWDSs related to the bacterial community changes due to the effects of micropollutants. Micropollutants increased the number of bacteria with antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Furthermore, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production was increased by the antibiotic resistant bacteria, leading to greater bacterial aggregation and adsorption, increasing the chlorine-resistance capability, which was responsible for the enhancement of the particle-associated opportunistic pathogens in DWDSs. Moreover, O3-biological activated carbon filtration-UV-Cl2 treatment could be used to control the iron release, red water occurrence and opportunistic pathogens growth in DWDSs.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Biofilmes , Cloro , Corrosão , Microbiologia da Água , Abastecimento de Água
4.
J Mater Chem B ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610630

RESUMO

Flexible sensors have attracted extensive attention due to their excellent flexibility, biocompatibility, and information acquisition accuracy. Therefore, it is desired to fabricate a flexible sensor with high toughness and sensitivity based on conductive hydrogels to monitor human movement. In this work, MXene-(Ti3C2Tx-)WPU/PAM dual-network hydrogels (PPM hydrogels) were successfully prepared. As the first network, waterborne polyurethane (WPU) plays the role of energy dissipation and enhancement. Polyacrylamide (PAM) and WPU polymer chains form interpenetrating networks (IPNs). MXene acts as a conductive material to enhance the conductivity and for nano enhancement. The PPM hydrogels exhibited excellent mechanical characteristics (tensile ratio >600%, tensile strength 639 kPa, 1000 stretching cycles, and self-recovery rate 93.7%). Moreover, based on these hydrogels, we fabricated flexible sensors. These sensors had high sensitivity and sensing durability, and could be assembled into a human body wireless monitoring device, which possesses great potential in facial micro-expression monitoring, all-around human motion detection, and wearable electronic products. In addition, these resulting hydrogels possessed outstanding reversible adhesion to various materials (human skin, wood, PDMS, etc.) and the maximum adhesion strength can reach 305.1 N m-1 when exposed to a PDMS substrate. Therefore, PPM hydrogels could provide new inspiration for the development of wearable flexible sensors in the domain of human movements and personalized physiological health monitoring.

5.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 147(4): 325-330, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663514

RESUMO

Spag6 encodes an axoneme central apparatus protein that is required for normal flagellar and cilia motility. Recent findings suggest that Spag6 plays a role in hearing and planar cell polarity (PCP) in the cochlea of the inner ear. However, a role for Spag6 in the vestibule has not yet been explored. In the present study, the function of Spag6 in the vestibule of the inner ear was examined using Spag6-deficient mice. Our results demonstrate a vestibular disorder in the Spag6 mutants, associated with abnormal ultrastructures of vestibular hair cells and Scarpa's ganglion cells, including swollen stereocilia, decreased crista in mitochondria and swollen Scarpa's ganglion cells. Immunostaining data suggests existence of caspase-dependent apoptosis in vestibular sensory epithelium and Scarpa's ganglion cells. Our observations reveal new functions for Spag6 in vestibular function and apoptosis in the mouse vestibule.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486880

RESUMO

Conventional polymeric phase change materials (PCMs) exhibit good shape stability, large energy storage density, and satisfactory chemical stability, but they cannot be recycled and self-healed due to their permanent cross-linking structure. Additionally, the high flammability of organic PCMs seriously restricts their applications for thermal energy storage (TES). Therefore, it is urgently required to explore PCM composites exhibiting superior recyclability, good self-healing capability, and excellent flame retardancy simultaneously. Herein, tri-maleimide end-capped cyclotriphosphazene flame retardant (TMCTP) was synthesized via the nucleophilic substitution between 1,3,5,2,4,6-triazatriphosphorine-2,2,4,4,6,6-hexachloride and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)maleimide. Then, novel dynamically cross-linked PCM composites (FPCMs) with superior recyclability, good self-healing capability, and excellent flame retardancy were fabricated by bonding PEG and TMCTP to polymeric skeleton via reversible furan/maleimide Diels-Alder (DA) reaction. TMCTP, which covalently and dynamically binding in the polymeric FPCMs, acted not only as an efficient flame retardant for reducing the flammability of PCM composites but also as dynamic cross-linking skeletons for thermally induced self-healing and recycling. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis confirmed the reversible energy storage and release ability of FPCMs. Due to its reversible DA covalent bonds, the introduction of TMCTP endowed the FPCMs with considerably increased self-healing efficiency (up to 93.1%) and recyclability efficiency (94.6%). Moreover, with the introduction of TMCTP into FPCMs, the heat release rate (HRR) and total heat release (THR) significantly decreased, while the char residue and limiting oxygen index (LOI) value increased, confirming that the flame retardancy of FPCMs greatly improved. Hence, the synthesized FPCMs show enormous potential in TES applications.

7.
Talanta ; 235: 122720, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517588

RESUMO

Inborn errors of metabolism, also known as inherited metabolic diseases (IMDs), are related to genetic mutations and cause corresponding biochemical metabolic disorder of newborns and even sudden infant death. Timely detection and diagnosis of IMDs are of great significance for improving survival of newborns. Here we propose a strategy for simultaneously detecting six types of IMDs via combining GC-MS technique with the random forest algorithm (RF). Clinical urine samples from IMD and healthy patients are analyzed using GC-MS for acquiring metabolomics data. Then, the RF model is established as a multi-classification tool for the GC-MS data. Compared with the models built by artificial neural network and support vector machine, the results demonstrated the RF model has superior performance of high specificity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and matthews correlation coefficients on identifying all six types of IMDs and normal samples. The proposed strategy can afford a useful method for reliable and effective identification of multiple IMDs in clinical diagnosis.


Assuntos
Doenças Metabólicas , Algoritmos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Metabolômica
8.
J Hepatol ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a primary liver cancer with high aggressiveness and extremely poor prognosis. The role of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in ICC carcinogenesis and progression remains to be determined. METHODS: CircRNA microarray was performed to screen significantly up-regulated circRNAs in paired ICC and non-tumor tissues. Colony formation, transwell, and xenograft models were used to examine the role of circRNAs in ICC proliferation and metastasis. RNA pulldown, mass spectrometry, chromatin immunoprecipitation, RNA binding protein immunoprecipitation, chromatin isolation by RNA purification, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and luciferase reporter assays were used to explore the molecular sponge role of the circRNA via binding to miRNAs, and the interaction between circRNA and RNA-binding proteins. RESULTS: Hsa_circ_0050898, which originated from exon 1 to exon 20 of the ACTN4 gene (named as circACTN4), was significantly upregulated in ICC. High circACTN4 expression was associated with enhanced tumor proliferation and metastasis in vitro and in vivo, as well as a worse prognosis following ICC resection. In addition, circACTN4 upregulated Yes-associated protein1 (YAP1) expression by sponging miR-424-5p. More importantly, circACTN4 also recruited Y-box binding protein 1 (YBX1) to stimulate Frizzled-7 (FZD7) transcription. Furthermore, circACTN4 overexpression in ICC cells enhanced the interaction between YAP1 and ß-catenin, which are the core components of the Hippo and Wnt signaling pathways, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: CircACTN4 was upregulated in ICC and promoted ICC proliferation and metastasis by acting as a molecular sponge of miR-424-5p, as well as by interacting with YBX1 to transcriptionally activate FZD7. These results suggested that circACTN4 is a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target for ICC. LAY SUMMARY: A circular RNA (circACTN4) was highly expressed in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). The expression level of circACTN4 was positively associated with tumor growth and metastasis through both the Hippo and Wnt signaling pathways.

9.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500707

RESUMO

Numerous nanocarriers with excellent biocompatibilities have been used to improve cancer therapy. However, nonspecific protein adsorption of nanocarriers may block the modified nanoparticles in tumor cells, which would lead to inefficient cellular internalization. To address this issue, pH-responsive polyurethane prodrug micelles with a zwitterionic segment were designed and prepared. The micelle consisted of a zwitterionic segment as the hydrophilic shell and the drug Adriamycin (DOX) as the hydrophobic inner core. As a pH-responsive antitumor drug delivery system, the prodrug micelles showed high stability in a physiological environment and continuously released the drug under acidic conditions. In addition, the pure polyurethane carrier was demonstrated to be virtually non-cytotoxic by cytotoxicity studies, while the prodrug micelles were more efficient in killing tumor cells compared to PEG-PLGA@DOX. Furthermore, the DOX cellular uptake efficiency of prodrug micelles was proved to be obviously higher than the control group by both flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. This is mainly due to the modification of a zwitterionic segment with PU. The simple design of zwitterionic prodrug micelles provides a new strategy for designing novel antitumor drug delivery systems with enhanced cellular uptake rates.

10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2123634, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505887

RESUMO

Importance: Twin pregnancy is a common occurrence in pregnancies conceived with in vitro fertilization (IVF), but the absolute risk of adverse obstetric outcomes stratified by IVF, twin or singleton pregnancy, and maternal age are unknown. Objective: To estimate the absolute risk of adverse obstetric outcomes at each maternal age among twin pregnancies conceived with IVF. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included pregnant women with infants born from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2018, based on the Hospital Quality Monitoring System in China. Data were analyzed from September 1, 2020, to June 30, 2021. Exposures: Twin pregnancy with IVF (IVF-T), singleton pregnancy with IVF (IVF-S), twin pregnancy with non-IVF (nIVF-T), and singleton pregnancy with non-IVF (nIVF-S). Main Outcomes and Measures: Sixteen obstetric outcomes, including 10 maternal complications (gestational hypertension, eclampsia and preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, placenta previa, placental abruption, placenta accreta, preterm birth, dystocia, cesarean delivery, and postpartum hemorrhage) and 6 neonatal complications (fetal growth restriction, low birth weight, very low birth weight, macrosomia, malformation, and stillbirth). Results: Among 16 879 728 pregnant women aged 20 to 49 years (mean [SD] age, 29.2 [4.7] years), the twin-pregnancy rates were 32.1% in the IVF group and 1.5% in the non-IVF group (relative risk, 20.8; 95% CI, 20.6-20.9). The most common adverse obstetric outcomes after pregnancy conceived with IVF were cesarean delivery (88.8%), low birth weight (43.8%), preterm birth (39.6%), gestational diabetes (20.5%), gestational hypertension and preeclampsia and eclampsia (17.5%), dystocia (16.8%), and postpartum hemorrhage (11.9%). The absolute risk of most adverse obstetric outcomes in each subgroup presented in 2 dominant patterns: Pattern A indicated the absolute risk ranging from IVF-T to nIVF-T to IVF-S to nIVF-S, and pattern B indicated the absolute risk ranging from IVF-T to IVF-S to nIVF-T to nIVF-S. Both patterns showed an elevated obstetric risk with increasing maternal age in each subgroup. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, twin pregnancy, IVF, and advanced maternal age were independently associated with adverse obstetric outcomes. Given these findings, promotion of the elective single embryo transfer strategy is needed to reduce multiple pregnancies following IVF technologies. Unnecessary cesarean delivery shouldh be avoided in all pregnant women.

11.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572063

RESUMO

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Vision loss from the neovascular form is associated with the invasion of choroidal endothelial cells into the neural retina to form vision-threatening macular neovascularization (MNV). Anti-angiogenic agents are the current standard of care but are effective in only ~50% of AMD cases. The molecular mechanisms involved in invasive MNV point to the importance of regulating signaling pathways that lead to pathologic biologic outcomes. In studies testing the effects of AMD-related stresses, activation of the Rho GTPase, Rac1, was found to be important for the choroidal endothelial cell invasion into the neural retina. However, current approaches to prevent Rac1 activation are inefficient and less effective. We summarize active Rac1-mediated mechanisms that regulate choroidal endothelial cell migration. Specifically, we discuss our work regarding the role of a multidomain protein, IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 1 (IQGAP1), in sustaining pathologic Rac1 activation and a mechanism by which active Rap1, a Ras-like GTPase, may prevent active Rac1-mediated choroidal endothelial cell migration.

12.
FEBS Open Bio ; 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510826

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV18) has high carcinogenic power in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) development. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. The carcinogenic properties of HPV18 require the PDZ-binding motif of its E6 oncoprotein (HPV18 E6) to degrade its target PSD95/Dlg/ZO-1 (PDZ) proteins. In this study, we demonstrated that the PDZ protein membrane-associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain containing 3 (MAGI3) inhibited the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway, and subsequently cervical cancer (CC) cell migration and invasion, via decreasing ß-catenin levels. By reducing MAGI3 protein levels, HPV18 E6 promoted CC cell migration and invasion through activation of Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. Furthermore, HPV18 rather than HPV16 was preferentially associated with the downregulation of MAGI3 and activation of the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway in CC. These findings shed light on the mechanism that gives HPV18 its high carcinogenic potential in CC progression.

13.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 210: 106947, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583275

RESUMO

Respiratory failure is the leading cause of early death after acute CSCI. Tracheotomy is an effective approach to reduce mortality and improve the clinical outcomes. However, the optimal timing for tracheotomy remains controversial. Hence, the study aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of tracheotomy in patients with acute cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) at different timing. A retrospectively review was performed of acute CSCI patients who underwent tracheotomy in the intensive care unit of Haian Hospital between January 2014 and June 2019. 124 CSCI patients were included and stratified into three groups based on the timing of tracheotomy: early group (≤4 days from initial intubation), medium group (4-10 days from initial intubation), and late group (≥10 days from initial intubation). The clinical outcomes and functional outcomes were analyzed. No significant intergroup differences in baseline characteristics were observed. The late group needed significantly longer duration of mechanical ventilation, longer ICU stay, and suffered higher ICU mortality, higher pneumonia after tracheotomy than the early and medium groups. More patients in the early and medium groups successfully weaned from mechanical ventilation. The early and medium groups achieved better improvement of JOA and NDI scores than the late group at one year after surgery and at the final follow-up. Early to medium term tracheotomy may lead to better clinical and functional outcomes in patients with acute CSCI who require prolonged mechanical ventilation.

14.
Clin Transplant ; : e14470, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428316

RESUMO

The findings and recommendations of the 2019 consensus conference in organ donation, held in Kunming, China, are here reported. The main objective of the conference was to gather relevant information from experts involved in the field. The data and opinions provided allowed to propose a series of recommendations for "One Belt & One Road Countries" on how to achieve self-sufficiency in organ donation. Leadership in organ donation should be results-oriented and goal-driven based on the principles of excellence, empowerment, and engagement, providing the means, resources, and strategies necessary to reach the goal in earnest. Management includes good governance and transparency of a national registry of patients in the waiting list, donors, transplants, transplant teams, quality, and safety programs with continuous educational training of health care professionals. Mandatory monitoring, auditing and evaluation of quality must be incorporated into donation practices as relevant points in innovation, as well as the adoption of already established and novel processes and technologies. Achievement of self-sufficiency in organ donation is a crucial step to fight against transplant tourism and to prevent organ trafficking. Based on recommendations arising from the conference, each country could review and develop individualized action plans adjusted to its own circumstances and reality.

15.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evaluating tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in patients with breast cancer using radiomics has been rarely explored. PURPOSE: To establish a radiomics nomogram based on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for preoperatively evaluating TIL level. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. POPULATION: A total of 154 patients with breast cancer were divided into a training cohort (N = 87) and a test cohort (N = 67), who were further divided into low TIL (<50%) and high TIL (≥50%) subgroups according to the histopathological results. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3.0 T; axial T2-weighted imaging (fast spin echo), diffusion-weighted imaging (spin echo-echo planar imaging), and the volume imaging for breast assessment DCE sequence (gradient recalled echo). ASSESSMENT: A radiomics signature was developed from the training dataset and independent risk factors were selected by multivariate logistic regression to build a clinical model. A nomogram model was built by combining radiomics score and risk factors. The performance of the nomogram was assessed using calibration curves and decision curves. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated. STATISTICAL TESTS: The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, t-tests and chi-squared tests or Fisher's exact test, Hosmer-Lemeshow test, ROC analysis, and decision curve analysis were conducted. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The radiomics signature and nomogram model exhibited better calibration and validation performance in the training (radiomics: area under the curve [AUC] 0.86; nomogram: AUC 0.88) and test (radiomics: AUC 0.83; nomogram: AUC 0.84) datasets compared with clinical model (training: AUC 0.76; test: AUC 0.72). The decision curve demonstrated that the nomogram model exhibited better performance than the clinical model, with a threshold probability between 0.15 and 0.9. DATA CONCLUSION: The nomogram model based on preoperative MRI exhibited an excellent ability for the noninvasive evaluation of TILs in breast cancer. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 TECHNICAL EFFICACY STAGE: 2.

16.
J Affect Disord ; 295: 163-172, 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two distinct subtypes of treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) have been recently reported, including early-treatment resistance (E-TR) and late-treatment resistance (L-TR). This study was to assess clozapine-induced metformin-resistant prediabetes/diabetes and its correlation with clinical efficacy in schizophrenia E-TR subtype. METHODS: This prospective cohort study enrolled 230 patients with schizophrenia E-TR subtype and they were treated with adequate doses of clozapine for 16 weeks, during which patients with prediabetes/diabetes were assigned to receive add-on metformin. The main outcomes and measures included incidence of clozapine-induced prediabetes/diabetes and metformin-resistant prediabetes/diabetes, and the efficacy of clozapine as assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) score. RESULTS: Clozapine-induced prediabetes/diabetes occurred in 76.52% of patients (170 prediabetes and 6 diabetes), of which the blood sugar of 43 (24.43%) patients was controlled with metformin. Despite add-on metformin, 47.06% (74/170) of prediabetes patients progressed to diabetes. In total, the incidence of clozapine-induced metformin-resistant prediabetes/diabetes was 75.57% (133/176). On completion of 16-week clozapine treatment, 16.52% (38/230) patients showed clinical improvement with PANSS scores of ≥50% declining. Furthermore, clozapine-induced prediabetes/diabetes was significantly correlated with the poor clinical efficacy of clozapine for schizophrenia E-TR subtype. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of clozapine-induced metformin-resistant prediabetes/diabetes was considerably high in the schizophrenia E-TR subtype. Clozapine-induced metformin-resistant prediabetes/diabetes represents an independent risk factor that adversely affects the clinical efficacy of clozapine for the schizophrenia E-TR subtype. This study provided new evidence for re-evaluating the use of clozapine for TRS, especially E-TR subtype, and the use of metformin for the glycemic control of clozapine-induced prediabetes/diabetes.

17.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(7): 7662-7670, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The treatments for refractory secretory otitis media with effusion usually choose long-term grommet insertion. This study evaluated the effect of balloon eustachian tuboplasty combined with grommet insertion on the function and the opening length of the eustachian tube in patients with refractory otitis media with effusion. METHODS: Fifty-seven patients with refractory otitis media with effusion were enrolled. A three-dimensional reconstruction of an iohexol-enhanced computed tomography image was applied to evaluate the structural and length changes of the eustachian tube at both resting and Valsalva maneuver states. The grommet was removed 3 months after the operation and postoperative follow-up was carried out from 3 to 12 months. We performed pre- and post-operative observation of the following: appearance of the tympanic membrane, pure-tone audiometry threshold, eustachian tube score, seven-item Eustachian Tube Dysfunction Questionnaire scores (ETDQ-7), quantitative examination of eustachian tube function dynamic observation of tympanogram peak pressure point, and computed tomography examination of the eustachian tube. RESULTS: The pure-tone audiometry at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postoperatively were all significantly lower compared to the preoperative value (all P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the pure-tone audiometry at 6 and 9 months postoperatively, neither was for the air-bone conduction gap at these time points. The quantitative examination peak pressure deviation was markedly increased at 6 months postoperatively compared with that before the operation (all P<0.05). The peak pressure deviation of tympanometry at 6 and 9 months postoperatively were both higher than the value at 12 months after surgery (P<0.05). The eustachian tube score at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postoperatively were notably higher than that before the operation (all P<0.05). A significant difference was also observed between the 6- and 12-month postoperative eustachian tube score (P<0.05). There was a significant difference in the ETDQ-7 scores at 6- and 12-month postoperatively (P<0.05). The quantitative examination peak pressure deviation and eustachian tube score were both correlated with development length of the eustachian tube after three-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Eustachian tube balloon dilatation combined with grommet insertion is an effective treatment for refractory otitis media with effusion.


Assuntos
Tuba Auditiva , Otite Média com Derrame , Dilatação , Humanos , Ventilação da Orelha Média , Otite Média com Derrame/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Gynecol Obstet Invest ; 86(4): 353-360, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375972

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to evaluate the quality of life (QoL) and pelvic floor function of cervical cancer (CC) patients after treatment. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional observational cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: The participants included in this study were CC patients who underwent radical hysterectomy (RH) from 2012 to 2018 at 18 medical centers across China. METHODS: The validated versions of the Pelvic floor Distress Inventory-Short Form 20, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score, and Euro Qol Five-Dimension questionnaires were used to evaluate postoperative pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) and QoL. RESULTS: A total of 689 CC patients were enrolled. The incidence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI), incomplete urinary emptying, and constipation were 32.7, 27.7, and 28.6%, respectively. Multivariate analysis confirmed that laparoscopic RH (LRH) and vaginal wall resection greater than 3 cm were risk factors for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). LRH and chemotherapy were risk factors for SUI. Chemoradiotherapy and LRH were risk factors for overactive bladder (OAB). A high body mass index and LRH were risk factors for more severe defecation symptoms. ARH and large amount of operative blood loss were risk factors for poor QoL. CONCLUSION: PFD is common in CC patients after treatment. LRH seems to increase the postoperative distress, including LUTS and defecation symptoms. Postoperative urinary incontinence and OAB are more bothersome for patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We recommend evaluating pelvic floor function as a standard assessment during follow-up.


Assuntos
Diafragma da Pelve , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/cirurgia
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 281: 114458, 2021 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352329

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Qihuzha granule (QHZG), is one of traditional Chinese patent medicines composed of eleven edible medicinal plant, which has been used in the clinic for the treatment of indigestion and anorexia in children caused by deficiency of the spleen and stomach. Yet it is noteworthy that QHZG has therapeutic effect on recurrent respiratory tract infection (RRTI) in children. However, its potential molecular mechanisms remained unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect and potential mechanism of QHZG on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced acute spleen injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The acute spleen injury model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (10 mg/kg) and safe doses of QHZG was administered by gavage once a day for 23 days before LPS treatment. Serum inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-1ß, IFN-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were tested by ELISA. Related protein levels were detected by Western blotting. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was employed to observe the histological alterations. The distribution of macrophages and neutrophils in the mouse spleen was examined by immunofluorescence analysis. RESULTS: QHZG pretreatment significantly abolished the increased secretion of cytokines such as interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-1ß, IFN-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), which were attributable to LPS treatment. Immunofluorescence staining and Histological analysis of spleen tissue revealed the protective effect of QHZG against LPS-induced acute spleen injury in mice. Further study indicated that pretreatment with QHZG significantly inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of Src. Accordingly, the increased phosphorylation of Src downstream components (JNK, ERK, P38 and STAT3) induced by LPS was remarkably diminished by QHZG, suggesting the involvement of Src/MAPK/STAT3 pathway in the inhibitory effects of QHZG on spleen injury in mice. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that QHZG protected mice from LPS-induced acute spleen injury via inhibition of Src/MAPK/Stat3 signal pathway. These results suggested that QHZG might serve as a new drug for the treatment of LPS-stimulated spleen injury.

20.
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 50(1): 52, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It was well-documented that extended high-frequency (EHF, above 8 kHz) hearing test could be more sensitive comparing with the conventional measurement on frequency below 8 kHz, regarding the early prediction of auditory damage in certain population. However, hardly any age-specific thresholds of EHF in population with normal hearing ability were observed. This study aims to monitor the age-dependent hearing thresholds at EHF (from 9 to 20 kHz) in healthy hearing population. METHODS: A total of 162 healthy participants (from 21 to 70 years) with normal conventional pure tone audiograms were recruited and separated into five groups by age. Conventional pure tone average was performed with frequencies from 0.25 to 8 kHz under air conduction and from 0.25 to 4 kHz under bone conduction. EHF audiometry from 9 to 20 kHz was determined under air conduction. RESULTS: The effects of aging on hearing were evident at frequencies above 4 kHz. The hearing thresholds of EHF were less than 26 dB HL before 30 years-olds. Hearing abilities in EHF were deteriorated starting from the 31 ~ 40 group and were most obvious in the 51 ~ 60 group and the 61 ~ 70 group with the maximum thresholds of 75 dB HL. Sensitivity of EHF was inversely proportional to the frequency within each age group, and to age among groups. Subjects under 30 years old were totally responsive up to 16 kHz, and 52.2% could respond to 20 kHz. Meanwhile, no responsiveness was recorded to 20 kHz in the 51 ~ 60 group and even to 18 kHz in the 61 ~ 70 group. No gender differences in hearing threshold was observed within each age group, except an obvious decline at frequencies of 4, 6, 8, and 9 kHz in male participants of the 41 ~ 50 group. CONCLUSIONS: Hearing thresholds at EHF from 9 to 20 kHz were more sensitive than at frequencies below 8 kHz for hearing measurement, and aging inversely affected hearing ability at EHF in healthy population. Hearing thresholds at EHF deteriorated with age and raising frequency, while the upper frequency limit decreased with aging.

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