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1.
Cell Res ; 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469157

RESUMO

Ca2+ channels are essential to cell birth, life, and death. They can be externally activated by optogenetic tools, but this requires robust introduction of exogenous optogenetic genes for expression of photosensitive proteins in biological systems. Here we present femtoSOC, a method for direct control of Ca2+ channels solely by ultrafast laser without the need for optogenetic tools or any other exogenous reagents. Specifically, by focusing and scanning wavelength-tuned low-power femtosecond laser pulses on the plasma membrane for multiphoton excitation, we directly induced Ca2+ influx in cultured cells. Mechanistic study reveals that photoexcited flavins covalently bind cysteine residues in Orai1 via thioether bonds, which facilitates Orai1 polymerization to form store-operated calcium channels (SOCs) independently of STIM1, a protein generally participating in SOC formation, enabling all-optical activation of Ca2+ influx and downstream signaling pathways. Moreover, we used femtoSOC to demonstrate direct neural activation both in brain slices in vitro and in intact brains of living mice in vivo in a spatiotemporal-specific manner, indicating potential utility of femtoSOC.

2.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471509

RESUMO

The red phosphorus (RP) anode has attracted great attention due to its high theoretical specific capacity (2596 mAh/g) and suitable lithiation potential. To solve the inherent poor electrical conductivity and the large volume expansion due to the lithiation process, a vaporization-condensation strategy is considered as a promising method. However, there are two important issues that deserve attention in the vaporization-condensation process. First, the low P mass loading in the carbon-based frameworks (∼30 wt %) limits the energy density. Second, a residual white phosphorus (WP) leads to the safety problems of flammability and high toxicity. Herein, we found that the edge structure of carbon framework can offer the strong adsorption for P4 and form a P-C bond, which accelerate the adsorption and polymerization of P4 leading to high P mass loading and safety. When the porous carbon (PC) with plenty of edge carbons was used as the matrix to load P by vaporization-condensation, the RP loading is close to the highest theoretical mass loading of ∼50 wt % calculated based on the feeding ratio of RP/PC = 1/1. Therefore, the RP-PC anode provides a high specific capacity of 965.2 mAh/g even after 1100 cycles at 1000 mA/g (equivalent to 1 C) and a high-rate capacity of 496.8 mAh/g at 8320 mA/g (equivalent to 16.7 C) after 1000 cycles (the specific capacity and current density are calculated based on the total weight of RP and PC).

3.
BMC Fam Pract ; 21(1): 249, 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33267821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary health care (PHC) was a keystone toward achieving universal health coverage and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). China has made efforts to strengthen its PHC institutions. As part of such efforts, regular in-service training is crucial for primary healthcare workers (PHWs) to strengthen their knowledge and keep their skills up to date. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if and how the existing training arrangements influenced the competence and job satisfaction of PHWs in township hospitals (THs). METHODS: A mixed method approach was employed. We analyzed the associations between in-service training and competence, as well as between in-service training and job satisfaction of PHWs using logistic regression. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using NVivo12 to better understand the trainings and the impacts on PHWs. RESULTS: The study found that training was associated with competence for all the types of PHWs except nurses. The odds of higher competence for physicians who received long-term training were 3.60 (p < 0.01) and that of those who received both types of training was 2.40 (p < 0.01). PHWs who received short-term training had odds of higher competence significantly (OR = 1.710, p < 0.05). PHWs who received training were more satisfied than their untrained colleagues in general (OR = 1.638, p < 0.01). Specifically, physicians who received short-term training (OR = 1.916, p < 0.01) and who received both types of training (OR = 1.941, p < 0.05) had greater odds of general job satisfaction. The odds ratios (ORs) of general job satisfaction for nurses who received short-term training was 2.697 (p < 0.01), but this association was not significant for public health workers. The interview data supported these results, and revealed how training influenced competence and satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Considering existing evidence that competence and satisfaction serve as two major determinants of health workers' performance, to further improve PHWs' performance, it is necessary to provide sufficient training opportunities and improve the quality of training.

4.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020802, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33312509

RESUMO

Background: To achieve universal health coverage in China, it is necessary to identify access barriers to health care. This study examined the association between health system characteristics and health care utilization in China and identified factors associated with accessing health care among the mid-aged and elderly. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2015 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, and 17 370 respondents aged 45 and above were included in the analysis. The dependent variables were the use of outpatient and inpatient care among respondents. Health system characteristics at the provincial level were measured using the density of doctors and ward beds, health expenditure per visit/admission and health financing. A two-level logistic regression model was constructed to examine association between health care utilization and health system characteristics, controlling for predisposing, enabling and need variables. Results: Of the 17 370 respondents, 18.3% had utilized outpatient care and 13.7% had utilized inpatient care in 2015. Increases in the share of out-of-pocket (OOP) payments as total health spending at the provincial-level was less likely to be associated with outpatient care utilization (odds ratio (OR) = 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-0.98) among the mid-age and elderly population. Increases in the share of OOP payments (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.97-1.00) and health expenditure per admission (OR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.04-0.88) were less likely to be associated with inpatient care utilization, while increases in the density of beds (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.10-1.43) was more likely to be associated with inpatient care utilization. gross domestic product (GDP) per capita at the provincial level and types of health insurance owned by respondents were significantly related to both inpatient and outpatient care utilization. Conclusions: Low affordability of the mid-aged and elderly population is the main barrier to utilizing health care in China. In order to improve access to health care, the government should make more efforts, such as improving health insurance reimbursement rates and implementing prospective provider payment methods, to decrease OOP payment for the ageing population.

5.
PeerJ ; 8: e10252, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194425

RESUMO

Background: Mapping techniques using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging have significantly improved the diagnostic accuracy for myocarditis with focal myocardial injuries. The aim of our study was to determine whether T1 and T2 mapping techniques could identify diffuse myocardial injuries in "normal-appearing" myocardium in pediatric patients with clinically suspected myocarditis and to evaluate the associations between diffuse myocardial injuries and cardiac function parameters. Methods: Forty-six subjects were included in this study: 20 acute myocarditis patients, 11 subacute/chronic myocarditis patients and 15 control children. T2 values, native T1 values and the extracellular volume (ECV) of "normal-appearing" myocardium were compared among the three groups of patients. Associations between diffuse myocardial injuries and cardiac function parameters were also evaluated. Results: The ECV of "normal-appearing" myocardium was significantly higher in the subacute/chronic myocarditis group than in the control group (30.1 ± 0.9 vs 27.0 ± 0.6, P =0.004). No significant differences in T1 and T2 values between the acute myocarditis and control groups were found. In the subacute/chronic myocarditis group, a significant association between ECV and left ventricle ejection fraction was found (P=0.03). Conclusions: Diffuse myocardial injuries are likely to occur in subacute/chronic myocarditis patients with prolonged inflammatory responses. Mapping techniques have great value for the diagnosis and monitoring of myocarditis.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196860

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Workplace violence has been recognized globally as a serious occupational hazard in health service occupations, and existing studies have identified that workplace violence can significantly lead to depression. Interpersonal distrust, an important topic, has also been proved associated with workplace violence and depression. However, the mediating effect of interpersonal distrust has not been tested before. Results of such testing can help us to understand further the effect mechanism of workplace violence on depression. METHODS: In the current study, we collected 3426 valid questionnaires based on a cross-sectional design distributed among medical staff in Chinese hospitals. Depression, workplace violence, interpersonal distrust, social support, physical diseases, and some other social-demographic variables were evaluated. SPSS macros program (PROCESS v3.3) was used to test the mediating effect of interpersonal distrust on the association between workplace violence and depression. RESULTS: The data analyzed in the current study demonstrated that 52.2% of medical staff had experienced workplace violence before. Experiencing verbal violence (ß = 2.99, p < 0.001), experiencing physical violence (ß = 3.70, p < 0.01), experiencing both kinds of violence (ß = 4.84, p < 0.001), high levels of interpersonal distrust (ß = 0.22, p < 0.001), working as a nurse (ß = 1.10, p < 0.05), working as a manager (ß = - 1.72, p < 0.001), suffering physical disease (ß = 3.35, p < 0.001), and receiving social support (ß = - 0.23, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with depression. Workplace violence had not only positive direct effects on depression, but also an indirect effect on depression through interpersonal distrust as a mediator. CONCLUSION: Interpersonal distrust can mediate the association between workplace violence and depression. Increasing interpersonal trust or reducing workplace violence would be beneficial to promoting mental health status among medical staff.

7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(46): e23164, 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, many studies have been conducted to investigate the relationship between the A46G polymorphism in the ß2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) gene and essential hypertension risk in the Chinese population. However, the results of previous studies were conflicting. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to investigate the association between the ADRB2 A46G polymorphism and the risk of essential hypertension in the Chinese population. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of possible relevant studies on PubMed, Embase, Ovid, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and China Biology Medicine disc databases up to January 3, 2020. Two authors independently extracted information from included articles and assessed the quality of each study by the use of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. According to the extent of interstudy heterogeneity, either a random-effect model or a fixed-effect model was used to calculate the combined odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Finally, 16 studies containing 3390 cases and 2528 controls were included in our meta-analysis. Significant associations were found between the ADRB2 A46G polymorphism and essential hypertension risk in the Chinese population under four genetic models: allele genetic model (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.06-1.23, P = .001, Pheterogeneity = .09), homozygote genetic model (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.11-1.51, P = .001, Pheterogeneity = .25), dominant genetic model (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.05-1.32, P = .005, Pheterogeneity = .04), and recessive genetic model (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.05-1.38, P = .007, Pheterogeneity = .72). CONCLUSION: The ADRB2 A46G polymorphism may increase the risk of essential hypertension in the Chinese population.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Essencial , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Hipertensão Essencial/etnologia , Hipertensão Essencial/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
8.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4126-4129, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018906

RESUMO

A surface electromyography (sEMG) detector, that not only removes stimulation artifacts entirely but also increases the recording time, has been developed in this paper. The sEMG detector consists of an sEMG detection circuit and a stimulation isolator. The sEMG detection circuit employs a stimulus isolate switch (SIS), a blanking (BLK) and non-linear feed-back (NFB) circuit to remove the artifacts and to increase the recording time. In the SIS, the connection between stimulator and stimulation electrodes, along with the stimulation electrodes and the ground are controlled by an opto-isolator, and the connection of instrument amplifier and the recording electrodes are controlled by CMOS-based switches. The mode switches of the BLK and the NFB circuit also employs CMOS-based switches. By an accurate timing adjustment, the voluntary EMG can be recorded during electrical stimulation. Two 6 able-bodied experiments have been performed to test the three anti-artifact sEMG detector: BLK, BLK&SIS, BLK&SIS&NFB. The results indicate that the BLK&SIS&NFB proposed in this work effectively removes stimulus artifacts and M-waves, and has a longer recording time compared with BLK and BLK&SIS circuits.


Assuntos
Amplificadores Eletrônicos , Artefatos , Estimulação Elétrica , Eletrodos , Eletromiografia
9.
Front Neurol ; 11: 937, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32982944

RESUMO

Background: Research conducted in Western countries has suggested that high-dose statin therapy can lead to the regression of carotid atherosclerotic plaques and can reduce periprocedural ischemic complication rates in individuals undergoing carotid artery stenting (CAS). However, whether this same therapeutic approach is of value in patients of Chinese ethnicity is not as well-established. Methods: This is a single-center, prospective, parallel-controlled, intervention-based efficacy study that will enroll a total of 130 Chinese patients with cervical carotid stenosis who are scheduled to undergo CAS. These patients will be randomly divided into a routine treatment group and a high-dose atorvastatin group. Individuals in the routine treatment group will be administered standard of care 20 mg/day atorvastatin treatment. Individuals in the high-dose atorvastatin group will be administered 80 mg/day atorvastatin for 3 days prior to and following CAS. The primary outcome of this study will be the cumulative incidence of new cerebral ischemic lesions on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) within 5 days following CAS, and of transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or ischemic stroke within 30 days after CAS. Discussion: This study is the first to assess whether high-dose atorvastatin treatment is capable of reducing the incidence of perioperative cerebral ischemic injury in patients of Chinese ethnicity undergoing CAS. These results will offer evidence regarding which statin treatment regimens are more appropriate when treating Chinese patients undergoing CAS in an effort to minimize their risk of any perioperative cerebral ischemic injury. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03079115; registered March 14, 2017.

10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21612, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence indicates the role of gut microbiota in the development of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, gut microbiota is increasingly recognized as a potential therapeutic target of cardiovascular disease. However, the effects of gut microbiome-targeted therapies on cardiometabolic outcomes in children and adolescents remain unclear. METHODS: We plan to perform a systematic search from PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science. Two authors will independently select the relevant studies and extract data according to a previously defined data extraction sheet. We will use the Stata 14.0 statistical software and RevMan V.5.3 software to conduct data analyses. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The results of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and provide more evidence for the application of gut microbiome-targeted therapies in children and adolescents for the intervention of cardiovascular risk factors in clinical practice. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY202060050.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Simbióticos/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Glicemia , Pressão Sanguínea , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Lactente , Insulina/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
11.
Am J Emerg Med ; 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829991

RESUMO

Left ventricular free wall rupture (LVFWR) is a rare and fatal mechanical complication following an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Cases of survival after LVFWR due to ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with a conservative treatment strategy are extremely rare. In this case, a 55-year-old male patient with several cardiovascular risk factors presented to the emergency department with symptoms of ongoing chest pain and syncope. The patient's electrocardiogram was in sinus rhythm with ST-elevation on I, aVL, and V4-6 leads. His myoglobin and troponin I levels were elevated. Due to the unstable hemodynamic state of the patient, bedside echocardiography was performed. The echocardiography indicated LVFWR after AMI. Pericardiocentesis was used to restore a satisfactory hemodynamic state in the patient. Following the initial treatment, the patient opted for a conservative treatment strategy and was uneventfully discharged after 19 days.

12.
Mol Med Rep ; 22(3): 2386-2394, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705250

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor among children and young people and is associated with poor prognosis. Punicalagin is an antioxidant ellagitannin found in pomegranate juice with known antiproliferation and anti­angiogenesis properties. However, the antitumor effect of punicalagin on osteosarcoma requires further investigation. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of punicalagin on proliferation and invasion was evaluated in one human osteoblast cell line (hFOB1.19) and three human osteosarcoma cell lines (U2OS, MG63 and SaOS2). The cancer cell apoptosis ratio was determined using flow cytometry. NF­κB signaling in these cells was also evaluated using western blotting analysis. A subcutaneous tumor xenograft model was initiated to study the efficacy of punicalagin on osteosarcoma development and angiogenesis in vivo. Punicalagin treatment significantly decreased osteosarcoma cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. In addition, the invasion potential of these cells in a transwell assay was also dramatically suppressed in osteosarcoma cells. Punicalagin not only induced the degradation of IκBα but also the nuclear translocation of p65, suggesting the attenuation of NF­κB signaling pathway following treatment. Moreover, punicalagin markedly downregulated interleukin (IL)­6 and IL­8 levels, which was consistent with the inhibition of NF­κB signaling. An NF­κB activator could reverse these effects. Using a tumor xenograft mouse model, it was demonstrated that punicalagin exposure inhibited osteosarcoma growth and angiogenesis in vivo. These observations confirmed the suppressive effect of punicalagin against osteosarcoma malignancies. The underlying molecular mechanisms may include inhibition of the NF­κB signaling pathway.

13.
Age Ageing ; 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: multimorbidity contributes to a large portion of the disease burden in low- and middle-income countries. However, limited research has been undertaken in China. This study has investigated the prevalence of multimorbidity and the associations of multimorbidity with activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and depression in China. METHODS: the study participants included 10,055 adults aged 45 years and older from three rounds of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study 2011-2015. Random-effects logistic regression models were used to examine the association of multimorbidity with ADL limitation, IADL limitation and mental disease. RESULTS: the prevalence of multimorbidity amongst adults in China aged 45 years and older was 62.1% in 2015. The prevalence of multimorbidity was increased with older age, among women, in a higher socio-economic group and in the most deprived regions. Multimorbidity is associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing ADL limitation (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 5.738, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 5.733, 5.744) and IADL limitation (AOR = 2.590, 95% CI = 2.588, 2.592) and depression (AOR = 3.352, 95% CI = 3.350, 3.354). Rural-urban disparities in functional difficulties and depression were also found amongst patients with multimorbidity. CONCLUSIONS: the burden of multimorbidity is high in China, particularly amongst the older population. Multimorbidity is associated with higher levels of functional limitations and depression. China healthcare reforms should introduce integrated care models and patient-centred healthcare delivery. The increasing need for reorientation of healthcare resources considering the distribution of multimorbidity and its adverse effect requires more attention from health policymakers in China and other developing countries.

14.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 36(9): 1659-1666, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363448

RESUMO

Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) remains challenging to be assessed by echocardiography. We sought to explore the relationship between left atrial strain and left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in patients with normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) by invasive left-heart catheterization. 55 consecutive individuals with LVEF > 50% underwent LV catheterization. Standard transthoracic echocardiography was performed during 12 h before or after the procedure. Left atrial (LA) strain were obtained by speckle tracking echocardiography. When LVEF ≥ 50%, the group with elevated left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) (n = 35) showed decreased left atrial reservoir strain (LASr) (35.2 ± 7.7% vs 21.3 ± 7.2%, p < 0.001), left atrial conduit strain (LASct) (17.6 ± 6.3% vs 11.9 ± 4.1%, p < 0.001), left atrial contraction strain (LAScd) (16.6 ± 7.2% vs 9.5 ± 5.0%, p < 0.001) and increased E/e' ration(8.9 ± 2.6 vs 10.1 ± 3.5, p = 0.17). LVEDP negatively correlated with LASr (R = 0.662, p < 0.001), LASct (R = 0.575, p < 0.001) and LAScd (R = 0.456, p < 0.001), but not with E/e'. LASr, LASct and LAScd were all independent predictors of elevated LVEDP (p < 0.05), with a higher C-statistic for the model including LASr (0.95, 0.86 and 0.93 respectively). The area under the curve (AUC) for LASr is 0.914 (cutoff value is 26.7%, sensitivity is 90%, specificity is 82.9%). In patients with normal LV ejection fraction, left atrial strain presented good correlation with LVEDP, and LASr was superior to LASct and LAScd to predict LVEDP. LA strain demonstrated better agreement with the invasive reference than E/e'.


Assuntos
Função do Átrio Esquerdo , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Volume Sistólico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Pressão Ventricular , Idoso , Cateterismo Cardíaco/instrumentação , Cateteres Cardíacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transdutores de Pressão , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 407, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community-based diabetes management is known to be an important strategy for global diabetes control. In China, community-based diabetes management care, including regular blood glucose tests and guidance on medicine use, dietary control, and physical exercise provided by primary health institutions (PHIs), as one of the key contents of the national essential public health services (EPHS), was implemented since 2009 when the new round of health system reform was initiated. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of community-based diabetes management care services, and explore the factors influencing utilization from both patients' and providers' points of view. METHODS: In total, 2520 type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients registered for EPHS were selected from 63 PHIs in eight counties of Shandong province, China, using multi-stage stratified sampling. Of those, 2166 patients (response rate: 85.4%) completed face-to-face structured questionnaires on their utilization of community-based diabetes management care services. Further, 63 PHIs were surveyed on diabetes care delivery, and 444 primary healthcare providers were purposively sampled from those PHIs to measure their knowledge of diabetes management care delivery, using a self-developed questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the delivery and utilization of diabetes management care services. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the factors associated with patients' utilization of diabetes management services. RESULTS: All 63 PHIs reported that all the required four diabetes management services were provided through EPHS. However, only 49.6% of the patients reported they fully used these services, with no statistically significant difference between urban and rural patients. Patients who had higher knowledge of diabetes and better self-efficacy in controlling the condition, were more likely to fully utilize diabetes management care. A larger number of PHI health staff per 1000 population was associated with better utilization of care. CONCLUSION: Although community-based diabetes management services are well available to Chinese DM patients under the framework of EPHS, the actual utilization of diabetes management services among the patients was poor. The size of the PHI workforce, patients' knowledge and self-efficacy in controlling diabetes, were important predictors of utilization, and could be enhanced to improve control of diabetes.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , China , Estudos Transversais , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 310: 123364, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334357

RESUMO

It is significant to understand corn stover (CS) in anaerobic digestion (AD) under high organic loadings. A semi-continuous mesophilic (37 ± 1 °C) CS AD was conducted in this study with increasing loadings. The initial total solids (TS) gradually increased with 1% gradient at every 10 days from 8% to 15% until the system was acidified. Adding different ratios of cattle manure (CM) (20%, 30% and 40% (v/v)) to rescue this system back to a stable operation was adopted. The diversity of bacteria and archaea was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology. The results showed that when loading TS content was increased to 15%, AD system was acidized with pH value of 5.13. 30% of CM was the optimal ratio to recover biogas production. High abundance (31.07%) of Bathyarchaeota was first found in AD system. Acidification of high loading CS AD can be highly correlating with bacterial community, specially Clostridium and Caproiciproducens.


Assuntos
Metano , Zea mays , Anaerobiose , Animais , Biocombustíveis , Reatores Biológicos , Bovinos , Esterco , RNA Ribossômico 16S
17.
BMJ Open ; 10(4): e036331, 2020 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265251

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is a high prevalence of poor glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in China. This study aimed to explore both organisational and individual characteristics associated with glycaemic control among patients with T2DM. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Shandong Province, China. PARTICIPANTS: The participants were 2166 patients with T2DM and 337 healthcare providers from 36 urban communities and 36 rural villages in Shandong Province. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Multistage stratified sampling procedures were used to measure demand-side individual demographic, clinical and self-management characteristics, and supply-side organisational characteristics, and the status of glycaemic control. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed to assess key determinants of glycaemic control. RESULTS: Only 42.8% of the patients with T2DM achieved good glycaemic control. Age, income, hypertension and self-efficacy were significantly positive predictors of optimal glycaemic control, while duration of diabetes, antidiabetic drugs and monitoring of blood glucose were significantly negative predictors of that. Private VCs (OR=0.48, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.82, p<0.01) and lack of healthcare providers (OR=0.69, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.89, p<0.01; OR=0.71, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.98, p<0.05) were significantly negative predictors of optimal glycaemic control, while diabetes knowledge level of healthcare providers (OR=1.36, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.83, p<0.05; OR=1.45, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.10, p<0.05) and kinds of antidiabetic drugs (OR=1.37, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.93, p<0.1; OR=1.46, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.00, p<0.05) were significantly positive predictors of that. CONCLUSIONS: Glycaemic control was suboptimal among patients with T2DM in China. The determinants of failing to achieve good glycaemic control included both organisational and individual characteristics. Potential interventions that target patients, providers and the healthcare organisations should be taken to improve the glycaemic control and health outcome among patients with T2DM.

18.
Biomacromolecules ; 21(4): 1596-1603, 2020 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159952

RESUMO

With the increasing demand for comfort, thinness, and warmth of fabrics, various functional fibers have emerged. However, natural silkworm silk, as one of the most widely used natural fibers in textile, faces the issue that it cannot be modified during the spinning process like synthetic fibers. Herein, copper sulfide nanoparticles (CuS NPs) with a near-infrared (NIR) absorption property were first prepared by using regenerated silk fibroin (RSF) as the biological template. Then, trace CuS NPs prepared in RSF solution (no more than 100 ppm) were added into the RSF spinning dope to prepare colorless RSF/CuS hybrid fibers via wet-spinning process. The tensile test of the RSF/CuS hybrid fibers showed that the toughness was improved with the addition of CuS NPs, which completely met the requirements of textile development. The temperature of RSF/CuS hybrid fiber bundles could increase 18.5 °C within 3 min under 1064 nm laser irradiation with power density of 1.0 W/cm2. Finally, these RSF/CuS hybrid fiber bundles were woven into silk fabric or embroidered on a cotton fabric. Under the simulated sunlight, the temperature of RSF/CuS fabric could increase to more than 40 °C from room temperature. Also, as per the infrared images, the pattern of embroidery displayed a significant difference in temperature increase as compared to cotton matrix. Based on these results, an almost colorless RSF/CuS hybrid fiber that can be mass produced by wet spinning may have great potential in the fabrication of dyeable, light, and comfortable silk functional fabric with spontaneous heating characteristics under sunlight.

19.
Microorganisms ; 8(2)2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013160

RESUMO

Long-term anaerobic co-digestion of swine manure (SM) and corn stover (CS) was conducted using semi-continuously loaded digesters under mesophilic conditions. A preliminary test was first conducted to test the effects of loading rates, and results indicated the 3 g-VS L-1 d-1 was the optimal loading rate. Based on the preliminary results, a verification replicated test was conducted with 3 g-VS L-1 d-1 loading rate and different SM/CS ratios (1:1, 2:1 and 1:2). Results showed that a SM/CS ratio of 2/1 was optimal, based on maximum observed methane-VSdes generation and carbon conversion efficiency (72.56 ± 3.40 mL g-1 and 40.59%, respectively). Amplicon sequencing analysis suggested that microbial diversity was increased with CS loading. Amino-acid-degrading bacteria were abundant in the treatment groups. Archaea Methanoculleus could enhance biogas and methane productions.

20.
Acta Biomater ; 106: 102-113, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014583

RESUMO

With developments in tissue engineering, artificial ligaments are expected to be future materials for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, poor healing of the intraosseous part after ACL reconstruction significantly hinders their applications in this field. In this study, a bioactive clay Laponite (LAP) was introduced into the regenerated silk fibroin (RSF) spinning dope to produce functional RSF/LAP hybrid fibers by wet-spinning. These RSF/LAP hybrid fibers were then woven into artificial ligament for ACL reconstruction. The structure and mechanical properties of RSF/LAP hybrid fibers were extensively studied by different means. Results confirmed the presence of LAP in RSF fibers and revealed that the addition of LAP slightly deteriorated the comprehensive mechanical properties of RSF fibers. However, they were still much tougher (with higher breaking energy) than those of degummed natural silkworm silk that was earlier used for making artificial ligament. The artificial ligament woven from RSF/LAP hybrid fibers showed better cytocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation with mouse pre-osteoblasts in vitro than those made from degummed natural silkworm silks and pure RSF fibers. Furthermore, in vivo study in a rat ACL reconstruction model demonstrated that the presence of LAP in the artificial ligament could significantly enhance the graft osseointegration process and also improve the corresponding biomechanical properties of the artificial ligament. Based upon these results, the RSF/LAP hybrid fibers, which can be mass produced by wet-spinning process, are believed to have a great potential for use as artificial ligament materials for ACL reconstruction. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, we successfully introduced Laponite (LAP), a kind of clay that has the function of osteogenic induction, into regenerated silk fibroin (RSF) fibers, which was prepared by a mature wet-spinning method developed in our lab. We believe that through artificial spinning, additional functional components can be added into RSF fibers, which one can hardly achieve with natural silks. We showed that the artificial ligament woven from RSF/LAP hybrid fibers had better cytocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation for mouse pre-osteoblasts in vitro, and significantly enhanced the graft osseointegration process and improved the corresponding biomechanical properties in a rat ACL reconstruction model in vivo, compared to those artificial ligaments made from degummed natural silkworm silks and pure RSF fibers.

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